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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
Selecting the target year
Measurement and Analysis of Moving Velocity of Elementary School Students Under a Escape Drill
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 1~6
This study measures the various moving velocities of elementary school children under situation of fire drill and suggests the methods of analysis. The velocities are such as the exiting velocity at the door of the classroom, personal walking velocity at corridor, velocity according to density of crowd and personal walking velocity at stairway. For these measurement an elementary school in Daejeon is chosen and 15 girls and 15 boys are selected in each grade. Finally speed data of the children is obtained and we can apply this data for the evacuation simulation of a school.
Prediction of the Net Heats of Combustion of Organic Halogenated Compounds based on the Atomic Contribution Method
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Lee, Sung-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 7~12
The heat of combustion is one of the major physical properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of the flammable substances. Empirical equations have been developed to pre-dict the net heats of combustion of organic halogenated compounds based on the atomic contribution method. The method developed in this study was compared with Cardozo's method and Hanley's method. As can be seen from the average absolute deviation(A.A.D.), the proposed equation was found to be best. The proposed equation may serve as an estimation scheme for the heats of combustion of the other organic halogenated compounds.
The Analysis of the Carbonization Properties between RCD Source Terminals Deteriorated by Tracking
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 13~19
In this paper, we studied on the characteristics of RCD(Residual Current Device) case deteriorated by tracking, and compared the tracked samples between in the site of fire(
) and in the reappearance experiment(
). This experiment is applied to IEC Publ. 112 method. Electrical fire by tracking occurred after scintillation and dry-band generated. The insulation resistance between source terminals of RCD case was about 25.7Ω in
and the resistance was about 58.6Ω in
.The exothermic peaks of
. The exothermic peak at
was shown by tracking. And the exothermic peak of
. In spectrum of
, absorption peak didn't appear at near 1590 cm
Study on Development of Automated System for Hazard Screening at Analysis
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 20~27
Hazard Analysis is one of the basic tasks to ensure the safety of chemical plants. However, it is an arduous, tedious, time-consuming work and requires multidisciplinary knowledge and demands considerable cognitive load from the analysts. To overcome these problems, there have been attempts to automate this work by utilizing computer technology, particularly in the area of knowledge-based technique. There is two methods in the risk assessment of Chemical plant; quantitative and qualitative risk assessment. Both of them have been applied respectively, but if the integrated method of quantitative and qualitative risk assessments is used, all of the advantage of two methods can be applied. It is difficult to carry out integrated risk management of chemical plant. Therefore, automated integration system of risk management is necessary. We developed S/W Automated System for Hazard Screening & Analysis(ASCA) and applied to practical plant. By applying ASCA to case study, we can get the information about relative ranks of equipments, variable deviation, and consequence of potential accident. In this study, we applied ASCA to the H.T.U(Hydrotreating Unit) of the process to produce aromatic material. We could know relative ranks of equipments, variable deviation of malfunction in storage tank, D-101, and consequence of potential accident using ASCA. If integrated risk management in the chemical plant is applied, we can develop the emergency plan and prevent the accident.
The Transfer Characteristics of
Extinguishant According with the Location of Fire Plume
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 28~35
To analyze the transfer characteristics of
extinguishant when extinguishant is injected into a closed space similar to a marine engine room, a numerical simulation was performed. Flow and Concentration fields are calculated according with the variation of the fire plume,s location. The results show that tile variation of fire plumes, location greatly effected on the flow patterns and the characteristics of
extinguishant transfer. In case of the fire plume located at left region of the 2nd floor center in the engine room consisted of first and second floor, The effects similar to the air curtain is found and cut off the mass transfer. In the characteristics with hight, the iso-concentration line below the extinguishable limit is formed in the left region of the 1st and 2nd floor center after the
extinguishant is completely injected. therefore I think that the results of this study are considered to arrange the
injection nozzles for the
fire fighting equipments.
A Study on Combustion Characteristics in each Coating Thickness of Fire Retardant Paints
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 36~41
This experimental study shows the combustion characteristics for each coating thickness of water and oil paint which are used as fire retardant paints that prevent fire propagation through cables in underground culverts and trays. To evaluate combustion characteristics, smoke density(ASTM E 662) and Limited Oxygen Index(ASTM D 2863) experiment method was used. As the results of this study, the combustion characteristics of fire retardant paints produced the following : (a) The molt suitable coating thickness of fire retardant paint was 1.5∼2.0 mm in water paint and 0.2 mm in oil paint. (b) Flaming method in experiments of smoke density were found to be higher than Non-flaming method. (c) Water paint has the fire retardant effect and characteristics better than oil paint in measurement results of smoke density and oxygen index. (d) The oxygen index of water and oil fire retardant was able to know that it was satisfied a standard (30 or above).
An Empirical Study on Emergency Medical Care Transportation Policy
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 42~56
This research made a survey to 119 EMT laying stress on general contents connected with job in a frame of mutually organic cooperation system between the processes, composing Emergency Medical Care Transportation Policy in Korea, as a step before hospital, of happening emergency patients, 119 first-aid service of the spot, transportation of patients, construction of communication network etc.. As a result of analysis to that, it is found that there must be systematic devices which makes EMT not to be caught on medical dispute, a modernization of emergency equipments, professional first-aid agents, a proper personnel arrangement. Consequently, it suggests policy plan focusing on structural and functional aspect to improve an Emergency Medical Care Transportation system into a realistic one.
A Study on the Development of Evacuation Safety Assessment System on Underground Space
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 57~63
In this study; the evaluation system models for evacuation safety assessment of underground malls were presented and related software program was developed. In addition, database was built integrating various data which were essential to evacuation safety assessment and enabling effective safety assessment with low cost and time. As a results of case study in local underground malls, the evacuation safety assessment system has examined in therms of field applicability and reliability.
Heat Response According to Fusible Metal Shapes in Automatic Fire Extinguishers
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 64~69
Low story apartments and housings with manual fire extinguishers are very susceptible to fro damages, when people are absent or there are old and weak peoples. To reduce such fire damages, automatic fire suppression at the early stage is very important, and thus automatic and cost-effec-tiye fire extinguisher was developed. This study revealed that the reaction temperature and response time are greatly influenced by the small thickness variation of the detective parts and heating rates. The influence of the thickness of the detective parts was shown significant when the heating rate was low, The reduction in the thickness could lower the response time to 40seconds.
A Study on the Flood Damage Assessment by Typhoon RUSA in the East Coast of Kangwon Prefecture Following the 2000 Large Scale Fire Disaster -Focused on the Watershed of Oship River, Samcheok City
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 70~75
The east coast of Kangwon province has been suffering from natural disaster like wildfire and flooding. In April 2000, there has been a great wildfire in this area. Many forest was burnt out, the mountain was bared. Furthermore, on 31st August,2002 typhoon RUSA attacked the area with heavy rainfall of about 315 mm/day, which resulted in 178 deaths and extensive damage to the property, In this regard, our study was focused on the assessment of the factors of flooding damage considering wildfire disaster. Most of results for our study are derived from practical investigation in the east coast of Kangwon province.
Reliability Analysis on Firewater Supply Facilities based on the Probability Theory with Considering Common Cause Failures
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 76~85
In this study, we write down the definitions, their causes and the techniques of analysis as a theoretical consideration of common cause failures, and investigate the limitation and the importance of the common cause failures by applying to the analysis on the fire protection as a representative safety facility. As you can know in the reliability analysis, most impressive cause is the malfunctions of pumping operations; especially the common cause failure of two pumps is dominant. In other words, it is possible to assess system-reliability as twice as actual without CCF From these, CCF is extraordinarily important and the results are highly dependent on the CCF factor. And although it would increase with multiple installations, the reliability are not defined as linear with those multiplications. In addition, the differences in results due to the models for analysis are not significant, whereas the various sources of data produce highly different results. Therefore, we conclude that the reliabilities are dependent on the quality of the usable data much better than the variety of models. As a result, the basic and engineering device for the preventions of CCF of the multiple facilities is to design it as reliably as to design the fire-water pump. That is to say, we must assess those reliabilities using PFD whether they are appropriate to SIL (Safety Integrity Level) which is required for the reliability in SIS (Safety Instrumented System). The result of the analysis on the reliability of the fire-water supply with CCF shows that PFD is 3.80E-3, so that it cannot be said to be designed as safely as in the level of SIL5. However, without CCF, PFD is 1.82E-3 which means that they are designed as unsafely as before.
The Study of Air Sampling Smoke Detector
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 86~91
Since the air stream in the room controlled by HVAC system affects on he expected response of conventional detectors which are designed in accordance with normal characteristics of air stream in the fire incident, unexpected operation time delay may occur in fire. In order to solve this problem and to improve sensitivity so that to initiate fire in its early stages for minimizing damage and protecting people, we studied and developed Air Sampling Smoke Detector. The Air Sampling Smoke Detector is a kind of active-type fire detection system. it draws air continuously from the protected area through an air sampling pipe network to the smoke density analyzer. This study presents smoke density analysing technique and air intake balancing technique through an air sampling pipe network. As a result of evaluating, Air Sampling Smoke Detector was much more sensitive than conventional smoke detectors that passively wait for smoke to reach them and was not affected by ambient airflow in the room by means of balanced air intake through the sampling holes.
Study on the Assessment of Refuge Behavior and the Derivation of Critical Inundation Depth
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 92~97
It is necessary to build countermeasure for the reduction of flood damage, such as the analysis of shelter activities of local residents and the publishment of flood informations. The control factors for mental refuge activity by the questionnaire survey were classified and estimated into two categories: internal and external ones. Furthermore, the optimal time for refuse activities related to flood risk was derived by hydraulic simulation. The shelter activities considering inundation depth will serve citizen's consensus by exercise, it would aid to support the activities to minimize flood victims.
A Numerical Simulation of Smoke Control in Daegu Subway Stations I. Smoke Control System
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 98~104
Smoke control in il space 10 m
3 m floor and 5.4 m high around the stairway of a subway station platform was simulated by using FDS to investigate problems of smoke control in Daegue subway stations. Distributions of temperature and smoke particles, and variation of the number of particles with time for a 200 ㎾ polyurethane fire were compared. It was shown that the purge system fails to remove smoke efficiently and that the extraction system has the highest perfor-mance among the three smoke control systems for the given situations. Simply switching the purge system into extraction mode might improve much the smoke removal performance.
A Numerical Simulation of Smoke Control in Daegu Subway Stations II. Air Flowrate of Extraction System
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 105~110
In Part II, the temperature and smoke particle distributions of the extraction system, which yielded the best smoke removal performance among the three smoke control systems in Part I, for extraction flowrates of 0.6∼2.4 ㎥/s and two fire sizes of 200 ㎾ and 2 ㎿ were presented. The same numerical method was utilized to the same computational domain and configurations as Part I. It was shown that the extraction flowrate affects the smoke control performance significantly, and that a similar trend in improving the smoke removal performance with the increasing extraction flowrate between the two fire sizes. An extraction flowrate of 2.4 ㎥/s or higher was required for the temperature in the escape route less than
for the given situations.
A Study on the LPG Explosion Characteristics of Non-uniform Concentration
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 111~116
LPG explosion characteristics in non-uniform concentration was investigated with a 270 liter explosion vessel of which the scale is 100 cm
45 cm. Vented explosion and closed explosion system were used. Experimental parameter were position of ignition source, nozzle diameter and flow rate of gas. Non uniform concentration was controlled by the nozzle diameter and flow rate. Explosion pressure were measured with strain type pressure sensor and the flame behavior was pictured with the video camera. Based on this experimental result, it was found that the flow rate of gas and the duration of gas injection are important factor for mixing the gas in the vessel. And as the increase the non-uniformity of gas concentration, explosion pressure and pressure rise rate Is decrease but the flame resident time in the vessel is increase. Therefore gas explosion to fire transition possibility will increase in non-uniform concentration gas explosion.
A Study on Ignitability and Heat Release Rate Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 117~123
In this study; the ignition and heat release rate characteristics of rigid polyurethane foam were investigated in accordance with setchkin ignition tester and cone calorimeter which is using oxygen consumption principle. In the ignition temperature study; flash-ignition temperature was
, self-ignition temperature was
. The self-ignition temperature of rigid polyurethane foam was about
higher than the flash-ignition temperature. In the cone calorimeter study, the time to ignition of rigid polyurethane foam was faster as the external heat flux increase. In the same heat flux level, the time to ignition was faster as the density of rigid polyurethane foam decrease. Also the heat release rate was the largest value at the heat flux of /
and had a tendency of increase as the heat flux level and density increase. In the standpoint of time to ignition and heat release rate, the fire performance of rigid polyurethane foam was influenced by the applied heat flux level and density and the flashover propensity classified by Petrella's proposal was high.
Experimental Study on Interaction of Water Sprayed Curtain on Hot Surface of a Window Glass and its Effects on Glass Surface Temperature in Room Fires
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 17, issue 4, 2003, Pages 124~130
This research focuses on analysis of a interaction fracture of various glasses due to contact of water sprayed curtain on hot glass surface with high temperature produced from convective heat source near glass wall. A large scaled experimental test was done in order to find the range of the glass surface temperature to be able to cause the breakage of the glasses when water droplets reach on the hot surface. This paper shows the allowable temperature of the glass surface for prevention of the cooling down breakage before water curtain droplets contact the surface. Allowable Temperature if
for the tempered glass but general glass is very relatively low. Therefore if the water curtain spray system was adequately activated by a thermal detector installed below ceiling adjacent glass wall with water curtain nozzle system, all hot glass would not break out by cooling water droplet's contact on the hot surface due to convective heat released by adjacent fire source near the glass wall.