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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
Reliability Analysis on Safety Instrumented System by Using Safety Integrity Level for Fire.Explosion Prevention in the Ethyl Benzene Processes
Ko, Jae-Sun ; Kim, Hyo ; Lee, Su-Kyoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 1~8
The purpose of this work is to analyze quantitatively if the safety instrumented system(SIS) like the pressure safety valves(PSV) in the processes of ethyl benzene plant have been designed relevantly to the safety integrity level because overpressure in the benzene or ethyl benzene columns causes the explosive reactions, fires and reactor explosions. The safety integrity level(SIL) 3 has been adopted as a target level of SIS based on the general data of the Probability of Failure on Demand of PSV,
. The standard model of the reliability has been set up and then the fault tree analysis of it has been carried out to get the PFD of SIS, and the results show 8.97E-04, 5.37E-04, 5.37E-04 for benzene prefractionator column, benzene column and EB column, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the SIS is designed to fulfill the condition of SIL3, and when the partial stroke test for the control valve are carried out every sixth month, the SIS of each column is expected to increase its reliability up to
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Heat/Smoke Behavior due to a Fire on Underground Subway Platform (I) - Experimental Approach -
Park, Won-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ; Chang, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 9~14
In this study boundary velocity which is one of the important boundary conditions for numerical simulation for subway station on fire are experimentally obtained. The tests were conducted according to its operating mode of the ventilation systems in the platform: smoke extraction ventilation mode in occurrence of fire and normal ventilation mode for air conditioning. Velocities are measured at various points on the platform. To examine smoke extraction and air supply capacity in the platform level, air velocities were checked on opening vents. Numerical analysis under normal ventilation mode without fire is conducted by using measured boundary conditions, and the numerical results are compared with the measured velocities on the platform.
Experimental and Numerical Studies on Heat/Smoke Behavior due to a Fire on Underground Subway Platform (II) - Numerical Approach -
Chang, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ; Park, Won-Hee ; Kim, Dong-Hyeon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 15~20
In this study the flow characteristics of smoke and heat on a bank type platform of the underground subway station are studied numerically by considering two different emergency operation modes. Effects of the natural flow through the tunnel and the stair ways are considered in the numerical simulations by using the measured velocities presented in Part I as the boundary condition. Distributions of heat, smoke, visible range and toxic gas on the platform are analysed for different smoke extraction flowrates corresponding to the two different emergency operation modes. The numerical results show that the extraction flowrate affects the smoke control performance significantly by improving the smoke removal performance as the extraction flowrate is increased.
Standardization of the Performance Test Procedure for Smoke Control System
Kwark, Ji-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 21~28
Since hot toxic gas included in the fire is the most principal reason of the death and has the fluid mechanical characteristics unlike air, smoke control method appropriate for the figure and structure of a fire room is needed and each unit of the smoke control system requests high performance according to this characteristics, for which performance test procedures and evaluation criteria must be established. Domestic criteria involved with the smoke control consist of the pre-investigation by documents and the part inspection, which has lots of problems because they are far from the performance based evaluation method compared with the references of developed countries. Consequently, domestic and international references were compared and analyzed, problems being emerged and standardization scheme of the test procedure was presented.
A Study on Flash Points and Fire Points of Acids Using Closed Cup and Open-cup Apparatus
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Han, Jong-Geun ; Lee, Sung-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 29~34
The flash and fire point are the most important combustible properties used to determine the potential for the fire and explosion hazards of flammable material. The flash point is defined as the lowest temperature at which a flammable liquid gives off sufficient vapor to form an ignitable mixture with air near its surface or within a vessel. The fire point is the temperature of the flammable liquid at which there will be flaming combustion, sustained 5 seconds in response to the pilot flame. In this study, the flash points and fire points were measured to present raw data of the flammable risk assessment for acids, using Pensky-Martens Closed Cup(C.C.) apparatus (ASTM-D93) and Tag Open-cup (O.C.) apparatus(ASTM D 1310-86). The measured fire points were compared with the estimated values based on 1.11 times stoichiometric concentration. The values calculated by the proposed equation were in good agreement with measured values.
The Deterioration Properties and Actual Conditions of Insulation Cover used at 22.9 kV Transformer Bushing
Choi, Chung-Seog ; Kim, Hyang-Kon ; Han, Woon-Ki ; Lee, Ki-Yeon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 35~41
In this study, we presented the problems in the insulation cover of 22.9kV transformer bushing through investigating actual conditions. After thermal stress applied to the insulation cover, deterioration patterns, thermogravimetric and infrared characteristics were analyzed, and the results were applied to the cause analysis of accidents and judgement of safety. The insulation covers are used to protect exposed terminals of transformer, but they had improper size and length. Therefore, they could not show efficient insulation function. In case that thermal stress of
was applied to the insulation covers, plastic insulation covers(A, B, D, E) damaged severely, whereas rubber insulation cover(C) showed normal shapes. In the result of thermogravimetric analysis, the thermal gravity of plastic covers(A) decreased about 33.3% at
. and he thermal gravity of rubber covers (C) decreased about 53.7% at
. In the result of FT-IR analysis, plastic covers showed peaks characteristic of
, C=O and C=C bonds, whereas rubber covers showed peaks characteristic of OH,
, C=O, C=N and C=C bonds.
Indications and Estimations of the Needs for Direct Medical Control in the Patients Transported by 119 Rescuers
Park, Jae-Young ; Jung, Koo-Young ; Bae, Hyun-A ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 42~47
Direct medical control by medical doctors is an essential part of emergency medical services system (EMSS). However, the indications are not specifically defined, even in 119 system with their own medical control team. The Seoul Metropolitan Fire and Disaster Management Department has operated internal medical consultation services on its own since January 2004. Based on the experiences from these services, we reviewed the cases of the direct medical consultation and establish the indications for direct medical control. And we presumed the demand of direct medical control with the established indications. The crews of 119 in Seoul made 793 calls to Medical Control Team during November 2004. We reviewed all of the calls according to the level of consciousness (AVPU), the kinds of emergency care done by crews during transport (10 categories), and the mechanisms of injuries (9 categories). The need for direct medical control was judged by authors with reviewing the records reported by the crews and control teams. Among 23 items, 14 items assigned as the indications, which were abnormal level of consciousness (VPU), 6 kinds of emergency care, and 5 mechanisms of injures. The sum of the three of them, 7,782 cases (45.9%), was in need of direct medical control. In conclusion, about half of the patients transported by 119 crews in Seoul require direct medical control. The need for the direct medical control in Seoul was estimated as many as 260 calls per day. To fulfill the need for direct medical control and to provide a effective medical control, the direct medical control should be accomplished through the communications between the crews and the medical staffs in the local hospitals.
A Study on the Fire Safety Awareness Level of Young Children's Parents : Focusing on Seoul City
Lee, Yong-Joo ; Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 48~53
The aim of the study intends to investigate the fire safety awareness level of the young children's parents in Seoul and to provide the base data in the education for the fire safety. The results of the study are as follows. The young children's parents consider the fire safety awareness level of our society low, though their fire safety awareness level be above the average. The young children's parents choose infants schools as appropriate place to receive education for fire safety. And the young children's parents consider the development and diffusion of fire-safety teaching materials for young children to be supplied first of all. Also the young children's parents recognized observation learning and a field trip activity as appropriate teaching-learning method for fire-safety education.
A Study on the Application of the Electronic Approval System for the Fire Officer
Woo, Seong-Cheon ; Chae, Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 54~64
Rapid development of Information Technology(IT) requires new changes in overall official sections, and government also makes effort to promote the productivity and efficiency of official sections with IT. Objectives of this research are to evaluate the management of Electronic Approval System and to present the efficient way of using Electronic Approval System. In this research, we presented that the efficient use of Electronic Approval System requires systematic education, improvement of approval procedure, stability of system, improvement of system operation speed and connection with other official department.
Application for Fire Protection Regulation based on Risk-Informed and Performance-Based Analysis
Jee, Moon-Hak ; Lee, Byung-Kon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 65~70
From the beginning of the construction stage, the fire protection regulation for the nuclear power plants conforms to the design requirements for the acquisition of the license permit. This regulation is based on the plant status of the normal operation, but it is not enough to be used as an application standard for fire protection at the transient mode of the plant and the outage time for refueling as well as for the plant decommissioning. While the advanced fire protection requirement that has been developed in America recently suggests the performance-based requirement and management rule applicable to the overall life time of the plant, it simply represents the conceptual application. It means that it can not be treated as appropriate standards because it does not deal with the qualitative and quantitative approach in specific ways. By the way, with the use of the performance-based fire risk analysis, the dynamic behavior of the heat and smoke at the fire compartment of the nuclear power plants can be analyzed and the thermal effect to the safety-related equipment and cables can be evaluated as well. At this paper, it suggests the ways to change the applicable fire protection regulations and the required evaluation items for the fire risk resulted from the plant configuration change with an intent to introduce the state-of-the-art quantitative fire risk analysis technology at the domestic nuclear power plants.
A Study on the Utilization by Analysis the Actual Situation of the Disaster Management Information System - Focus on Fire Department -
Chae, Jin ; Woo, Seong-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 71~84
This research is designed for Disaster Mangement Information System(DMIS) which is essential to management of disaster. Management of disaster is not only social problem but also official policy. To perform the research, we examined the necessities, characteristics, and problems of DMIS, analyzed the actual conditions of DMIS in operation, and reviewed relevant documents. To investigate the actual conditions of using DMIS, we analyzed degrees of cognition, channels of cognition, ratio of application, the reason why people do not use DMIS, and the fields suitable for applications of DMIS. And, to evaluate DMIS, we performed regression analysis. In that analysis, we set utility, accessibility, quickness, compatibility, and public ownership of information as independent variabls, and we set overall estimation as dependent variable. Objectives of this research are to understand the actual conditions of DMIS in operation, to evaluate the DMIS from the viewpoint of fire officers, to reveal the problems of DMIS, and to present better ways for using DMIS from its own problems. For analysis of data, we used frequency analysis, T-test, correlation analysis, and regression analysis. From the results of the research, we advised that better application of DIMS requires Standardization and compatibility of DIMS, public ownership of information, use of IT(Information Technology) like mobile information system, management and analysis of disaster information, maintainment of personnel specialized in information part, and necessities for education and training.
Positive Study for the Method of Improving the Role of Fire Fighting with Social Change
Kang, Chang-Gon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 85~95
Because the average span of human life is expanded by developing economy growth and medicine science elder population increases rapidly. According to that A first aid patient of demands grow, too so in a fire station. We have to prepare following these. First that the silver ambulance is in process of service is widely. second, medical teams and fire fighters construct unity Third, New curni culum makes under modern operating course. Forth, the problem that wireless paging system sets up and rums already. advances more effective. Fifth furthermore, we organize a private volunteer for an old age To connect that we enlarge total service for silver age. Through this fire fighting service. we are neloom to get more confidence and love.
Development of Fire Extinguishing System Suitable for Unmanned Engine Room of a Small Ship
Kim, Dong-Suk ; Kwark, Ji-Hyun ; Kang, Dae-Sun ; Son, Bong-Sei ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 96~100
A study developing the dry powder fire extinguishing system inside the simulated machinery spaces of small ship was performed. Fire tests were conducted inside the compartments having volume
respectively. The openings and fans were established on the walls of the compartments. Diesel oil was used for the test fuel. In addition fire extinguishing nozzles using dry powder were installed downward at ceiling and horizontally at the wall or conner. All fires in the test were extinguished under system activation and there was no reignition.
A Study about Evaluation Indices Development of Region Disaster Management System - Centering around Manmade Disasters -
Kong, Ha-Sung ; Woo, Sung-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 101~106
This study set up hierarchies and indices of manmade disasters and determined weighted values and priorities of the evaluation indices for each hierarchy. It found that the relative importance of the prevention sphere is the most essential in measuring the weighted values and priorities, followed by that of the countermeasure sphere. The reason is that manmade disasters are sure to lead to damages, against which countermeasures should be taken by all means to search and save the injured persons.
A Study on the Recognition of the Students of Technical High School on Fire Safety : Focusing on Skills Student in the Seoul Metropolis
Cho, Seung-Ho ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 107~112
The purpose of this study is to help the education of fire safety of technical high schools through the investigation of skills club students's recognition on fire safety in Seoul city. To achieve the purpose, 56 skills students who going to skills competition were surveyed for 3days from Jun. 19 to 21, 2006. The Results of this study are as follows ; First, a large numbers of students in technical high school placed low value on the importance of safety in life, and fire safety was very important, however, lower than structural safety. Second, the education of fire safety was arranged by school authorities, carried out only by the half of these school. It was necessary that the specific education of fire safety for major and skills competition was hosted by a department. Third, it was necessary that the system all accidents were certainly reported by the related student and the method prevented a recurrence. 4th, the field of fire safety in Industrial Introduction subject of national curriculum was satisfied by students. And if this subject revised, students wanted to extend the contents of fire safety and to orient to practical technique.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Hazard of Electric Heating Pad
Lee, Bok-Young ; Park, Chan-Ho ; Park, Sang-Tae ; Hong, Sung-Ho ; Yu, Hyun-Jong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 113~117
This study presents analysis of fire hazard of electrical heating pad. In order to analyze fire hazard fire experimental and flammability experiment is conducted. The fire experiment is conducted to simulate normal condition and abnormal condition such as breakdown of thermostat. Vertical burning test(UL 94) is conducted for the fire retardant experiment. Kinds of electric heating pad used for experiment are electric mat, fabric pad, vinyl pad. The results show that fire hazard is high in case of breakdown of thermostat with the rating voltage supply. And Material of electric heating pad has not fire retardant performance.
The Analysis about the Special Quality of Disaster Management and Environment Factor for the Efficient Disaster Management
Wook, Kwon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 3, 2006, Pages 118~126
The misfortune management is basically governmental responsibility. Therefore, most of nations build the management system. The positive environments is put to practical use and the negative environments are eliminated. This thesis is studied about the special quality of disaster management and the environment factors.