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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Dec 2006
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Sep 2006
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Jun 2006
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Mar 2006
Selecting the target year
The Performance of the Combined Operation of Sprinkler and Smoke Curtain for Smoke Control in the Sloped Stairway Corridor
Jeon, Heung-Kyun ; Choi, Young-Sang ; Choo, Hong-Lok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 1~12
In this study, CFD computer simulations by FDS are carried out in order to confirm the performance of the combined operation of both sprinkler system and smoke curtain of 0.54 m depth installed for cooling and blocking the smoke which propagates beneath the sloped ceiling of a stairway corridor of which dimensions are 17.92 m long, 4.00 m wide, and 6.12 m high. It is shown that the response time of sprinklers decreases with fire size and it increases more about 1.1 second in case without smoke curtain than in case with smoke curtain, that the time of smoke transport from the fire source to the stairway outlet decreases considerably with fire size, and that the delay effect of smoke transport is not related to the sprinkler system, whether it is operated or not. This study shows that the combined operation of both sprinkler system and smoke curtain is very effective in smoke cooling, but it is a little for effect on smoke blockage. Although the hazard of skin burn due to radiative heat flux from hot smoke layer is decreased by spray cooling effect, the hazard of smoke suffocation and the weakening of visibility is increased by smoke downdrag and the turbulence of smoke-air mixing due to water spray. These conditions may result in preventing occupants from going out of the stairway during evacuation.
Applicability of FDS for the Fire Hazard Analysis of the Fire Zone at Nuclear Power Plants
Jee, Moon-Hak ; Lee, Byung-Kon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 13~18
The fire protection regulation for the nuclear power plants is based on the qualitative fire hazard assessment and the quantitative fire risk analysis, and the fire risk is managed by the fire protection plan with the appropriate balance among the fire prevention, fire suppression and the minimization of the fire effect. In these days, the zone model or the field model is generally used for the detail evaluation for the fire risk. At this paper, with consideration of the present trend, we evaluate whether the quantitative fire risk analysis and the assessment of fire result for fire areas at nuclear power plants can be possible by use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) that is the state-of-the-art fire modeling tool. Consequently, it is expected that the quantitative fire risk evaluation propelled by the fire modeling can be available as an applicable tool to improve the core damage frequency as well as the quantitative fire risk analysis.
A New Design of Sprinkler Branch Outlet for Fire-Extinguishing Purposes and Its Manufacturing Process
Jun, B.Y. ; Shin, S.H. ; Lee, M.C. ; Suh, K.S. ; Joun, M.S. ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 19~25
In this paper, a new design of the sprinkler branch outlet for fire-extinguishing purposes is presented together with its manufacturing process. The conventional three-piece design is improved by a new one-piece design with the help of the manufacturing technology of cold forging. The forging process is simulated and optimized by the rigid-plastic finite element method and the design tryouts are thus minimized. It has been shown through its applications that the presented system is much more economical and structurally stronger.
The Experimental Study for the Smoke Optical Density and Toxic Gases of Sandwich Panel Insulations(Single Chamber Method)
Park, Soo-Young ; Lee, Woo-Seok ; Yeo, Han-Seung ; Im, Hong-Soon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 26~32
Nowadays in Korea, KS F 2271 has been using for the test of fire safety performance of sandwich panels. Smoke toxicity test is the test for the toxicity evaluation of smoke and hazardous gas, caused by combustion of building materials and finishing materials. Smoke toxicity can be evaluated by the mean incapacitation time of mice; however this method is not a quantitative way. This test result can be influenced by the health status of mice and test condition. Specific optical density can be quantitatively measured by ISO 5659-2 single chamber method and toxic gases can be quantitatively measured by FTIR analysis. In this study, specific optical density of sandwich panel insulations, which are widely used in Korea, were tested using the ISO 5659-2 single chamber test method and compared with each test. Also, in the second test of three tests for each specimen, FTIR analysis was performed and quantitative test results(HCl,
, etc) were compared with each test result.
The Experimental Study for the Combustion-Property of Sandwich Panels using ISO 5660 Cone Calorimeter
Park, Soo-Young ; Kim, Dae-Hoi ; Im, Hong-Soon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 33~41
Nowadays in Korea, KS F 2271(Testing method for incombustibility of internal finish material and element of buildings) has been using for the evaluation of fire safety performance of sandwich panels. The test method in Japan and in Korea was based on the same way. When the Japanese standard building code was revised in 2000, the test method in the ISO 5660-1 was adopted for the test method for combustion performance of internal finishing materials and elements of buildings. According to this, the revision version of draft substituting the test method in the KS F 2271 for one in the ISO 5660-1(Cone Calorimeter method) is informed in Korea. In this study, combustion properties of sandwich panels were tested using the cone calorimeter method. Ignition time, peak heat release rate and total heat released of four sandwich panels and four core materials (thermal insulation material), which are widely used in Korea, were tested. Test results were analyzed for each specimen. Finally, test results were classified by Japanese standard building code and Canadian NBC revised.
Study on Improvement of Safety Check System for Elevation Emergency Management Service
Kong, Ha-Sung ; Lee, Jeong-Il ; Kim, Kook-Rae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 42~57
This study suggests improvement plans : safety check system security through combination in stages, unification of fire inspection, enterprising security of prevention work, enforcement of certificate of qualification for safety, activation of civil partner-ship of fire disaster prevention through contrast prevention work of administrative service with civil mind and an in-depth analysis : dispersed and duplicated management current safety check service, improper commission collection, immorality diffusion of involved, potential irregularities causes, deficit of professionalism security.
Reduced-Scale Experiments of the Partial Smoke Extraction System in Tunnel Fires
Lee, Eui-Ju ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 58~64
Smoke extraction in tunnel fire is investigated experimently with thermal model. The object is a immersed tunnel, of which the partial extraction system exists between the tubes. The model tunnel is measured 12 m long, 0.5 m wide and 0.35 m high. The fire is simulated to pool fire and the size corresponds to full scale fire of 5 MW based on Froude modeling. The performance of partial extraction system is determined under two ventilations, natural and longitudinal ones. The results show that compared with longitudinal ventilation, the smoke extraction efficiency of natural ventilation is increased about 30% because of smoke stratification in tunnel. Also the efficiency is identical to the iso-thermal model. The results will be help for activation of the ventilation system in emergency such as in the event of tunnel fires.
Design of Large Cone Calorimeter for the Fire Study
Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 65~71
Some major properties such as a heat release rate have been measured experimentally for the validation of fire model and the clarification of fire phenomena as the study is more rigorous recently. Although the reduced-scale experiment also provides the basic data and the physical understanding in fire study, it is not enough to explain real fire problem directly because there is no exact analogy theory between a real fire and the reduced scale model. Therefore, large cone calorimeter have been built and used in a few foreign countries for the measurement of large scale fire. This paper addressed the theoretical background and the description of key features in the design of the facility. It will be a useful guide for implementation of the large scale cone calorimeter in the future.
Assessment on the Flame Retardancy for Polyethylene/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite
Song, Young-Ho ; Chung, Kook-Sam ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 72~76
Polymer/clay nanocomposites have generated considerable interests in the past decade because adding just tiny amount of clay to the polymer matrix could produce a dramatic enhancement in physical, thermal and mechanical properties. Smectite clays, such as montmorillonite (MMT), are of great industrial value because of their high aspect ratio, plate morphology, intercalative capacity, natural abundance and low cost. In this study, PE/MMT nanocomposites were directly prepared by melt intercalating PE and the modified clay. The nanostructure was verified by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and their flame retardant properties were measured and discussed by limiting oxygen index (LOI), char yield and smoke mass concentration. And their thermal stabilities were measured by differential thermogravimetric (DTG) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The PE/MMT nanocomposites proved more effective the conventional composites in reinforcement. Two functions in the thermal stability of the PE/MMT nanocomposite, one is the barrier effect to improve the thermal stability, and another is catalysis, leading to a decrease of the thermal stability. The flammability was greatly decreased due to the formation of the clay-enriched protective char during the combustion.
A Criminal Responsibility of Aid by 119 Rescuer
Yoon, Sang-Min ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 77~90
This is for Criminal Law problem that can be happened during the rescue working of 119 rescue member. There are mainly 3sections can be Criminal Law Problem. At first, denying a rescue request. Second, thing that do not transfer patient or people need someone's help by their refusal. Third, emergency medical management. It can be criminal act if somebody do the 3sections thing under Law about emergency medical treatment. It also can be homicide under Criminal Law or accidental homicide, a charge of injuring a person if people need rescue die or become worse through the work. Rescuers are responsible for a criminal case by their carelessness and fault. A plan has to remain to protect them when they do violence to the life and health of a people inevitably. This paper examines the plan can protect them through the analysis and application of related Law about rescuer's work which can be Criminal Law Problem, presents rational establish plan of Rescuer Protect Law to make them their job well as a rescuer.
A Study on the Calculation of Critical Velocity by Fire Intensity
Kim, Jong-Yoon ; Lim, Kyung-Bum ; Seo, Tae-Beom ; Rie, Dong-Ho ; Yoo, Ji-Oh ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 91~97
This study was executed to review feasibility on the calculation of critical velocity with a reduced model of an actual tunnel in order to establish the optimum fire protection system for a fire in road tunnels. In a scaled model about 1/29 of an actual tunnel based on the Froude scaling, critical velocity was calculated by visualizing smoke flow and analyzing correlation with temperature. In the experiment, critical velocities at which smoke backflow length became zero showed a small difference within about 5% compared to results calculated by the Kennedy formula, and the relation between smoke flow and temperature distribution appeared similarly without getting greatly influenced by changes in fire intensity.
Pilot Application of Fire Barrier Penetration Seal Evaluation in Nuclear Power Plant
Park, Jun-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 98~104
The Fire Protection Regulatory documents require the fire-resistive rating of fire barrier penetration seals be same as that of fire barriers. Pilot application of penetration seal evaluation for K nuclear plant, built before penetration seal requirements were made, was done. In this evaluation, visual inspection and estimating fire rating by comparing installed configuration with tested configuration of penetration seals, called bounding approach method, were applied. Further improvements for retrofit and maintenance are recommended with penetration seal evaluation results also. The practical use of the methodology adopted in this study and the evaluation result of K nuclear plant will be anticipated for other plant's penetration seal evaluation.
A Study on the Application of National Fire Investigation Data
Kim, In-Tae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 105~109
Fire station is a response agency of disaster management. Its various field experience and materials could build up to database to support fire prevention and fire fighting, but it has not been worked out efficiently. To overcome this inefficiency, National Emergency Management Agency(NEMA) has made total improvement in "National Fire Investigation Data Classification System" mainly done by its Fire Investigation and Analysis Team. This study reviews existing fire investigation and data accumulation and analysis process so that it could be used as a basic data for "National Fire Investigation Data Classification System" operation.
Flame Retardant Properties of Polyurethane by the Addition of Phosphorus Compounds
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 110~115
Polyurethane(PU) was mixtured by the treatment with flame retardants such as Tri(chloroisopropyl) phosphate(TCPP), Triethyl phosphate(TEP) and Trimethyl phosphate(TMP) at about
. Rigid polyurethane foam was produced using the mixured products as flame retardants. The mechanical property and flammability of rigid polyurethane was investigated. The mixtured polyurethane shows reduced flammability over virgin polyurethane. Mechanical strength of mixtured polyurethane also shows as high as that of virgin polyurethane. In order to evaluate flame retardant properties of the mixtured polyurethane foams, heat release rate(HRR) of the foam was measured by cone calorimeter. Scanning electron micrograph of mixtured PU shows uniform cell morphology as virgin PU.
A Study on Measures to Acquire Fire Safety Performance of Multiplex Movie Theaters
Son, Bong-Sei ; Chang, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 116~124
Multiplex movie cinemas are cultural spaces where an indefinite number of people from a variety of classes and ages can enjoy movies, food, and leisure all together in one place at the same time. Those facilities which a great number of people use together like multiplex movie theaters are relatively vulnerable to fire safety, compared with other facilities to protect from fire. Considering the special nature and vulnerability of multiplex movie theaters from a fire safety standpoint, this study aims to seek measures to acquire fire safety performance of the specific facilities by selecting exemplary models of local multiplex movie theaters, performing fire and evacuation simulations for them, and reviewing and analyzing their present problems in evacuation safety as well as the relevant regulations of many countries.
A Study on the Fire Safety Measure of Pumped Storage Power Plant
Kim, Yoo-Shik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 125~130
Pumped storage power plant is a system of generating electricity with hydroelectric power, in which at times of low electrical demand such as during nights, excess generation capacity of many power plants is used to pump water into the higher reservoir, and when there is higher demand, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine, generating electricity. As pumped storage power plants across the nation are not on building registry under "the Article 6 of the Special Act by the Development of Power Resources", they are classified as a structure, not as a building. As a result, permit of fire protection facility is unnecessary, and fire protection administration is excluded from approval to completion of construction. Therefore, this study is to improve problems in accordance with the application of "he Article 6 of the Special Act by the Development of Power Resources", repair of facilities and problems with safety control to effectively prevent similar damages from repeatedly happening to pumped storage power plants in operation or under construction nationwide during a fire.
A Study on the Development of Intelligent Guiding Exit Sign System
Kim, Yoo-Shik ; Sug, Dong-Sub ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 131~134
As modern buildings grow to become diversified, toxic gases and smoke coupled with characteristics of space during a fire increase the risk of large-scaled disaster. It is now urgent to take measures for evacuation and escape directly linked to personal damage. Existing fixed one-way emergency exit light is not enough for efficient evacuation and rescue. Therefore, to ensure quicker escape and evacuation during a fire, two-way radio data system should be devised, which linked with fire detector, helps people in danger to escape quickly and is able to control by a central control system, and the system was found to enhance the efficiency of escape and contribute to safer escape.
Effect of Positive Pressure Ventilator Tilting Angle on the Flame Suppression and Smoke Density
Kim, Sung-Won ; Lee, Kyoung-Duck ; Shin, Chang-Sub ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 20, issue 4, 2006, Pages 135~142
The experiment applied Positive Pressure Ventilation to rapidly exhaust heat and smoke inside the construction in the fire was done. Changes of heat discharge and smoke density were measured, with the various blowing condition like a fan tilting angle to find the effect of the parameter. Experimental apparatus were with PPV and water mist system for better efficiency, and investigate the effect of heat discharge and smoke removal. In the experiment, flame temperature has decreased when PPV was applied. Smoke density, generated from fire also decreased dramatically and the efficiency showed the highest rate at
tilting angle. In addition, combination of PPV and water mist system highly improved the efficiency of evacuation on heat and smoke density, clearly was influenced by the tilting angle.