Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Dec 2007
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Sep 2007
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Jun 2007
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Mar 2007
Selecting the target year
A Study on Percent Agent in Pipe as a Criterion to Evaluate Limitations and Performance of Gaseous Fire Extinguishing Systems
Son, Bong-Sei ; Kim, Hee-Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 1~11
This study aims to investigate, review, and summarize the definition, development, and applications of "percent agent in pipe", "percent of agent in pipe" which is used as a key factor in testing and evaluating the performance of gaseous fire extinguishing agents, including Halon 1301 and
. This study also analyzes and compares the local and international standards on testing and evaluating the performance of gaseous fire extinguishing systems, as well as the results of system performance tests conducted as a part of performance evaluation and approval programs for gaseous fire extinguishing systems, especially, Korean Gaseous Fire Extinguishing System Performance Approval Program called KFI Approval. Percent agent in pipe was defined first in NFPA 12A, Standard on Halon 1301 Fire Extinguishing Systems, dating back to the 1970's. After the phaseout of Halon 1301 systems in 1994 in the developed countries, the percent agent in pipe has been widely used in Halon 1301 alternative clean agent fire extinguishing systems, both halocarbon clean agent systems and inert gas clean agent systems, as an essential criterion to assure the system design accuracy, determine the limitations and performance of a system, and to predict the system performance results accurately, especially, in association with their system flow calculations. Underwriters Laboratories has their own standards such as UL 2127 and 2166 applying percent agent in pipe in testing and evaluating the performance of clean agent fire extinguishing systems. As a part of a system performance test and approval program called KFI Approval System, Korea also has started to apply the percent agent in pipe as a key factor to test, evaluate, and approve the performance of gaseous fire extinguishing systems, including both high and low pressure
systems, from the early 2000's. This study outlines and summarizes the relevant UL and KFI standards and also describes the actual test resultant data, including the maximum percents of agent in pipe for gaseous fire extinguishing systems. As evidenced in lots of tests conducted as a part of the system performance test and approval programs like KFI Approval System, it has been proven that the percent agent in pipe may work as a key factor in testing, evaluating, and determining the limitations and performance of gaseous fire extinguishing systems, especially compared with the hydraulic flow calculations of computer design programs of gaseous fire extinguishing systems, and will remain as such in the future. As one thing to note, however, there are some difficulties in using the unified percent agent in pipe to determine the maximum lengths of pipe networks for gaseous fire extinguishing systems, because the varying definitions used by some of the flow calculations (not in accordance with NFPA 12A definition) make it impossible to do any direct comparison of pipe lengths based on percent agent in pipe.
Pressure Differentials in the Elevator Lobby Depending on the Reference Pressures of the Pressurizing Dampers
Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 12~17
This paper investigated pressure differentials in the elevator lobby depending on reference pressures of the pressurizing damper using FDS fire modeling. The results showed the temperatures and pressures in the contained fire room with small leak gaps can increase significantly. Setting reference pressure of the pressurizing dampers to 0 Pa can cause reduction of real pressure differentials and air velocity to resist smoke flow. This would cause smoke movement from fire room to elevator lobby which should be safe area for evacuation.
Effects of Radiation Heat Transfer on the Fire in an Atrium
Yoon, Kyung-Beom ; Chang, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 18~24
The purpose of this study is focussed on the numerical predictions of temperature distribution by radiation heat transfer in atrium fire using the field fire model and the CCRHT-3D code. This code uses standard
turbulent model with SIMPLE algorithm and weighted sum of gray gases model regrouping(WSGGM-RG). The WSGGM-RG calculates radiative properties on the reduced computational loads while reserving the accuracy. The numerical results show that lower temperature distributions on the wall and the top ceiling wall can be obtained by considering radiative heat transfer. The temperature on the top ceiling wall can be an important parameter in predicting the operating condition of the sprinkler head.
A Combustion Characteristic Analysis of Sandwich Panel Core Using Radiation Heat Flux
Park, Hyung-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 25~31
The combustion characteristics and combustion heat of sandwich panel cores were analysed using variable external irradiation level. The characteristics such as ignition time, critical heat flux, ignition temperature and surface temperature profile were measured. Fuel samples were exposed to incident heat fluxes from 15 to
. For the measurement of various combustion characteristics, the size of specimen was
and the samples were 3 different kinds. As results, Type B showed the best characteristics in measurement of combustion heat and ignition temperature and Type C showd the best characteristics in critical heat flux and surface temperature profile than that of the other two. In conclusion, we knew that Type C had the best performance in fire safety from all data of this study.
The Measurement and Estimation of Lower Flash Point for 2-Propanol+Acid Systems Using Cleveland Open Cup Apparatus
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Lee, Sung-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 32~37
An accurate knowledge of the flash point is important in developing appropriate preventive and control measures in industrial fire protection. The lower flash points for the 2-propanol+acetic acid and 2-propanol+-n-propionic acid systems were measured by Cleveland open cup apparatus. The experimental data were compared with the values calculated by the Raoult's law, the Wilson equation and the NRTL(non random two liquids) equation. The calculated values based on the Wilson and NRTL equations were found to be better than those based on the Raoult's law. And the predictive curve of the flash point prediction model, based on NRTL equation described the experimentally-derived data were more effective than the case of the Wilson equation.
Pressure Differentials in the Elevator Lobby Depending on the Evacuation Scenarios
Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 38~43
The aim of this paper is to investigate the change of pressure differential and smoke propagation characteristics in the elevator lobby with the resident's evacuation scenarios using fire modelling technique. The results showed absolute pressures in the fire room and elevator lobby can significantly increase to cause fire door to the stairway unclosed once it is open. This is due to constant pressure differentials, the increasing reference pressure of fire lobby and pressure leak from elevator lobby to fire lobby. Smoke exhaust mechanism was needed to prevent the continuous pressure rise in the living room. Over 200 Pa was expected upon closing the door during pressurization, which provide difficulties in opening the door for next refugee. Opening both fire door and entrance door may induce smoke flow from fire room to elevator lobby and stairway.
A Study of the Suppression System based on the Fire Protection System the Korea Cultural Property due to the Forest Fire -About Water Mist System-
Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 44~51
Most of the Korea temples of cultural property are wooden buildings and easy combusted. They are often located in mountain area far away from the city. It is very difficult to approach the fight area. The putting out is very difficult in the initial fire time. And for protecting the cultural property in the long-term continuous fire source there are some restrictions in water source and suppression system. In this paper the initial putting out fire due to the forest fire and the protection of cultural property in the long-term continuous fire source were researched. The improved project about fire control facilities of the Korea cultural property was proposed. In the proposed project the facilities using Water mist which can reduce more loss than existing facilities using water are applied. In view of the topographic position the method of eliminating the energy of combustibles and wall for cutting off the heat in the fire control facilities are also mentioned.
Comparative Analysis of Forest Fire Danger Rating on the Forest Characteristics of Thinning Area and Non-thinning Area
Lee, Si-Young ; Lee, Myung-Woog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 52~58
The effect of stand-growing-stock characteristics of thinning area and non-thinning area on forest fire was studied in this work. 14 spots were selected from 3 counties such as Yangyang, Injae, and Gapyeong and on-the-spot investigations were performed to evaluate the effect of forest fire. The stand-growing-stock characteristics on the spots were analyzed through the height of tree, breast height diameter, clear length, mortality of branch, forest tree standing crop density, degree of closure, and shrub and grass cover degree. The relation between forest fire and the risk of spread of forest fire were analyzed from the analysis of the stand-growing-stock characteristics. It is considered from this work that the possibility of forest fire is decreased on the thinning area compared to the non-thinning area because of higher clearlength, lower number of tree, lower mortality of branch and higher shrub and grass cover degree.
A Study on the Fire Cause Analysis of Motor Damage
Lee, Chun-Ha ; Ok, Kyung-Jae ; Kwon, Byung-Duck ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 59~64
We studied on the fires about the electrical motors in this paper. We compared and analyzed about the transformation and damage state of single-phase induction motors used in the home appliances when we applied electrical overload and exterior flame. This experiment was progressed by the electrical overload application test and the exterior flame application test through the locked rotor of motor. In case of the exterior flame application test, it is divided into the apply voltage case and not apply voltage case. The result of an experiment through the locked rotor of motor, it was able to observe the short-circuit marks between layers at the winding coil parts, and it was appeared a transformed dendritic tissue structure of winding coil by the electrical overload test. The application voltage and the application exterior flame, it was confirmed that the stator winding coil parts were remain original shapes and observed that the color of the winding coil's circumference was changed to red. The non-application voltage and the application exterior flame, it was observed that the stator winding coil parts were transformed quite from original shapes. It was observed that the color of the winding coil and circumference parts was changed to red at the same case of non-application voltage.
A Study on Development of Electric Safety Control Apparatus by Using Thermal Characteristics of PTC Thermistor
Kwak, Dong-Kurl ; Jung, Do-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 65~71
This paper is studied on a protective control system for electrical fire and electrical faults by using electrical and thermal characteristics of PTC thermistor. The PTC thermistor has characteristic or positive resistivity temperature coefficient according to the temperature variation, which is construction of a regular square and cube demarcation with
Ceramics of positive temperature coefficient. Also PTC thermistor shows the phenomenon which is rapidly increased in the resistivity if the temperature is increased over Curie temperature point. This paper is proposed on a protective control system used PTC thermistor which is protected from electrical fire due to electric short circuit faults or overload faults. Some experimental results of the proposed electric safety control apparatus are confirmed to the validity of the analytical results.
A Study on the Actual Education Condition and Improvement Program of Fire Investigator
Choi, D.M. ; Park, C.W. ; In, S.J. ; Lee, C.W. ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 72~80
In order to breed fire investigators, can scientifically find out the truth of fire causes, the development of special and systematic education programs and the repetitive retraining are the most important factor. In this study, the working problems of curriculum for fire investigation course were analyzed through the survey. The curriculum and management status of domestic and foreign professional fire investigation education authority were compared and analyzed. And we suggested that the possible solutions to the problem, which can affect on the education effects, curriculums, training methods, selective methods, and effective applying method.
The Present Situation and Preventive Measure of the Fire in the Cattle Shelter -Based on Jeonbuk Province-
Jeng, Gi-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 81~87
The cattle shelters have been badly damaged by the recently large fires. so the reconstruction of the damaged shelter is very difficult. In the light of the seriousness of the fire like that, the preventive plan for the cattle shed should be thoroughly established. The preventive measure which the fire department performs presently is limited to the stopping the fire before it starts. More than anything else, The men who operate and manage the cattle shelters must know what to do. The written plan will assist them. To begin with, The fire authority should clearly specify how cattle should be protected from any outbreak of fire. Clear access to each fire shed is very important to protect the cattle safely. The manager of the cattle shelter should get ready for the fire defense equipment. Most fires of the cattle shelters are due to electricity faults. These renovations should be performed and checked immediately. Therefore, The manager should be ready assist fire chief or the professional organization to prevent the electricity fire. Fire Safety education should be planned for the owner and staff so all should know what is expected in case of a fire. The Fire Department will check the access road, the equipment available and an announced fire drills should take place every year in the cattle shelter. The Fire Department should check the access road, equipment for preventing fires and staff training each year.
The Research on the Introduction of Unit Completion System into the Opened Examination for the Fire Service
Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 88~98
This study put the purpose to contribute in the way of complementing a qualification of the opened examination for the fire service to improvement of disposition and specialty of a firemen, and to development of a fire department. The subjects of the opened examination for the fire service are mostly same as those of general civil service examination, and they incite indiscreet competition. As a result, firemen morale became declining. On the basis of every kind of documents and data and the analysis of a questionnaire with students of the department of fire safety supervision, we should solve the problems of lack of qualification and professionality causing stress from work by the unit completion system, which qualifies those who complete prescribed unit in the opened examination for the fire service. It must promote the specialty of a fire fighter so that we can step up to the advanced fire department.
A Proposal on the Development of Chemical-Biological-Radiological-Nuclear-Explosive (CBRNE) Emergency Medical Training Program for Fire Officers
Kim, Jee-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 99~104
Recently keeping pace with globalization, many international conferences and athletic games are being held in Korea. After 911 terror in New York in 2001, Korean government dispatched Zaytun Division in Iraq and this fact has also led to voice concerns that Korea should be prepared to protect from terrors of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and explosive(CBRNE) emergency as soon as possible. It is important to develop the CBRNE emergency medical training for fire officers in Korea. So I propose the curriculum.
A Suggestions for Building Regulation through the Analysis of Problems among the Building Evacuation Laws
Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ; Kim, Dae-Hee ; Cho, Jeong-Hoon ; Hwang, Keum-Sook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 105~114
Recently the consideration for occupants' security has been raised as very important design element from the fire by building's large sized, higher storied, and its compounded. But the domestic Laws regulated the predicative laws according to the technical standard which has no difference from the past domestic evacuation regulations. Therefore when big fire occurs, it is not enough to guarantee for occupants to escape safely. Specially since domestic escape relevant laws are divided into Architect relevant law and fire fighting relevant law, it has caused to bring various problems. So This study will show the problems of the evacuation regulation which is registrated in the Architect relevant law and fire fighting relevant law. And also later, when Architect escape relevant laws re-registrate, this study will be used as foundational materials.
Real-time Fire Evacuation Guidance System Employing Ubiquitous Techniques: Efficient Exiting System Using RFID
Yoon, Myung-O ; Song, Cheol-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Woon ; Choi, Yun-Soo ; Choi, Yeon-Lee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 21, issue 4, 2007, Pages 115~122
Exiting systems are essential to prevent casualties in case of fire. However, existing guidance systems are lack of flexibility because their functionalities are fixed when they are planned. In this paper, a system is introduced which guides evacuees in realtime by processing data it gathers throughout various sensors in realtime. It is planned and designed to aid quick and efficient evacuation, and produced, installed and tested in an underground space to show its feasibility. In building the system, ubiquitous techniques are employed for its sensor network and evacuee positioning in an attempt to make it cheap and extendable.