Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Nov 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
The Effects of the Area of Openings on the Performance of a
Extinguishing System -The CFD Simulations of the Oil Surface Fire in a Machine Room-
Jeon, Heung-Kyun ; Choi, Young-Sang ; Park, Jong-Tack ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~9
) agent, which has more safely extinguished fire than any other gaseous fire extinguishing agents, has been widely used in various protected enclosures and types of fires. According to the concept of performance-based design(PBD).
extinguishing system to be designed is needed to be evaluated for the performance of fire suppression with possible fire scenarios in an enclosure. In this paper, CFD simulations were carried out to study the effects of opening area on the performance of
extinguishing system and the flow characteristics in the machine room of
in which kerosene spill fire happened. This study showed that time of fire suppression increased linearly in proportion to the size of opening area, and fires for each model were completely suppressed prior to the end of discharge of
agent. It was shown that mass flow rate through opening was influenced by the combined effects of heat release rate of fire and discharge of
agent was completely discharged, oxygen concentrations in enclosures for each model were lower than the limit concentration of combustion.
A Study on the Seismic Design for Water Exthinguishing Piping Systems
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 10~15
In this study, seismic design in sprinkler head pipeline of water extinguishing system has been carried out. This study describes a generation of artificial earthquake wave compatible with seismic design spectrum, and also analyzed the dynamic response spectra by the simulated earthquake motion. This study constructed powerful engineering base for seismic design, and presented seismic design techniques of water and gas extinguishing piping system. Also, this study readied basis that can apply seismic design and performance estimation of fire fighting system and performance rating as well as pipeline of water extinguishing system from result of this research. Hereafter, if additional research by earthquake magnitude and ground kind is approached, reliance elevation, safety raising and performance based design of fire fighting system see to achieve.
A Study on Smoke Control Characteristic by the Effect off Jet Fan Installation Distance
Kim, Jong-Yoon ; Jeon, Yong-Han ; Seo, Tae-Beom ; Yoo, Ji-Oh ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 16~23
In this research, the visualization experiment for a scaling tunnel was conducted to establish the optimum fire protection system in tunnel fires. In order to find the optimal operating condition of jet fan with the fire, the characteristics of smoke propagation was considered to find the optimal operating condition of jet fan at the time of tunnel fire, the concentration of smoke was measured experimentally for various jet fan position and it's operating condition. As a result, when jet fan in the vicinity of fire operates at the upstream, the back-layering of the smoke should be considered with separation distance from the fire source. The distance between the jet fan and the fire should be longer than 50 m. On the other hand, when the vicinity jet fan operates at the downstream, the back-layering of smoke does not occur, but stratification is not maintained because the smoke dispersion occurs at the downstream due to the operation of the jet fan.
A Study on the Causal Analysis of Electrical Fire by Using Fuse
Lee, Chun-Ha ; Kim, Shi-Kuk ; Ok, Kyung-Jae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 24~28
This paper studied on the causal analysis of electrical fire by using fuse that it is used with safety device in electrical products. The experimental samples used are glass tube fuse(15 A,
) and temperature fuse(10 A,
). The experiment analyzed on the characteristics of damaged fuse by main causes(short circuit, overload, external flame) of electrical fire. The results showed, in case of glass tube fuse identified different characteristics in external form and element surface and element texture of damaged fuse by main causes of electrical fire. In case of temperature fuse identified different characteristics in external form and sliding contact surface and sliding contact texture of damaged fuse only by external flame.
A Study about the Evacuation Guidance that Used Phosphorescent Material for Stairs
Hur, Man-Sung ; Fujita, Akihiro ; Bitosho, Bitosho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 29~36
This study is intended to examine the effect of the evacuation guidance that used phosphorescent material for stairs in the event of smoke and failure of both the power to the lighting and illuminated sign. To achieve the purpose, the test stairs was established and 35 students(1st 20, 2nd 15) were examined the visibility, the convenience and the comfort of going up and down of stairs. The results of this study are as follows; The evacuation from stairs showed that the stair nosing and landing used phosphorescent material for was very effective in dark conditions(0 lux) because of the high visibility of stair nosing and the convenience and the comfort of going up and down of stairs. The phosphorescent material located on the stair nosing and stair landing will aid in evacuation from stairs in the event of failure of both the power to the lightings and illuminated sign.
The Study of Development and Calibration for the Real Scale Fire Test Facility
Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Shin, Hyun-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 37~44
The reduced scale fire test provides basic data but it is not enough to analysis real fire problem directly because there is no exact analogy theory between a real fire and the reduced scale model. Therefore, we have developed the 10 MW large scale calorimeter in order to real scale fire test. This advanced large scale calorimeter used for physical properties such as a heat release rate, based upon consumption of
method. Using the heptane pool fire, we carried out the calibration in order to evaluation for heat release rate. It is approve that this facility has the reliability and it is capable of applying to the advance fire research in the future.
Comparative Analysis of Forest Fire Danger Rating on Accumulation Types of the Leaving of Thinning Slash
Lee, Si-Young ; Lee, Myung-Woog ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 45~53
The effect of thinned trees which are produced from forest thinning on forest fire was studied in this work. To investigate the effect of thinning slash, Yang-yang, In-je, and Ga-pyeong-gun were selected as thinning-areas and non-thinning areas. The research was carried out with the variations of tree's types, area's characteristics, thinning strength, thinning types, and pile types of thinned tree. The survey areas of 14 areas were selected at Yangyang-gun(5 areas), Gapyeong-gun(4 areas), and Inje-gun(5 areas), and on-the-spot investigations were carried out at the thinning areas of 9 and the non-thinning areas of 5, respectively. Non-thinning areas of 5, which are adjacent to thinning areas, were selected for the comparison with thinning areas and for the analysis of risk of forest fire. It is considered that forest fire have no chance to diffuse to a tree trunk because the height of thinned trees was lower than 1 m. However, it is considered that forest fire may affect directly to a tree trunk if it spread to piled thinned tree because there was no space between thinned trees and trees. Furthermore, it was found that re-ignition had a chance to occur due to lots of piled thinning trees.
Fire-countermeasures of Majority-used Buildings -Centering around Busan Metropolitan City-
Lee, Soon-Goo ; Kong, Ha-Sung ; Han, Sang-Yong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 54~60
The occurrence of fires in heavily populated multiplex buildings is a serious concern. It causes a great threat to many people and a serious social problem. Whenever this kind of fire happens, the authorities are busy preparing partial countermeasures to control the crisis situations. Luckily, the government has enforced a special law regarding safety supervision of majority-used buildings to prepare the basic countermeasures for the buildings' safety. Recently, the multiplex buildings which have multi type compounds have increased in size by getting bigger and bigger. As there are many people who would need to escape and the complicated structures like mazes in buildings of this type, it is not only difficult to prevent a fire but also easy to cause a large loss of lives. For a better fire safety supervision of the buildings, there needs to be passers and owners' good sense of safety, fire proof of the buildings and education of the fire authorities.
Study on Heat and Smoke Exhaust Characteristics for Different Operating Modes of Platform and Tunnel Fans during a Passenger Train Fire
Chang, Hee-Chul ; Kim, Tae-Kuk ; Son, Bong-Sei ; Park, Won-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 61~67
This study is focused on the numerical predictions of heat and smoke exhaust characteristics in an underground subway station stopping a fire train. Various ventilation operating modes with the fan equipped the platform and tunnels are considered. Distributions of temperature, carbon monoxide and visibility at a height of 1.7 m(breath height) above the platform are analysed for different ventilation fan operation mode. The numerical results show that smoke and heat is rapidly removed through tunnel by operating the tunnels fans. We suggested that during evacuation of passengers is not completed, the ventilation system in the platform is activated. After completion of passenger evacuation tunnel fans are activated but the fans in the platform are stopped.
A Flame-Detection System Robust to Lighting and Environments
Park, Jang-Sik ; Kim, Hyun-Tae ; Park, Soo-Chang ; Son, Kyung-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~75
In this paper, we introduce a fire-detection system which is robust to light sources and environment changing. We can decide the threshold values that classify the regions between a fire flame and light sources by analyzing them in RGB color space. But we could not discriminate quasi-flame region from fire flame region with the value. The difference of mean-histogram technique make it possible to extract flame region more efficient because fire flame is continuously changing after it occurs. In order to validate real fire, this paper uses regional compactness in the end of process. Computer simulation show that proposed method make more robust to light sources and environment changing.
A Study on the Emergency Response System by Five Sense in the Subway Fire
Roh, Sam-Kew ; Ham, Eun-Gu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 76~83
In the subway fire case, it is important that judge accuracy subway fire type and on the initial response minimize accident damage. But when the subway fire accident occurring, if it have know impossible that accuracy subway fire type to judge at once though witnessing driver or emergency response staff. This study suggests type of five senses that using information of five sense take to the subway fire accident information which analyses five senses as occurring subway fire accident. Also it is proposed that emergency response system though fire scenario by using Activity-Action Diagram(AAD).
The Thermal Characteristics of Tree Branches, Barks, Living Leaves and Dead Leaves in Pinus Densiflora and Quercus Dentata
Park, Young-Ju ; Lee, Si-Young ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 84~92
Disclosed is a study related to the thermal characteristics of Pinus densiflora and Quercus dentate identifying the presence of any significant difference in the above trees, which are native to Young Dong Province of Korea, according to different regions of the trees such as branches, barks, living leaves and dead leaves. For this purpose, we have carried out a cone calorimeter test focusing on the variables such as mass loss, heat release, ignition time, flame holding time and concentrations of CO and
. The results showed that the total mass loss was greatest in tree branches, whereas the ignition time of dead leaves was fastest both in Pinus densiflora and Quercus dantata. The flame holding times of dead leaves and barks were about
and the total heat release of dead leaves was around 60.1
, twice the total heat release of living leaves. In addition, the maximum exhaust concentrations of CO and
in tree branches of Quercus dentata was 2.82 times higher than those of Pinus densiflora, respectively. From the foregoing, it was confirmed that there exist region-specific differential thermal characteristics in Pinus densiflora and Quercus dentata.
Development of Loaded Stream Fire Extinguishing Systems for Underground Transmission Cables
Lee, Sung-Mo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 93~98
Full-scale fire extinguishment tests were conducted to develop loaded stream fire extinguishing systems for protecting underground transmission cables. The dimension of test mock-up was 5.5m height
length, and six 154kV OF cables were piled up. Gasoline was used to ignite cates. Linear heat detection cables were installed on top of 154 kV OF cable and discharge nozzles were installed on the top and sidewalls, respectively. As a result, both surface fires and deap-seated fires were extinguished successfully within the specified 3 minutes by discharging loaded stream agent.
Thermal Stability and Critical Ignition Temperature of RPF
Lim, Woo-Sub ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 99~104
It is important to understand thermal characteristic as a method to estimate the new materials, because spontaneous ignition characterized by causing combustion in the low temperature without ignition source. If can not find out the thermal characteristics of materials, it is frequent that causes of fires could not be found. The danger level of spontaneous ignition material should be estimated and by closely studying its thermal characteristic. However, RPF(Refuse Paper & Plastic Fuel) is a solid matter and getting increasesa year by year because it is an economy profit as alternative energy for limited fossil fuels. Some time RPF occur a fire in the cases of its production process and conservation. Therefore study for thermal stability and critical ignition temperature of RPF was so imperative that the experiment by means of Bombe Calorimeter, TG-DTA, MS80, SIT-II, and Wire Basket Test was implemented. As a result, RPF had a caloric value 26.4-28.3 MJ/kg, and its initial pyrolysis temperature was
at heating rate 2 K/min. With the result of analysis by MS 80 which is an instrument measuring microscopic calory, pure RPF not containing water has higher caloric value than RPF containing 20% water. Also, SIT-II which is an instrument of insulated auto-ignition was ignited by
. This temperature is lower than that of Wire Basket Test. The critical ignition temperature was calculated by Frank-Kamenetskii equation can cause ignition at
when conserved in the height of 10 m by the standard of infinity slab.
A Study on Analysis of Installation on the Actual State and Improvement about a Descending Life Line
Choi, Yong-Hyuk ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Kim, Tae-Gu ; Kim, Kwang-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 105~114
This study investigated problems found with the installation of a descending life line which is one of the compulsory fire escape apparatuses required by the revised "Fire Service Act" of 2006 for multi-use facilities and multistory buildings. It presents an analysis of the causes and improvement details for the problems classified by type of item. To achieve the purpose, the total 367 problem points are indicated. The problems of Installation are unsuitable window glass using the descending life line(34%), required passage device is not attached(23.7%), the installation location is with required operation(20%) and damaged descending life line(20%) were investigated. In particular, the study looks at the stress analysis range for cracking window glass which is required for people to escape in an emergency. People have questioned unsuitable window glass for using the descending life line among the problems with the installation. As a result of stress analysis, window glass thickness of the place where the descending life line is installed must be 3 or 6 mm. In addition, this study indicates substantial improvement measures for installing the descending life line so I will actually be used as a fire escape apparatus to protect human lives, and not just to formally meet the Fire Service Act.
A Study on Efficient Improvement Ways of Fire Protection Management System
Kook, Hyeong-Ho ; Jo, Dae-Ho ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 115~127
Fire protection management system has been introduced to prevent structure fire since establishment of Fire Prevention Act. Nevertheless, Damage by fires is continue. The main purpose of this study is to discuss approaches to improve fire protection management system into the fire prevention properties. Now fire protection management system has lots of the problems in managerial and systematical aspects. To improve these a unified fire protection management system must be establish by suggests revision of a unified Fire Prevention Act and foundation of Fire Prevention Institution, reform educational system for the fire safety directors would be essential to includes environment improvement, enhancement of certification requirements and education, a standardized computational management system of the fire protection properties must be build for efficient fire protection operations.
A Study on Features of Fire and Change of Extinguishing Capacity of Sprinkler Equipment Against Fire at a Traditional Market
Park, Jin-Woo ; Jeon, Gyu-Yeob ; Na, Wook-Jung ; Hong, Won-Hwa ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 1, 2008, Pages 128~138
Lots of products stocked at a traditional market are made of rubbers, synthetic fibers and plastics which when on fire, emit high heat to easily ignite nearby inflammables. And shops are not divided by fireproof partitions but by combustible curtains, which contributes to a possibility of a conflagration. In this study, danger and weak factors on fire at a traditional market was analyzed. Non-existence of partition between shops and the height of piled inflammables are set as danger factors and change of extinguishing capacity of sprinklers was analyzed using fire dynamics simulator. As a result, it turned out that partitions between shops and high-piled inflammables reduced watering radius of sprinklers and increased the size of fire and distribution of temperature.