Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 22, Issue 5 - Dec 2008
Volume 22, Issue 4 - Nov 2008
Volume 22, Issue 3 - Sep 2008
Volume 22, Issue 2 - Jun 2008
Volume 22, Issue 1 - Mar 2008
Selecting the target year
A study on the Improvements of the Fire Officials' Employment
Woo, Seong-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 153~161
The duty of fire officials are very complicated and various that a subject replacement for the fire officials' public examination for service is being required. The purpose of this study is to investigate the actual conditions of the fire officials' public employment system and find out current problems of it, to reconsider the speciality of the examination based on them, and to suggest a subject replacement for the examination to evaluate the duty accomplishment ability. This study presents not only assuring the speciality of fire officials but also the desirable plans to execute the Fire Relating Act effectively by replacing introduction of political science with fire service administration and adding the Fire Relation Law which is more connected on the local fire officials public written examination for service with duty.
A study on Scientific Paradigm Formation and Identity Establishment of Fire Service Science - Focused on Liaison Between Policy and Study -
Choi, Seong-Ryong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 162~171
For a field of research to be an independent area of study, there must be a common paradigm that is shared by the members of the community. In addition. for establishment of identity in a study, several relating scientific communities should actively study and research, which lead to a new paradigm. Efforts to accomplish this purpose are found in Politics, Economics, and Psychology. Yet, the field of Fire Service Science have not yield these results which include active scientific communities, scholars and experts who research on the subject and exchange their expertises. New paradigm for the field is not established yet. Therefore, this research probes the origins of these problems and suggests a proper scientific paradigm and direction for establishment of identity of Fire Service Science in Korea's ambiance.
Study on Fire Service Development of Fire Organization
Kong, Ha-Sung ; Lee, Woo-Seoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 172~180
Recently, diversification of social environment forces a fire administration new works. It is the development of Blue Ocean that a vision and substantive object the fire authority should pursuit. Now I recommend a variety of alternatives from the analysis of a survey of students who major in the fire or related fields, through the example of 120 service call program and police unit to discover new works. We should reclaim the name of department and promote life-contractive business with utilizing infra in the organization to get an remarkable success and reclaim Blue Ocean.
Numerical Simulation of Vertical Wall Fires I. Turbulent Natural Convection Along Vertical Wall
Park, Woe-Chul ; Trouve, Arnaud ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 181~187
Numerical simulation of natural convection along a vertical wall was carried out to evaluate the computational fluid dynamics simulator, which is to be utilized for study of vertical wall fires. The computed velocity and temperature profiles were compared with measurements over the turbulent boundary layer formed along the wall of 4m high and constant temperature. It fumed out that the simulator with default parameters failed to predict the turbulent natural convection showing the boundary layer flow laminar. The grid size
and Smagorinsky constant of the large eddy simulation
=0.1 were chosen through parametric investigations. Though turbulent mixing was not enough, the velocity distribution near wall, peak velocity, and temperature profile in the turbulent boundary layer agreed well with the measurements.
Numerical Simulation of Vertical Wall fires II. Propane Fire
Park, Woe-Chul ; Trouve, Arnaud ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 188~193
Numerical simulation was carried out for a propane fire of mass transfer rate
on a 1m high vertical wall. The objectives of this study are to confirm the outcomes of evaluation of the simulator through simulation of natural convection, and to compare the results of the wall fire with those of previous studies. It was confirmed that the simulated boundary layer was laminar at
while it was turbulent at
. The z direction velocity showed lack of turbulent mixing as seen in the natural convection case, and the profiles of temperature and velocities were in relatively good agreement with those of experiment and previous simulation. It was found that the air entrainment into the boundary layer was well predicted.
Field Experiment on Influence of Stack Effect to Pressure Differential System for Smoke Control
Kim, Jung-Yup ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 194~200
In order to design and operate successfully the pressure differential system for smoke control which uses difference of pressure between compartments of building, architectural factors affecting the pressure field of building should be examined and the stack effect is one of the important factors. The field experiments on pressure field in two buildings of 21 stories and 31 stories in summer and winter season with regard to on/off condition of the pressure differential system are carried out to evaluate the influence of stack effect to evacuation and smoke management of high-rise building. In winter season when the stack effect increases, as the pressure differential system starts to operate, the pressure in upper stair rises largely due to the combination effect of the air infiltration from lobby to stair and the stack effect.
A Numerical Study on Characteristics of Smoke Exhaust in Road Tunnel Fires for Different Ventilation System
Kim, Jong-Yoon ; Yoo, Ji-Oh ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 201~207
In this study, three Dimensional CFD simulations were carried out to investigate the effective smoke extraction system in bi-directional road tunnel fires using FLUENT. Characteristics of transverse system with big size extraction port or with uniform extraction port, semi-transverse system and longitudinal system for smoke extraction system were analyzed. Air velocity, port size, and operating method were used with variable. Distributions of smoke spread, CO was analyzed. As a result, the transverse ventilation system with big size port was found to be more effective than the uniform ports for bi-directional road tunnel.
An Experimental Study on the Development of Dry Wall System using Wood-wool Board
Kim, Dae-Hoi ; Park, Soo-Young ; Choi, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 208~215
Existent wood wool cement boards are low-quality cement boards made out of wood chip wastes. Recently, however, they are produced by making wood chips into fibrous forms to have good looks and excellent performances in sound absorption and thermal insulation. Though they have been broadly used in the advanced countries, they were rather expensive products with limited use in Korea having no domestic manufacturers of them. Since 2005, however, it has been possible for the boards to be used in various fields due to their lowered prices and stable supplies by the arrival of domestic manufacturers. For the purpose of encouraging broad use of the boards, this research aims to explore their practical applications by way of assessing the flame retardant and fire resistant performances when they are applied to dry-wall system.
Analysis of Fire Suppression Efficiency for Intermittent Water Spray Pattern by Fire Dynamics Simulator
Jee, Moon-Hak ; Lee, Byung-Kon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 216~220
Water mist fire suppression system utilizes the fire suppression features such as cooling of fire source, dilution of ambient oxygen, and shielding of radiation heat with the evaporation of microscopic water droplets. The momentum of water mist is relatively lower than that of larger water droplet and the infiltration of water mist to the fire source is not effective. Contribution of evaporated water vapor is liable to decline to limited portion of fire source due to its light weight and sparse density. On the other hand, the cycling water mist pattern is expected to improve the penetration force of water mist as well as the air expelling capability with the stratified spray characteristics. At this paper, we present the analyzed fire suppression capability of intermittent water spray pattern by use of FDS which is computational fire dynamics fire model. We expect this analysis can support the basic concept to the development of the prototype of water mist nozzle.
A Numerical Study on the Fire Suppression Characteristics of a Water Mist with Natural Wind in a Road Tunnel
Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Kim, Han-Su ; Lee, Chang-Eon ; Jang, Young-Nam ; Shin, Hyun-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 221~227
In this study, the fire suppression characteristics of a water mist with natural wind in a road tunnel were calculated using the FDS(Fire Dynamic Simulation) code. In addition, the cooling and the chemical kinetic effects of water vapor on fire extinction ere investigated in a counterflow non-premixed flame using a detailed chemistry. As a result, the behavior of fire plume and the spray characteristics of water mist are modified remarkably with the increasing of wind velocity. In the case which is not the external natural wind, small droplets are more efficient in fire suppression than large droplets. However, the large droplets show better results on the fire suppression than the small droplets with the increasing of wind velocity. It can be estimated that the natural wind disturb the penetration of water droplets into the flame region and decrease the effect of oxygen dilution. Finally, it can be identified that the fire into the natural wind can be suppressed with smaller amount of
by flame stretching effect in the flame region than one in an enclosure, and the chemical kinetic effects of
on fire extinction are not affected significantly the velocity of natural wind.
Prediction of the Detonation Limit of the Flammable Gases and Vapors Using the Stoichiometric Coefficient
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 228~233
Detonation limit is one of the major physical properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of the flammable substances. In this study, the lower detonation limits (LDL) and the upper detonation limits (UDL) of the flammable substances predicted with the appropriate use of the heat of combustion and the stoichiometric coefficient. The values calculated by the proposed equations were a good agreement with literature data within a few percent. From a given results, It is to be hoped that this methodology will contribute to the estimation of the detonation limits of for other flammable substances.
Ignition Suppression in Hydrogen/Air Mixtures Inhibited by Heptafluoropropane
Lee, Eui-Ju ; Oh, Chang-Bo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 234~238
Autoignition suppression of hydrogen/air premixed mixtures by
was investigated computationally. Numerical simulation was performed in isobaric and homogeneous system to evaluate the induction times. The detailed chemistry of 93 species and 817 reaction mechanism was introduced for hydrogen/air/HFP mixtures. The result of pure hydrogen/air mixture show that the resulting value of induction time depends relatively weakly on the definition used event though there are various criteria for defining the induction time such as the inflection of temperature, OH and
concentrations generally. Also, the autoignition temperature of
mixture is estimated to about 850K, which is corresponds to the literature value. In the case of HFP addition in
mixture, the results shows that there are several inflection points of radical concentration, and hence it might be to use the temperature for defining ignition delay. When HFP is added to stoichiometric
mixture, the effect of ignition delay is outstanding above 10% HFP concentration. As HFP concentration increases, both dilution and chemical effects contribute to delay the ignition. Also, the chemical effect on the ignition delay is more considerable with the higher HFP concentration.
A Study on Improvement of Structural Strength Evaluation Methods for Tank of Tank Car used for Carrying Hazard Materials
Lim, Chung-Hwan ; Goo, Byung-Choon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 239~245
In this study, we researched about characteristics of many kinds of tank cars for carrying hazard materials and performed structural strength evaluation using finite element analysis for tank of asphalt tank car to suggest the efficient analysis method that can develop accuracy regarding to characteristics of tank cars. For this, we analyzed the asphalt tank refer to JIS E 7102 (Design Method for Tanks of Tank Cars). As results, we could show that the maximum stress is applied at the area supported by saddle and the maximum stress is under a criterion suggested from JIS E 7102. Therefore we verified that this asphalt tank car had enough structural strength.
Fire Identification based on Physical Properties of Bean Oil
Jin, Bog-Kwon ; Jung, Soo-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 246~251
Oil Fire easily generates fire in the pressure of the atmosphere and below the normal temperature. Because these discharge flammable gas and ignite within the combustibles limit in conditioning to be assisted air and an invariable density. But Kitchen Fire shows very specific properties of matter and energy Qualification in most cases even though the same oil fires occured. In this Paper, around these specific character that Kitchen Fire have Properties of matter or energy Qualification studied on the genetic mechanism and counter measure scheme.
A Numerical Study on the Effects of the Wind Velocity and Height of Grassland on the flame Spread Rate of Forest Fires
Bae, Sung-Yong ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ; Lee, Sung-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 252~257
With the rapid exuberant growth of the forest, the number and size of forest fires and the costs of wildland fires have increased. The flame spread rate of forest fires is depending on the environmental variables like the wind velocity, moisture of grassland, etc. If we know the effects of the environmental variables on the fire growth, it is useful for wildland fiIre suppression. But analysis of the spread rate of wildland fire for these effects have not been established. In this study, the effects of wind velocity and height of grassland fuel have been investigated using the WFDS which is developed at NIST for prediction of the spread of wildland fires. The results showed that the relation between the height of the fuel and the spread rate of the head fires is, and the spread rates related to the wind velocity are predicted 17% less than the experimental results of Australia. When the wind velocity is over 7.5m/s, the concentration of pyrolyzed gas phase fuel is getting low due to fast movement of pyrolyzed gas, the flame spread rate becomes slow.
A Study of Calory Analysis Methods about Surface Fire Fuel
Kim, Jang-Hwan ; Kim, Eung-Sik ; Park, Hyung-Ju ; Lee, Myung-Bo ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 258~264
This study proposes the experimental methods which shows various guidelines for systematic study of surface forest fuels. The thermal characteristics of surface fire fuels such as Quercus Variabilis and Pinus Densiflora fallen leaves are measured using TGA and Oxygen Bomb Calorimeter. Both of them are common species of Korean forest. Also the combustion characteristics of surface fire fuels are analysed according to the methods which are commonly used in Pool Fire analysis. The measured parameters are gas velocity, temperature, flame height, heat release rate and mass loss rate. A system is designed to simulate the surface fire. Methods and results are shown for the application of forest fire study.
Analysis on a Location Compatibility of Forest Fire Detection Facilities according to Classification of Forest Fire Hazard Regions Types in Samcheok Area
Lee, Si-Young ; An, Sang-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 265~271
This study analyzed on the area of Samcheok, Kangwondo about forest fire alarming area and enlargement of the area. Then, visible area by unattended watching camera and watchtower for forest fire which were run by Samcheok was cross-checked with geographic information system, and it ould be whether effective on watching the area here the forest fire risk was high enough and also it could be expanded to larger forest fire. The result of study, the visible area by watching facilities only holds for 13.4% of the whole forest fire alarming area, but the forest fire can be observed even though it is occurred in small valley because of smoke and all the forest fire have been occurred in daytime. Therefore, it can be determined that watching area will be extended around 50.3% while the observation radii of watching facilities raise by 4km. However, Samcheok has much greater area of mountain area in compared to any other cities or counties, watching facilities should be installed and run additionally for extinguishing the forest fire from the beginning.
A Study on the Pressure Drops of T-Branch Pipes
Nam, Jun-Seok ; Baek, Chang-Sun ; Kwon, Soon-Kwan ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Min, Kyung-Tak ; Kim, Byoung-Gon ; Lee, Sung-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 272~277
This study is performed for propose that exactly equivalent length of TBP in the applied at water-based fire protection system. For predict the measuring position of equivalent length, we determined the measuring position using the FVM about pressure drop of TBP. For the reckon of the exact about measured value we compared with the result of FVM and we knew the similar value each other. Using the results we proposed the friction loss measuring position that inlet of main dirction is 20 times of appellation diameter in main pipe, outlet of main dirction is 10 times of appellation diameter in main pipe and outlet of branched direction is 20 times of appellation diameter.
Design of Fire Evacuation Guidance System using USN Mesh Routing in High-Rise Buildings
Choi, Yeon-Yi ; Joe, In-Whee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 278~286
When big fire in high rise building and multiplex happens, the needs for high prevention system of disaster are being increased for getting the real-time scene state, quick lifesaver, and safe life security. In this paper the proposed evacuation guidance algorithm which analyzed the feature and danger of fire in high rise buildings, gave simplicity and scalability. Our research shows as fire and disaster occur in high rise buildings we construct sensor networks and sense realtime location information on fire alive people, and the situation information for fire instructed quick and safe escaping route by using mesh routing algorithm scheme relative to exit sign.
Safety Assessment of the Evacuation at School Building by Escape Training and Simulation
Jeong, Mu-Heon ; Lee, Beong-Gon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 287~292
In this study, the evacuation training were performed in a high school building in Cheong-Ju and compared with the simulation program (Simulex). Also numerical analysis of room fire in school building was conducted by fire model (FDS, CFAST) and evaluated the available safe egress time for the safety assessment. As a result, the 8% of total egress persons were failed to escape at evacuation training and 40% of total egress persons were failed to escape at Simutex simulation. Simutex program was not reflected the real escape conditions, such as evacuation route, refuge place, etc.
A Survey on Prehospital Emergency Medical Service for the Improvement of Acute Coronary Syndrome Assessments - Focus on the Jecheon.Danyans Area -
Roh, Sang-Gyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 293~299
From January, 2004 to July, 2007, 97 patients were diagnosed with Acute coronary syndrome(ACS) in Emergency Medical Center in Jecheon City in Korea. Among 97 patients, the prehospital assessment rates were as follows ; blood pressure check(27.80%, pulse rate check(33.0%), respiration check(23.7%). In hospital emergency care, oxygen supply was 52.6%, absolute bed rest was 12.4%, electrocardiogram(EKG) check was 4.1%, and nitroglycerin and intravenous fluid therapy was 0%. Therefore, ACS patients have not received sufficient prehospital cares till now. In order to improve the proficiency of the first aid emergency medical technicians(EMTs), it is necessary to provide the continuing On-the-job training(OJT) programs for prehospital emergency care.
Improvement the Flame Retardancy of Epoxy Resin by the Addition of Montmorillonite
Song, Young-Ho ; Chung, Kook-Sam ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 22, issue 3, 2008, Pages 300~304
The flame retardancy was evaluated to present as the fundamental data to decrease the fire hazard of polymers and life losses according to the addition of clay. The combustion characteristics were examined to increase flame retardancy and to decrease smoke yield of epoxy by the addition of clay such as montmorillonite in this study. For this study, the experiments of flame retardancy were conducted the measurement of the limiting oxygen index (LOI), char yield, and smoke density. As MMT concentration increased, LOI and char yield increased. This result showed that the flame retardancy of epoxy/MMT composite was improved. On the contrary, smoke density increased.