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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Spalling Reduction Effect of PP Fibers and Silica Fume on High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns
Yoo, Suk-Hyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 1~6
High Strength Concrete has a disadvantage of the brittle failure under fire due to the spalling. It is reported that spalling is caused by the vapor pressure under fire and polypropylene (PP) fiber has an important role in protecting from spalling. The silica fume which is essentially mixed in high strength concrete decrease the permeability of concrete, and this will increase the degree of spalling. The fire resistance characteristics of high-strength reinforced concrete columns with various contents of PP fiber and silica fume were investigated in this study. In results, the ratio of unstressed residual strength of columns increases as the content of PP fiber increases from 0% to 0.2% and the ratio decreases as the content of silica fume increases from 7% to 21%.
Spalling Reduction Method of High Strength Reinforced Concrete Columns Using Fibers
Yoo, Suk-Hyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 7~12
As the concrete strength increases the degree of damage caused by the spalling becomes more serious because of the permeability. It is reported that the polypropylene (PP) fiber has an important role in protecting concrete from spalling. However, the excessive usage of PP fiber would not useful in spalling control and would decrease the workability of ultra high strength concrete. The high-temperature behaviors of high-strength reinforced concrete columns with various dosage of PP fibers and three types of fire endurance fibers were observed this study. In results, the ratio of unstressed residual strength of columns, in case of concrete strength 60MPa, increases as the dosage of PP fiber increases from 0% to 0.2%, however, the effect of fiber dosage on residual strength of column barely changes above 0.2% and in case of concrete strength 120MPa, PVA fiber is the most suitable fire endurance fiber in accounting fire endurance performance and workability
Characteristics of Smoke Propagation in Railway Tunnels with Rescue Station
Jang, Won-Cheol ; Kim, Dong-Woon ; Lee, Seong-Hyuk ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 13~18
The main objective of the present study is to investigate smoke propagation in railway tunnels with rescue stations. In particular, based on measurement of HRR (heat release rate) for pool fires formed at different locations, the influence of fire source location on smoke behavior is examined. The fuel is n-heptane and pool fires are generated with a square length 4cm. With the use of MVHS (Modified Volumetric Heat Source) model for fire source, extensive numerical simulations are performed by using the commercial code FLUENT (Ver.6.3) Predicted smoke temperatures and smoke propagation are discussed. From numerical predictions, it is found that ventilation systems may be necessary in the railway tunnels because the smoke moves along the tunnel, and consequently it enters the non-accident tunnel. It is also confirmed that the cross-passage and fire protection wall systems contribute to control the smoke.
Combustion Property of Biodiesel Fuel
Song, Young-Ho ; Shin, Baeg-Woo ; Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Chung, Kook-Sam ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 19~24
As the environmental pollution by the drastic increase of vehicles becomes one of the social major concerns, the method of reducing the harmful exhaust emission is being the subject of interest. Utilization of waste edible oil as a raw material for biodiesel production is helpful not only for the stable supply of raw materials but also costing down the biodiesel price. This study was conducted to examine the combustion and thermal characteristics with mixing ratio of biodiesel fuel. Flash points, fire points and autoignition temperature (AIT) were measured by using Tag closed cup, Cleveland open cup flash point tester and AIT apparatus. As the result, flash points, fire points and AIT increased with percentage of more contained biodiesel.
A Study on Fire Behavior of Combustibles in a Residential Building
Lee, Sung-Ryong ; Youk, Keun-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 25~31
With rapid growths of economy and technology, structures and forms of buildings have been diversified and complicated. Buildings also have become higher and larger than ever before. As a result, more people use a building and more combustibles exist in the building. Without understanding of combustion characteristics and the establishment of a fire safety plan in case of a residential fire, it is expected great loss of lives and properties. In this study, experiments were carried out to promote an understanding of the combustion characteristics of combustibles in the building. Sofa and bed were used as combustibles in the experiment. Heat release rate of the sofa was about 1.9MW. Heat release rate of the bed was approximately 650kW.
Comparative Analysis of Forest Fire Danger Rating on Forest Characteristics of Thinning Area and Non-thinning Area on Forest Fire Burnt Area
Lee, Si-Young ; Lee, Myung-Woog ; Yeom, Chan-Ho ; Kwon, Chun-Geun ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 32~39
In this study, 18 plots were selected for particular investigation on Gangneung area and Samcheok area and Uljin area, where forest fire was occurred after thinning in 2007. After selection, a relationship between a damage of forest fire and thinning were compared and analyzed. Many factor such as a damaged species, a thinning or non-thinning, a direction of forest fire head, DBH, a height of tree, a mortality of tree, a leeward scorching ratio, a crown damage ratio, a forest tree standing crop density, a crown base height, a leaving of thinning slash, a location of plot (GPS), elevation, an aspect of slope, an angle of slope, and a topography were measured. Therefore, we analyzed a relationship with forest fire. In the result of this analysis, it was founded that the leeward scorching ratio was 24.7% on thinning area whereas 60.2% on non-thinning area. Subsequently, leeward scorching ratio on thinning area was increased by about 35.5% more than on non-thinning area. In the result of analysis about tree species, a forest of pine tree was more damaged than forest of oak tree. The mortality of tree was increased by about 41.4% on non-thinning area. When stands were close to thinning slashes, these were more damaged by 10
20% than other stands for increasing of amount of a combustion material. Especially, as potential of re-ignition increased for more cumulated thinning slash, it will be more important to require a method for a periodical removing or practical utilization of slash.
A Fire Test Measuring the Heat Release Rate of Railway Car Interior Materials Satisfying the Korean Safety Guideline
Park, Won-Hee ; Lee, Duck-Hee ; Jung, Woo-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 40~49
A large-scale fire test was conducted for interior materials from a vehicle installed within a fire test room (ISO 9705). The interior materials are satisfying the Korean guideline for the safety of rail vehicles, where the guideline has taken effect since December 2004 in Korea. The output of ignition source (gas burner) was increased in several controlled steps. The objectives of this test are to assess the fire performance in terms of ignition and flame spread on interior lining materials and to provide data on an enclosure fires involving train interior materials that grow to flashover. These data will be used to develop and calibrate models for fire growth on the interiors of the railway vehicle.
Development of Road-Map on Evaluation of Fire Resistance Performance
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 50~58
Fire can cause severe damages to human lives, properties, and environment resources regardless to where the fire will be happened and the evaluation methods for fire impact against fire objects such as human, properties are different among nations around the world. ISO TC 92 (Fire safety) has 4 sub committees to develop international standard to harmonize each nation standards and evaluate fire impact and the experts from all around the world participate in preparing international standards on fire. The main purpose of this study is to suggest a new road-map for domestic fire resistant standard of building structures. To make a new road-map two activities of the ISO's major committees and the countermeasures of fire safety from our standards were investigated.
Study on Fire Performance of Stud Connectors
Kim, Sung-Bae ; Han, Sang-Hoon ; Choi, Seng-Kwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 59~66
This research aims to conduct a pilot study for the in-fire performance of headed studs, commonly used in composite structures over the world. The robustness of the shear studs in fire appears to be a key element to govern the composite behaviour after a sudden local instability developed in structures such as trusses and cellular beams. In order to experimentally evaluate the residual strength of studs in fire, the standard push-out test was modified for a half of the original set-up to be equipped with a furnace. The adjustments allow the steel section to have a 3-sided exposure against fire. Under the Standard ISO fire, the modified push-out tests under loading were conducted to identify the failure mechanism of the studs in relation to temperature developments.
A Study on the Fire Design Business Development Direction
Hong, Sung-Woo ; Lee, Young-Jae ; Park, Hung-Joo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 67~72
For the fire-fighting industry to advance, it is necessary to conduct research on which parts of the fire-fighting law should be changed from the system level, and to study the opinions of the fire-fighters whoa re working in the fire-fighting industry today, and to identify what needs to be changed. Moreover, it is necessary to become aware on the preventive measures to take to avoid fire so that the citizens can lead stable life. Design business among the fire-fighting facility business, it is the fire-fighting facility business that serves as the most basic when constructing building structure. This is an important legal matter that follows the fire-fighting business, fire-fighting audit business and even the maintenance and management business. This research sought to help the fire-fighting industry to contribute to the life of the general public and to increase welfare by identifying the problems pertaining to the fire-fighting facility design business among the fire-fighting industry so that the industry can become the fire-fighting industry that the citizens are interested in. Moreover, direction for advancement is proposed. As for the improvement measures for the fire-fighting policy pertaining to the fire-fighting facility design business, it is divided into the machinery and electricity fields in terms of the legal system pertaining to the general fire-fighting facility design business. Likewise, specialty in design is deficient. Thus, it should be integrated in a systematic level to contribute to the safety of the general public.
Comparison of Combustion Properties of the Pinus rigida, Castanea sativa, and Zelkova serrata
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 73~78
This paper investigated the combustion properties of the Pinus rigida, Castanea sativa, and Zelkova serrata which are grown in Korea using the cone calorimeter. The heat release rate and smoke production for these species were measured. With respect to an increase of retardant properties attributed to char formation, Zelkova serrata showed good properties compared with that of Pinus rigida and Castanea sativa. The Castanea sativa has high
Yield and high
Yield compared with that of Pinus rigida and Zelkova serrata.
The Study on the Factors Affecting the Effectiveness of Disaster Management in Governance - Focused Recognition of Fire Officials' -
Chae, Jin ; Woo, Seong-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 79~90
Till now disaster management is limited to be performed usually by the government. However, government has its limits to carry out disaster management effectively. Thus, diverse organizations and groups such as related agencies, citizens, NGOs, companies, are required to be formed as a multi-organizational cooperation system that is governance of disaster management. This research deals with concepts of disaster management, governance. Therefore, this study presents that effective disaster management plans such as citizens' support and cooperation with related agencies, forming professionalism and active cooperation with disaster management between volunteering and volunteer fire department and well-organizing NGO network, by minutely understanding the concepts of disaster management, governance and others and also positively analyzing influence factors of efficiency of disaster management.
Research of the Fire to Minimization Damage Plan on High-rise Buildings
Lee, Jung-Il ; Lee, Geun-Tae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 91~97
When the fire occur in a special place as High-rise building, find the solution from minimize the potential risk factors that caused to develop the human and materials damage by analysis. Through preventive activities are suppression of the fire occurrence or prevent the fire and extinguish the fire early. However, introduction of scientific suppression program could predict in advance the progress of the fire, or to block the path by using Intel Regent or Fire grid.
A Study on the Response Characteristics of the Residential Smoke Detector Depending on Controlled Fire Tests
SaKong, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Shi-Kuk ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Jung, Jong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 98~103
In this paper, in order to analyze the response characteristics of the smoke detectors which is suitable with the residential fire detector, the paper fire and flammable liquid fire experiment came to be accomplished according to UL Standard for safety for smoke detector for fire alarm signaling systems, UL 268. Also Photoelectric smoke detector, the Analog smoke detector and the single station alarm device came to be used with the specimen and the response characteristics of the smoke detectors which follows in these two types(paper, flammable liquid) test fire came to be analyzed. As a result, according to test fire there was some difference to response characteristics of the smoke detectors.
A Full-scale Fire Test of an Apartment House
Kim, Myung-Bae ; Han, Yong-Shik ; Choi, Byung-Il ; Do, Kyu-Hyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 104~111
To research about the fire spread in Korean apartment house, a full-scale fire test in a four-story apartment was executed. The fire started at the third floor, and originated from overheated cooking oil in the kitchen. The apartment included all combustibles in general house. Through measuring temperature, measuring the concentration of oxygen and observing, we investigated the fire spread inside the apartment house. As a result, we got the data of the time needed for the initiation of fire, the time for fire to spread into each area in the house, and the time required until flash-over was seen. Also we grasped the understanding of the fire spread to the upper floor.
The Study on the Comparison of Building Use Classification between Building Act and Installation.Maintenance & Safety Management of Fire-Fighting System Act
Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 112~119
Building use classification is classified the building types according to the similar structure, the goal of the use, and its shape. The important reason of building use classification is that building restrictions are applied according to building use classifications. But there are a lot of confusion because the building use classification is regulated not only by the Building Act but also by the several individual Act. Particularly in the large-scaled, high-raised and complex building construction, it is very important to remain the consistency of the building use classification between the Building Act and the Fire-Fighting System Act for safety of occupants. So the purpose of this study is to suggests the improve direction of the building use classifications through the comparative analysis of the Building Act and the Fire-Fighting System Act.
Investigation of an Apartment Fire - Site Surveys and Burn Tests for Estimation of the Progress on Initial Fire Spread -
Nam, Dong-Gun ; Hasemi, Yuji ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 120~129
Identification of the exact cause of a building fire is generally difficult, because the source and initially ignited objects are often severely damaged or even lost during the early stages of the fire. We made an experimental attempt to reasonably estimate the burning during the very early stages of a fire, and identify its source and causes. The case we studied was an apartment fire, which occurred in Tokyo, in July 2002. The fire was extinguished just after flashover, and the on-site investigations suggested the fire started from the TV and TV stand, which had been damaged so severely that it was difficult to conclude that the TV was the ultimate cause of the fire, simply from the on-site investigation. We conducted a series of burn tests using a TV and other products identical to those actually used in the apartment. Tests were set-up and procedures were carefully studied to recreate the conditions of the articles that remained, and of the room itself. The tests demonstrated that the conditions in the apartment could be recreated only when the fire started inside the TV and came into close contact with dresser.
On the Reliability of the Computational Fire Model Based on the Yield Rate Concept of Combustion Gases
Kim, Sung-Chan ; Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Lee, Seong-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 130~136
The present study has been performed to evaluate the reliability of the fire field model (FDS version 5.2) with yield rate concept of combustion products. The CO and smoke density predicted by FDS model was directly compared with measurement in a reduced scale ISO-9705 room. The GER (global equivalence ratio) concept was used to characterize the CO and smoke density with ventilation condition in the fire compartment. The FDS model tends to under-predict CO concentration and smoke density than those of measurement for the under-ventilated conditions. Also, the discrepancy between predicted and measured result increases as GER increases. In order to improve the reliability of the fire model for performance evaluation of fire safety, the fire model is necessary to be validated in various fire cases as well as develop detailed physical model.
A Study on the Problem of Tester for the Field Inspection of the Photoelectric Smoke Detector
Kim, Shi-Kuk ; Yuk, Hyun-Dai ; Yang, Seung-Hyun ; Jee, Seung-Wook ; Lee, Chun-Ha ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 137~144
This paper was studied on the problem of field inspection tester of the photoelectric type smoke detector. The experiment objects were chosen 3 type's testers such as A type (incense), B type (dimethylpolysiloxane), C type (mixtures of hydrocarbon) which were used for performance checking of the photoelectric type smoke detector for the fire protection. The experimental methods were used reliability verification experiment, performance verification experiment and performance change of fire detector by smoke component. It was confirmed through the experiment that the testers had problems of smoke concentration condition and wind velocity condition and smoke component. Consequently, this paper verified that the field inspection testers of the photoelectric type smoke detector had problems in the inspection of fire protection.
Design for Pressurizing System about Vestibule by Stack Effect & Engineering Analysis - Focused on Case Study -
Kim, Yong-Kwang ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 145~153
We are generally applicate smoke control only vestibule about special escape staircase, it is one of some smoke control model of NFSC 501A. But there are some point at issue in this system. The smoke control system on supervision field of writer is smoke control only vestibule same as the other resemble field. Writer studied in the concrete to find a solution at this issue, and derived a conclusion the most reasonable system on the field is "same time smoke control for staircase and vestibule" by the engineering analysis considering stack effect.
The Comparison Analysis of Recognition about Disaster Management Organization of Seoul between Fire Fighters and Regular Officers
Song, Yun-Suk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 154~164
The administration of Korean local governments in charge of natural disaster management and manmade disaster management has been completely or partially integrated to the fire fighting headquarters since 1990's. Therefore the relationship between the fire fighters and the regular officers has been more important. So in this study, I made a questionnaire about management ability, rescue activities, disaster, business efficiency of the disaster management organization. And then I did a question research to the comparison analysis of recognition between fire fighter and regular officers of Seoul disaster management organization. As a result of the comparative analysis of understanding, there is a meaningful difference among facilities of management ability, man-made disaster of disaster, business cooperation and business connection of business efficiency. Through the comparison analysis of recognition, I tried to present the improvement of Seoul disaster management organization
A Study on Safety Assessment of the Evacuation at the Large-scale Amusement Facilities
Park, Bong-Rae ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 4, 2009, Pages 165~173
As the Performance Based Fire Protection Design is legislated, studies on a fire and evacuation are actively in progress. The Performance Based Fire Protection Design should be developed toward enlarging the Life safety. In addition, the Performance Based Fire Protection Design shall not merely review the aspects of fire fighting but it shall also include regulations pertaining to evacuation stipulated in laws and regulations for buildings. This study performed an evacuation time prediction based on OO Night Club, one of the multiplex use facilities located in Gwang-ju Metropolitan City in order to suggest as a referential data for the Performance Based Fire Protection Design implementation. To do this, I investigated domestic and foreign regulations and research papers related to evacuation and went to visit the actual site and collected materials. The collected data was then used as ones to input in Simulex, an evacuation program to measure evacuation time. The collected data was then used as data to input in Simulex, an evacuation program to measure evacuation time. Through this particular research and results, the study was able to suggest a few concerning areas.