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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 23, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of the Burning Properties of Various Carpet Samples by using the Cone Calorimeter and Gas Toxicity Test
Lee, Bong-Woo ; Kwon, Seong-Pil ; Lee, Jang-Won ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 1~9
In this study, the burning behaviours of five different kinds of carpet samples covered with nylon, PP (polypropylene), PTT (poly(trimethylene terephthalate)), wool fabric and NW (nylon and wool) were evaluated by using the cone calorimeter having a radiant flux of 50kW/
. And the combustion gas toxicity was evaluated according to KS F 2271 test method. As a result of the cone calorimeter test (KS F ISO 5660-1), nylon carpet samples were ignited most easily. In ignition ability or initial flammability, NW carpet samples showed the highest value. In heat release rate (HRR), fire intensity, PP carpet samples were larger than any other samples. Nylon carpet samples were the highest smoke production rate, while N/W carpet samples the lowest. The following were in mass loss rates: NW > wool > nylon > PP > PTT. CO (carbon monoxide) was one of the most toxic gases released from the combustion. PTT carpet samples gave rise to the highest CO concentration, while NW carpet samples the lowest. In addition, PP carpet samples caused the highest
(carbon dioxide) concentration, while NW carpet samples the lowest. Toxicity of the gas produced from carpet samples was determined by the mouse stop motion, and it resulted in the fact that the combustion gas of PTT carpet samples was more toxic than that of any other samples.
Study on Flame Height Equation for the Pinus densiflora Surface Fuel Bed
Kim, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 10~15
Flame height calculation in a forest fire is a crucial part of predicting horizontal or vertical flame spread flared by radiation heat transfer. Flame height, which is one of the flame characteristics, can be estimated by the average height of luminous flame. This research relied on flame height observation test on P. densiflora surface fuel bed, which are surface combustibles in a forest, and calorimeter to measure Heat Release Rate, thus produced
, flame height calculation equation for surface fuel. The research did not take into consideration such conditions as external velocity, slope and other variables that could affect flame height. According to comparison among experiment results, calculation results of the above formula and those of existing Heskestad formula (1998), it was found that standard error in fallen pine needles between experimental results and calculation results of the above formula amounts to 0.08, whereas standard error in same plant between experimental results and calculation results of existing Heskestad formula amounts to 0.23.
Basic Study on the Performance of a Pressure-difference Control Damper Affected by Flow Disturbance in a Wind Tunnel
Yun, Yung-Min ; Lee, Min-Jung ; Kim, Nam-Il ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 16~23
The performance characteristics of a smoke damper, which aims to suppress the penetration of smoke to a safe area, have been tested under the regulation of the FIS 001. However, the improvement of the test methods and the regulation has consecutively been requested. From a view-point of fluid mechanical theory, a pressure control damper, that is installed at the end of the flow control system, is important and it dominates flow characteristics in all designed flow systems. In this study, the weak points of the regulation of the FIS 001 concerned with the pressure control damper was visited and the some important characteristics of the damper was examined. Based on these results, it was confirmed that the effects of flow disturbance in the air supplying duct on the performance of the damper are not significant. This results gives some information for the modification of the experimental regulation concerned to the pressure control damper.
A Study on the Revitalization Ubiquitous Information Technology for the Disaster Management
Chae, Jin ; Song, Yong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 24~31
The Environment of disaster has more complicated, diversified and unpredicted sides, which causes extensive damage to humankind. Above all, presently the climatic change causes worldwide disaster of nature like cataclysm, intense heat, drought, earthquake and hard winter. After 9.11, most of countries continuously try to protect their own compatriots' life and property which forms the social safety net as well. This research investigates the current system used by the firerenation which is the national disaster response agency.ict also suggests the unation whiih is the nasystem unationdisaster mthe nasys accundihg to tionld el of disaster like the constructe naof DB, disaster cycld repunt, analysis of danger, facilities ih is ation system, disaster media system, location search system, disaster damage collection system.
A Study on the Improvement Direction of the Building Escape Regulation Considering Inconvenient Movers
Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 32~38
Owing to increase of the large-scaled, high-raised and complexed building construction, the escape design of the building became very important issue to insure the safety of occupant. Specially, it is demanded to have building escape regulation considering for inconvenient movers such as disables elders pregnant women. However, building regulations for inconvenient movers are divided into "Regulation of Escape and Fire-prevention of Building" and "Act on the Promotion and Guarantee of Access for the Disabled, the Aged and Pregnant Women to Facilities and Information". But, for the escape security of inconvenient movers, the connection of each regulation are necessary. So this study suggested the improvement direction of the building escape regulation considering inconvenient movers through the compared analysis on the "Regulation of Escape and Fire-prevention of Building" and "Act on the Promotion and Guarantee of Access for the Disabled, the Aged and Pregnant Women to Facilities and Information".
A Study on the Fire Characteristics of Sandwich Panels by ISO 9705 - Full-scale Room Test
Kweon, Oh-Sang ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Lee, Jeong-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 39~45
This paper studied on the fire characteristics of sandwich panels by ISO 9705 test (Full-scale room test). A comprehensive fire characteristics of sandwich panel was analyzed by applying the test result to the classification standard according to EN 13501-1 and Eurefic Research Program. Consequently, glass wool foam sandwich panel proved to be A class, incombustible - EPS Foam and incombustible - PUR Foam sandwich panels was class B. Also, EPS foam and PUR foam sandwich panels was class C because of flashover.
Study about Management Method of Volunteers for Disaster Management
Jo, Sung-Wan ; Yoon, Myong-O ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 46~56
Disaster Management should be re-established and developed based on voluntary participations of individuals and groups, not only as a concern of the government. This paper proposes about improvement methods of managing volunteers for disaster management as follows: First, a necessity for publicity and recruitment focused on selfish motive to emphasize individual's development, selfrealization, worth and economic interesting relationship in a process of recruitment and selection, Second, a construction of process to commonly develop education program to volunteers for disaster management, Third, an activity area of volunteers for disaster management is enlarged to the intrinsic task of disaster management, Forth, an evaluation of quality for volunteer activity and compensation.
Fire Suppression Tests for a Train Using Water Mist Systems
Choi, Byung-Il ; Han, Yong-Shik ; Do, Kyu-Hyung ; Kim, Myung-Bae ; Lee, Dong-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 57~65
Fire suppression tests are carried out for a train car using water mist systems. Three kinds of fire scenario applied to the real-scale train car are a surface fire representing car combustibles, a oil pool fire pretending an oil spill and a blocked fire for evaluation of space-cooling capacity. Five fixedpressure water mist systems and one self-contained water mist system with nitrogen gas are used for fire suppression experiments. Almost water mist systems can extinguish effectively train car fires, and fire-control capability of the system is seen due to the space cooling.
An Experimental Study on the Thermal Property of Concrete under the Load Ratio Condition in Fire
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Jung, Jae-Young ; Kwan, Ki-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 66~74
When a fire occurs, the concrete structure's strength decreases by the increasing temperature under the fire in certain condition of constant load. And, the ratio of the axial force is changed by such decreased strength so that the structure is deformed. In this research, considering such case, we have conducted an actual fire test for the concrete lining with constant loading condition and various fire conditions. The specimen adopts the shape condition for small practical specimen defined by the EFNARC and we used 24MPa, 40MPa and 50MPa to analyze the thermal properties by the strength. The ratio of loading is imposed by a certain loading condition based on 20% and 40% of the sectional stress in concrete and MHC Fire is selected to realize the thermal impact of the concrete by rapid increasing temperature. As the result of the experiment, in the same ratio of loading, the 50MPa specimen shows more cracks and spalling as time goes on. The area damaged by the fire, according to the functional criteria of the concrete lining under the fire in ITA, does not satisfy with the standard in lack of 50mm depth from the heating surface at total 200mm lining.
A Study on the Implementation of Zigbee Sensor Node for Building USN Using only Transmission of Fire Sensing Data
Cheon, Dong-Jin ; Jung, Do-Young ; Kwak, Dong-Kurl ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 75~81
In this paper, USN of wireless communication with easy to install and effectiveness with variety information gathering has been proposed as a alternative of wired-based line for transmission of fire sensing data. But, The sensor node using USN should be considered for wireless transmission range and reliability of information. In this study, the zigbee protocol sensor node was implemented and then tested transmission range of sensor node as 10m interval using voltage information of DC 3V & 5V. Here, maximum transmission distance was confirmed 90m inside-outside. When used mesh routing relay node, distance was not limited. In USN network building, when fire sensing data transmitted, the sensing data same between direct sensing data from sensor and collecting data at USN. Therefore, was confirmed reliability for transmission range and information of proposed zigbee sensor node.
The Performance Evaluation of Natural Smoke Ventilators Due to Stack Effect and Wind Velocities in High-rise Buildings
Lim, Chae-Hyun ; Kim, Bum-Gyu ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 82~90
Natural smoke ventilator is one of domestic prescriptive methods to be used to exhaust smoke in case of fire in a high-rise buildings. The goal of this study is to evaluate the stack effect and the smoke exhaust performance in high-rise buildings with the opening of natural smoke ventilators using computer modeling technology, thus to estimate its effectiveness as a tool of smoke exhaust. For this purpose, the pressure differential in a domestic high-rise building with natural smoke ventilators was experimentally measured to analyze the stack effect with the closure or the opening of natural smoke ventilators and to calculate compensated air leakage of the building. Computer modeling based on experimentally measured data was carried out to estimate effectiveness of natural smoke ventilators in high-rise buildings using CONTAMW network program.
Mass Flow Rates and Performance of Natural Smoke Ventilators in High-rise Buildings
Lim, Chae-Hyun ; Kim, Bum-Gyu ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 91~97
The mass flow rates and performance of natural smoke ventilators in high-rise buildings with 40, 80, 120 stories were evaluated using CONTAMW tool. The results showed that only limited part of smoke ventilators can have positive exhaust flow in high-rise buildings due to stack effect and wind velocities. In the higher story buildings larger stack effect can overcome outside strong wind effect to give more ventilation performance. The air tightness of the building have strong effect on the exhaust performance of the ventilators to give lower performance with loose air tightness of the exterior walls.
A Study on the Discrimination of Fire Pattern by the Phenomenological Observation (Focused on the Fire Cases)
Choi, Don-Mook ; Choi, Sung-Bok ; Choi, Jae-Soung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 98~110
The burned patterns of fire are changed very diversely according to the direction of wind, conditions of combustibles, shape of buildings and so on in the fire scenes. And careful attentions are required on the determining of ignition point and fire causes. In this study, we examined that the burned pattern of fuel controlled fires and ventilation controled fires that impose a heavy burden on fire investigators, carbonized marks of floor, formed by flammable liquids, and combustion marks of falling firing materials through the fire cases. We suggest a proper fire investigation method.
Jet Entrainment Effect in Buoyant Jet and Iso-Thermal Fire Modeling
Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 111~115
Acetone LIF and Rayleigh scattering measurements were performed to identify the entrainment of ambient air in the buoyant jet qualitatively. The air entrainment near nozzle exit was enhanced with increasing both an axial distance and Reynolds number. The results supported that the air entrainment had to be considered in isothermal model for the development of its accuracy. Also, this paper provided an isothermal model based on the ideal plume, of which radiative heat loss fraction was assumed to 0.35 and the entainment of isothermal jet was considered. This simple model could be used in compartment or semi-enclosure fires such as tunnel, and it is more reliable because of introducing entrainment effect in isothermal jet.
A Study on the Development Lightweight Aggregate using Clink Ash for Reduction in Freezing Ground
Moon, Jong-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 116~125
This study is progressed function ratio, it's trued taste by an experiment to present data for human work light weight aggregate development that use clink ash progressed liquid limit, small success limit, wear loss in quantity, sand equivalent, sieve cutting examination. 80 : 20's match of function rain examination is 1.4, and that use rubble Goljae as ckink ash lightweight aggregate's capacity ratio increases by 1.0 increase of function rain many. Also, examination multiplied delicate flavor gradually according to increase of the mixing rate, and absorption coefficient increased. This is judged by phenomenon that appear by special quality upper clink ash of polystyrene bid and porosity's increase between lightweight aggregate. It is case that use aggregate of wear loss in quantity is 13.5 in sand equivalent and a wear loss in quantity experiment and although case that mix 20% increases by 14.4, this phenomenon by weak tissue of lightweight aggergate be judge. When it's as a these experiment, the statue prevention floor of a street improvement specifications is prescribing so that satisfy by sand equivalent 20, CBR 10. This is showed result that this satisfies in quality standard all in match experiment ago that see.
A Study on Fire Resistance and Spalling of HPC Beam with Fiber-Cocktail in ISO Fire under Loading Condition
Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 126~134
In an attempt to control the spalling in high strength concrete, spalling reducer was mixed to identify the effect and thermal characteristics of concrete beam member at high temperature. The member was manufactured in such as way of adding 40~60MPa of high strength concrete into spalling reducer, and then fire resistance performance were monitored under the ISO standard fire load condition in accordance with KS F 2257. As a result of test, fore rate performance of 40MPa beam without spalling reducer was 180minutes, 50MPa was 174minutes and 60MPa was 152minutes, indicating that 50MPa and 60MPa beam appeared 6~28minutes short to become a 3-hour rate. However, 50 and 60MPa beam mixed with spalling reducer appeared to have satisfied the requirements for 180minutes. A spalling was occurred in surface of 50 and 60MPa beam mixed without spalling reducer, while no spalling or surface failure was occurred with 50 and 60MPa beam mixed with spalling reducer. Thus polypropylene fiber mixed with the concrete proved to be effective, but viewing that the surface of 60MPa was peeled off partially, the steel fiber mixed appeared not to be effective for the beam more than 60MPa.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Resistance of Composite Truss Beam
Park, Won-Sup ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 135~141
The composite truss has been widely used for tall buildings and long-span structures in North America. As compared with other similar structures, it has merits such as reduction of construction period, low span/depth ratio, low dead weight and so on. It has the most effective trait for structures with long span of 12~18m. After collapse of WTC, the fire resistance behaviors of structures have been actively conducted under various fire conditions in several country. This study showed that the surface temperature of steel member in the composit truss beam was reached to
under the fire condition of a short time. Under the same condition, the temperature in concrete was within
. The composit truss beam with 20mm bracing was collapsed by rapid deflection after about 3minutes. However, the beams with 25mm, 35mm, and 45mm bracing were not collapsed, even though those were reached to deflection standard of L/20 within 15minutes.
The Study on the Improvement Plan by Investigation Case of the Fire Crimes
Chae, Jin ; Woo, Seong-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 23, issue 6, 2009, Pages 142~151
Nowadays contents of crimes are complicated and diversified because of differentiation and specialization of society. For this reason, special judicial police officer system that each special field officers investigate crimes related to their special fields is introduced to produce high quality private law service. Nevertheless, special judicial police officers who deal with fire crimes show many problems because they have less experiences and ability about investigation than general judicial police officers. Then, purpose of this study is deduction problems by analyzing cases of fire crimes and suggesting improvements which are ways to improve special judcial police officers's who investigate fire crimes efficiencies and professionalisms. Problems about investigation of fire crimes are absence of professional investigation agency, a shortage of professional workforce, absence of professional investigation officers education system. Improvements are creation professional investigation agency, securing experts, developing professional investigation officers education system, construction professional techniques manage system, introduction fire crime cases manage system.