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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
The Study for Fire Prevention of Main Wooden Cultural Properties of Korea
Back, Min-Ho ; Lee, Ji-Hyang ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 1~8
This study is searched in the on actual condition and analysis about the fire fighting measure of 123 main wooden cultural properties designated by the Cultural Heritage Administration. First, the management of wooden cultural properties and the present condition of fire occurrence are arranged. Second, The field research and the information research of related government agencies are done from August. 2008 to October. 2008 about 123 main wooden cultural properties: Cultural properties designation classification, location classification, building area, number of possession cultural properties, present condition of fire fighting, a fire engine drive direction for fire suppression, number of self-defense fire brigade, fire administrator nomination, and the distance and time from a fire station are arranged in this study. Third, the inside and outside present conditions are classified and analyzed by average index for the fire occurrence risk of 123 main wooden cultural properties. And the basic data is arranged for the fire fighting measure of main wooden cultural properties.
A Study on the Evaluation of Evacuation Safety Function of an Elderly Care Hospital
Kim, Jong-Bum ; Kim, Ja-Ok ; Back, Eun-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 9~19
Recently, Korea is constantly increasing its elderly care hospitals, and requires establishment of general evacuation plan considering old people's behavioral characteristics and physical states in emergency situations such as fire, and etc. In addition, because most of the facility users are patients under serious dementia and stroke, they feel difficulty evacuating by themselves, with differing evacuation time according to each walking status (bed, wheel chair, and various supplementary instruments), which is why it makes it difficult to have them all evacuate. This paper, in order to suggest data reference for designing on the basis of functionality, used various collected data utilizing Simulex to measure evacuation time through the model of elderly care hospital, a medical facility. During the study, several problems were found.
A Study of Identification Test Method for Fire Resistive Paint in Near-Infrared Spectroscopy
Cho, Nam-Wook ; Jeon, Soo-Min ; Kang, Sung-Hun ; In, Ki-Ho ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 20~24
When the fire occurred in building, the fire-resistance-structure has to be constructed to prevent collapse of building and to have a time for evacuation of peoples. because of the features of the fireresistance test is similar with real scale, there is no way to confirm quality of fire-resistive-structure in building construction site. Therefore the purpose of this study, a study by spectroscopic analysis using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR), is to suggest of useful and scientific testing-methods in building construction site by identification-analysis-study for fire resistive paint.
A Study on Firefighter and Police Officer's Perception about the Arson Cause Investigation
Ko, Gi-Bong ; Lee, Si-Young ; Chae, Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 25~32
This research derived the perception with, and their remedies, in our country's fire cause investigation system by conducting survey on the working-level officials responsible for fire cause investigation in the fire stations and police stations. The results of the survey showed the necessity of establishing departments exclusively responsible for fire statistics management, broad area fire cause investigation task force, fire appraisal organizations besides National Institute of Scientific Investigation, standards for retaining fire investigation equipment, ways of improving technical education system, and improving the system for those who are specialized in arson (fire) cause investigation.
The Study of Outflow Rate of Stair and Turnstile in Subway Station - Comparison between Measurement and Simulation
Kim, Eung-Sik ; Cho, Ju-Ho ; Kim, Myeoung-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 33~38
Recently commercial egress softwares are frequently used for the risk assessment. The estimation of evacuation time is an important procedure and the outflow coefficient in a bottleneck becomes the crucial factor for design of emergency planning. This paper compares the outflow coefficient of measurement with those of softwares in the bottlenecks of subway stations where masses of people movement is observed. Stairway and turnstile are the 2 bottleneck points along escape pathway. For the escape simulation it is recommended that 2 different modes be used in the programs for 2 kinds of bottleneck. The results of the comparison makes a big difference among them and some of differences can be reduced by correct design of input data. In conclusion the results of simulation should be examined thoroughly by procedure of comparisons with other results.
A Combustion Characteristic Analysis of PMMA by Cone Heater of the flexible Heat Flux
Moon, Sung-Woong ; Ryu, Sang-Hoon ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 39~44
The cone calorimeter method which is currently used to measure the heat release rate has a fixed rate of radiation. However, in the real fire, when flame combustible material burns, it releases the identical heat flux. We measured the changes of temperature of a fire using FDS in order to analyze flexible heat flux of combustion characteristics. In this study, the rate of radiation of cone calorimeter was adopted by using FDS. Follow those results, it produce between the rate of radiation in the growth period and decline period have a significant impact on heat release rate of PMMA.
Improving the Safety Regulation For Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
Lee, Sang-Pal ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 45~51
The objective of this study to analyse the cause and pattern of failing to use in Self Contained Breathing Apparatus using by government regulation for producer and client. Regulation for producer is related to legal and institution of safety inspectiontest of SCBA. Rregulation for client is preventive maintenance. Improving fail in use of SCBA are following. First, expansion of ad hoc collection inspection and safety checking is required. Second, the strict application of the law for monitoring and auditing disposal procedure in low performance SCBA is required.
Fire Spreading Prevention of Straw-roofing House in Folk Village by Flame Resistant Treatment
Park, Ho-Chun ; Kim, Hwang-Jin ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Sung-Eun ; Oh, Kyu-Hyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 52~57
Fire protection countermeasure were considered on the straw thatched roof and wooden structure. For the fire resistant treatment, rice straw was soaked in the fire resistant liquid with different soaking time. After treatment, some rice straw sample was washed with water then the rice straws were tested to check the fire resistance performance. And the wood was soaked in the fire resistant liquid at an atmospheric pressure, vacuum-pressure condition and painted with brush on the surface. To analyse the fire resistant performance of rice straw, ignition delay time was measured under the radiant heat flux of cone heater. And the fire resistant performance of wood samples were tested with 45 degree fire resistant test apparatus and cone heater. Based on the cone heater test, the rice straw which most easily ignitable material shows the longer ignition delay time than not treated ones and even in the water washed straw show a longer ignition delay time than not treated ones. And fire resistant treated woods of vacuum-pressure treated sample showed the most excellent performance on fire resistance. And the fire resistant treated by brush and soaking showed a longer ignition delay time than not treated ones. From this experiment, it was found that a fire resistant treatment of rice straw and wood of the house can be protected from the fire spread.
The Study of a Correlation between Heat Release and Smoke Production by Using Oxygen Consumption Calorimeter Up to 10 MW Facility
Ryu, Sang-Hoon ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 58~65
The fire accidents having recently occurred are getting more and more larger and causing lots of damage in terms of property loss and casualties increase, so there is in need of technical fire safety development like comprehensive prevention solution in order to effectively prevent. Especially, the needing of new paradigm for advanced fire safe technology is gathering strength in high-rise modern building construction. Therefore, we want to find out on this paper what is a correlation between heat release rate measurement and smoke release volume by three parts of oxygen consumption calorimeter in bench scale calorimeter (cone calorimeter/ISO 5660/Avg.500Kw), Medium scale calorimeter (Room corner tester, Single burning Item/ISO 9750, EN 13823/Avg.3MW), and large scale calorimeter (Industry calorimeter/Avg. 10MW). Thus, Smoke detective of new paradigm devised by making use of a correlation between heat release and smoke production is to help reduce loss property and casualties. Ultimately, based on this theory, a new concept of fire alarm and evacuation system will be developed and expected to apply to a skyscraper.
Estimation of Explosion Limits by Using Heats of Combustion for Esters
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 66~71
In order to evaluate the fire and explosion involved and to ensure the safe and optimized operation of chemical processes, it is necessary to know combustion properties. Explosion limit is one of the major combustion properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of the flammable substances. In this study, the lower explosion and upper explosion limits of esters were predicted by using the heat of combustion. The values calculated by the proposed equations agreed with literature data within a few percent. From the given results, using the proposed methodology, it is possible to predict the explosion limits of the other ester flammable substances.
A Study on Fire Prevention Capability Performance Evaluation of the Phosphate Flame Retardant Honeycomb Core
Moon, Sung-Woong ; Lim, Kyung-Bum ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 72~77
Honeycomb core structure with its excellent stiffness and strength is being utilized in many fields such as interior building material. Because it is inexpensive and renewable, honeycomb paper production is economically and environmentally helpful. However, the paper needs to be fireproofed because it is vulnerable to fire. In this study, we have undergone the performance evaluation process of the honeycomb paper which is widely used as interior material of a fire door and packing material. Four kinds of honeycomb (a honeycomb made of flame-resistant paper; a honeycomb attached with conventional flame-resistant film made in the laboratory; honeycomb impregnated with flame retardant; a honeycomb attached with flame-resistant film after impregnating fire retardant) were used in the study to compare the fire retardant performance. As a result, the honeycomb with impregnated flame retardant showed the highest performance. The flame-resistant film was effective in delaying the igniting time but had a negative effect on the rate of heat and smoke production.
Study on the Development of Qualification for Fire Identification and Estimation
Lee, Su-Kyung ; Kim, Young-Chul ; Oh, Hyung-Sool ; Jung, Ki-Sin ; Song, Dong-Woo ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 78~85
Currently, there are various institutions performing fire investigation and identification, such as fire stations and police stations as well as institutes related to fire safety, etc. And the manpower working at the institutions reaches a large number of persons. But there is no objective index on the expertise of the persons. In this paper, we suggested the examination criteria through job analysis and the enforcement method of the exam system. And we developed suitable exam subjects and exam content specifications for qualification of fire identification and estimation that investigate a fire cause, combustion, escape circumstances and fire facilities at the scene of a fire, survey the fire damage and analysis fire cause, etc. It will increase the public trust to develop national technical qualification items of the fire identification and estimation engineer.
Combustion Chracteristics of the Pinus rigida and Castanea savita Dried at Room Temperature
Chung, Yeong-Jin ; Jin, Eui ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 86~92
One of the limitation of wood as building materials is its flammability. The purpose of this paper is to examine the combustion properties of the Pinus rigida and Castanea savita which are grown in Korea and meet the desirable characteristics for use of construction materials. The cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1) was used to determine the heat release rate (HRR) and fire smoke index, as well as CO and
production and smoke obscuration. The
of the Castanea savita and Pinus rigida at
of radiant heat flux was
. Furthermore, the THR of Castanea sativata was 120.8 MJ/kg and it was higher than the THR of Pinus rigida (
). These results are depend on the bulk density of tested wood species. The Castanea savita has high
yield and high CO/
yield compared with that of Pinus rigida.
A Study on Design Area of Fire Sprinkler System
Jeong, Kee-Sin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 93~98
Even though the sprinkler system is a essential fire suppression system, the design engineers do not fully understand the concept of design area which sprinklers operate. They frequently made a mistake to form design area and calculate it. The shape of design area is a square or a rectangle which branch side line is a little longer than the cross main side. NFPA demands to lengthen the branch side to 1.2 times than the cross main side and FM demands 1.4 times. The longer the branch side at the same design area is, the bigger the water quantity and pressure is. At the results of hydraulic calculation of design areas, when the branch side is longer 1.2 times, the water quantity became 4.6% bigger than exact square and the pressure came to 4.67% bigger. When it is longer 1.4 times, the water quantity and the pressure are bigger 7.52%, 14.51%. Therefore, the sprinkler design engineers should follow the general rule of design area, exact square or rectangle which length along the branch line is a little longer than length along the cross main, to design more stable system.
An Experimental Study on Mechanical Ventilation Using an Exhaust Engine in Corridor Fires
Lee, Sung-Ryong ; Han, Dong-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 99~105
Ventilation fans utilized correctly can increase the effectiveness of fire fighters and survivability of occupants. It is possible to increase the pressure of a corridor to prevent the infiltration of smoke. In this study, experiments were carried out to evaluate ventilation effectiveness in corridor fires. Corridor used in the experiment was 20 m long. Heptane was used as a fuel. Temperature and visibility were measured in order to evaluate ventilation effectiveness according to the position of a vent. Vent distance ranged from 0 m to 4 m and height varied from 0 m to 1.5 m. When the vent was positioned 2 m long and 0.75 m high the result was most effective.
A Study on the Auto Closing Systems Motion Analysis of Door in Smoke Control Zone
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 106~112
This study carried out the motion analysis of auto closing systems as basis study for development of auto closing systems for door in smoke control zone. This study established process of auto closing systems and analysis theory based on kinematics mechanism thesis and mechanism modelling of auto closing control units. And this study established engineering data construction and a source technology that can design each element of auto closing control units that choose closing force units through motion analysis simulation based on analysis theory. Therefore, it can give flexibility and elasticity of auto closing units development from this study. Also, it sees that can ready control means and technological countermeasure of smoke by development of auto closing units and secure high reliancity and stability of smoke control systems.
A Research of the Development Plan for a Highly Adaptable FSR (Fire Safety Robot) in the Scene of the Fire
Kim, Kook-Rae ; Kim, Jin-Taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 113~118
FSR has been placed and operated in the Daegu Fire & Safety Department on a trial basis since September 2009. This research proposes a direction for developing the robot, which will provide greater field adaptability and efficiency through analyzing in-depth interviews and surveys of firefighters who have operated the robot. Analysis has shown that an Assistant FSR is expected to enhance maneuverability and improve the performance of wheels, which will increase the capacity for navigating obstacles. The Field FSR needs improvements in convenience of control, making the weight lighter, and stabilization of radio communications to eliminate tangled wires. Overall satisfaction regarding the performance of robots currently in operation is low, while preference toward using the Assistant robot in the field is also low, shown at 8.4%. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to vitalize usage of FSR in the field so that early commercialization of the FSR will contribute to reinforce both growth and competitiveness of the domestic robotics industry.
A Comparative Study on the Determinant of Fire Service Budget and Police Service Budget
Kim, Jin-Dong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 119~130
In the fire and disaster prevention administration of which is not developed in comparison with any other administrative system, the systematic improvement is necessary. For system's more development, financial resource of fire service must be increased sufficiently. If fire service's budget is not allocated sufficiently, fire and disaster were not prevented effectively. This study set up hypothesis based on theoretical background and past research. In this study, dependent variables are fire service budget and police service budget per person Whereas independent variables include demand characteristics, economical characteristics, political characteristics, and previous fiscal year's budget. Statistical methods for the hypothesis's verification are regression analysis, correlation analysis and t-test. The major finding on this study are as follows: First, regression analysis showed that significant variable were past budget variable and economical variable. But political variable and demand variable were not significant except for a emergency medical variable. Second, fire service budget's average was not different significantly from police service budget's average. The above result are contingent upon the theory described in this research. A sustained research and development effort will be necessary if substantial and meaningful progress is to be made in fire service budget.
Effects of Ventilation Condition on the Fire Characteristics in Compartment Fires (Part I: Performance Estimation of FDS)
Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Lock, Andrew ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 131~138
Experimental and numerical studies were conducted to investigate the thermal and chemical characteristics of heptane fires in a full-scale ISO 9705 room. Representative fire conditions were considered for over-ventilated fire (OVF) and under-ventilated fire (UVF). Fuel flow rate and doorway width were changed to create OVF and UVF conditions. Detailed comparisons of temperature and species concentrations between experimental and numerical data were presented in order to validate the predictive performance of FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulator). The OVF and UVF were explicitly characterized with distributions of temperature and product formation measured in the upper layer, as well as combustion efficiency and global equivalence ratio. It was shown that the numerical results provided a quantitatively realistic prediction of the experimental results observed in the OVF conditions. For the UVF, the numerically predicted temperature showed reasonable agreement with the measured temperature. The predicted steady-state volume fractions of
, CO and THC also agreed quantitatively with the experimental data. Although there were some limitations to predict accurately the transient behavior in terms of CO production/consumption in the UVF condition, it was concluded that the current FDS was very useful tool to predict the fire characteristics inside the compartment for the OVF and UVF.
An Experimental Study on the Pressure Change in the Type of Elevator Hoistways
Kim, Hak-Joong ; Kim, Boem-Gyu ; Park, Yong-Hwan ; Lim, Chae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 139~144
Recently, evacuation safety of building resident become the major concern, as the building has been higher and more complicated. Many high-rise multi use buildings are under construction in Korea. Required evacuation time using stairway is longer in high-rise buildings, moreover it is impossible for the disabled to evacuate by using stairway. For this reason the study on the effectiveness of using elevator for evacuation is progressing. This study shows the pressure change in various types of hoistway when elevator is moving. Experiments were performed in 4 different types of hoistway, and showed big difference in pressure change between the type of hoistway. The pressure change in single hoistway that have one car is bigger than that in multi hoistway that have multi cars. The results of this study can be used for the study of elevator piston effect as basic data.
An Experimental Study on the Thermal Property of Concrete under the Load Ratio Condition in Fire
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Park, Kyung-Hun ; Ahn, Chan-Sol ; Kwon, Ki-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 3, 2010, Pages 145~151
The fire in tunnel, when failed to extinguish at early stage, tends to easily develop to high temperature and spread to entire area of the tunnel because of considerable level of fire load and smoke control facility within the tunnel, resulting in severe damage to the people and tunnel structure. This study was intended to carry out the fire test with MHC fire curve, a scenario, which has the most rapid fire rise, on assumption of load ratio of 1, 20, 40, 60 and 70%, so as to identify the thermal characteristics of the concrete against spalling and the range of fire damage. The specimen was small scale sample as defined by EFNARC and the mixing ratio was based on 24 MPa, which is considered to be the normal strength. As a result of test, 16mm spalling was occurred on the lining under the non-load condition, while no spalling was occurred with 20% and 40% of load ratio. In case of 60% of load ratio, 24 mm of spalling was occurred and it failed in 10 minutes after heating in case of 70% load condition.