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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
A Study on Design and Implementation of an Analog Addressable Detector and a Fire Alarm System
Kim, Chong-Tai ; Hong, Se-Kwun ; Yoo, Young-Shin ; Jung, Hae-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 1~11
This paper describes a design and implementation of an analog detector and a fire alarm system with recent technology on information and communication. A hierarchical architecture design from the detector to the main system enables to accommodate medium to large size buildings located nearby or far-away. And a software design from communication protocol to application program handles large amount of events efficiently to show information on a large LCD. A PC-based alarm system provides higher speed and larger capacity in a large LCD screen compared with foreign microprocessor-based small screen systems. Thus, very large buildings with several thousands of analog detectors can be easily covered in a single system. When an alarm occurs, a staff alarm scenario specially attempted only in the system is considered to play a major role to distinguish a real fire from unwanted alarms.
Research on Fire Safety of Mortar-Containing Waste Tire Powders and Flame Retardant
Park, Jeong-Jin ; Son, Ki-Sang ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 12~17
The purpose of this study is to determine how effectively waste tire recycled material mixed with flame retardant work in combating fire. As discovered in the previous study, waste tire mixed with cement mortar has more insulation capacity. However, this mortar is weak against fire. Therefore flame retardant, with a specific proportional mix, will be added to increase its fire prevention capacity. Tests will be made in accordance with ISO 5657 procedures for measuring fire ignition time, flame and shape variation of test pieces at the Building Material Test Institute. The test piece will be set up with horizontal levels having a constant radiation heat of
. Temperature transfers and increases from the surface into the interior. Combustible gases result due to pyrolysis, and regular contact is maintained between the fire source and the center of the test piece for assessment purposes. Ignition has not been occurred without adding retardant meaning that there is almost no possibility of ignition of waste tire particle. This fact can be considered as fire load to appreciate a volume of combustion materials. Flame is not occurred due to heat-absorbing effect by adding non-organic series retardant into waste tire particle. Conclusions have been summarized as follows; 1) Combustion of building material can be decreased by adding retardant to waste tire-mixing mortar. But compressive strength and insulation capacity of the material should be measured later. 2) Firing prevention and ignition are main points of building fire. Reasonable fire engineering assessment of interior material should be made for establishing effective disaster prevention system.
Development of Prediction Model of Fuel Moisture Changes After Precipitation in the Spring for the Pine Forest Located the Yeongdong Region (Focused on the Down Wood Material Diameter)
Lee, Si-Young ; Kwon, Chun-Geun ; Lee, Myung-Woog ; Lee, Hae-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 18~26
The change of fuel moisture according to the passed days after a raindrop is very important to forecast risk of forest fire and to make a good use of forest fire watchmen. For that reason, in the Spring of 2007, we researched pine forest that were widespread growing in Yeongdong region to find out the condition of forest fire risk. We developed the forecast model of fuel moisture change on dead tree branches which were dropped on the ground and less than 0.6 cm, 0.6~3.0 cm, 3.0~6.0 cm, and more than 6.0 cm in diameter after more than 5.0 mm in precipitation. The result showed that the less diameter of ground fuel and small stand of pines the faster diminishing of fuel moisture, and the days of reaching to a forest fire danger fuel moisture level were represented by two (2) days for less than 0.6 cm diameter of small stand of pine and three (3) days for 0.6~3.0 cm diameter one, respectively. By those results, we developed the forecast model(
) of fuel moisture change on different diameter of small stand of pine, and found that the model had statistical significant of 1% level after we applied it to the data of 2008 after the same period of raindrop by actual meteorological measurement.
Numerical Analysis of Smoke Control for high-rise Building Considering with the Enthalpy Equation
Bae, Sung-Ryong ; Ro, Kyoung-Chul ; Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 27~32
Recently, increases of population density due to the industrialization in the metropolitan cities has caused the high-density and integration of life environment. Then various high-rise buildings are constructed for accommodation. However, high-rise building fires can cause high casualties due to increases of smoke spread velocity through the vertical shaft. In this study, the new program based on the enthalpy conservation for analysis of energy transfer for smoke control system, CAU_ESCAP, was developed. CAU_ESCAP was validated by comparing with the result of ASCOS. The characteristic of smoke control was analysed by using CAU_ESCAP for high-rise building fires.
Fire Resistance Behaviour of High Strength Concrete Members with Vapor Pressure and Creep Models
Lee, Tae-Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 33~40
A numerical model considering the vapor pressure and the creep models, in the form of a analytical program, for tracing the behavior of high strength concrete (HSC) members exposed to fire is presented. The two stages, i.e., spalling procedure and fire resistance time, associated with the thermal, moisture flow, creep and structural analysis, for the prediction of fire resistance behavior are explained. The use of the analytical program for tracing the response of HSC member from the initial pre-loading stage to collapse, due to fire, is demonstrated. The validity of the numerical model used in this program is established by comparing the predictions from this program with results from others fire resistance tests. The analytical program can be used to predict the fire resistance of HSC members for any value of the significant parameters, such as load, sectional dimensions, member length, and concrete strength.
An Experimental Study on the Fireproof Covering Thickness of High Strength Concrete Members with Spray Coating
Lee, Tae-Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 41~46
High strength concrete (HSC) has been mainly used in large SOC structures. HSC have superior property as well as improvement in durability compared with normal strength concrete. In spite of durability of HSC, explosive spalling in concrete front surface near the source of fire occurs serious problem in structural safety. Therefore, this study is concerned with experimentally investigation of fire resistance at high temperature due to fireproof material covering thickness in addition to concrete cover. From the test result, it was appeared that the use of fireproof material results in good performance for fire resistance and spalling prevention, and the optimal fireproof covering thickness is 1~3mm. On the other hand, the temperature was rapidly increased by explosive spalling within 30 minutes and showed very little rise caused by evaporation heat after then. It was also found that the void channel was remained at high temperature as PP fiber melts at about
, and the pore pressure in concrete was decreased.
An Experimental Study on the Warehouse Mock-up Fire Test
Kweon, Oh-Sang ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Youl ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 47~54
This study is analyze the damage of warehouse fire accident be made through the fire characteristic database of combustibles and real scale fire test of warehouse mock-up. Combustibles fire tests are carried out for database using RCT (Room Corner Tester) to predict fire growth the goods. A mockup (
) of clothes warehouse was built and real scale fire test by LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) base on the fire characteristic DB. The mock-up of clothes warehouse is made of two type sandwich panels (Glass wool, EPS foam sandwich panel). As a mock-up test result, test 1 (Glass wool sandwich panel) and test 2 (EPS foam sandwich panel) indicating fire growth such as 5 MW, 11 MW of maximum HRR (Heat Release Rate).
Study on the Surface Temperature and Fire Protective Thickness for Structural Steel Elements at Fire Conditions
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 55~61
Fire resistance is very essential for all buildings to save peoples who live within buildings or use and to protect the properties when the buildings are covered with fire. The fire resistance were evaluated by loading or nonloading fire tests which are known very expensive and require lots of time. That causes the lacks of research activities and there are only small cases of fire resistance. The purposes of this paper are to analyze the temperature analysis for various structural elements such as columns and beams those are can be applied to buildings and to suggest the resonable fire protective thickness of concrete slab according to the required fire resistance time.
Development for the Water Mist Package Having a Low Pressure Nozzles on Wooden Cultural Properties and Temples
Kim, Tae-Hwan ; Myeong, Sang-Yeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 62~68
The present study purposed to develop the water mist package system for the cultural properties fire prevention and fire suppression system through analyzing fire protection system and cultural property's characteristic, and to suggest directions for the development of cultural property fire prevention system in the future. Maximum safety with minimum damage has issued a main objective in fire protection of the cultural property in Korea. Two types of the water mist nozzles having a low pressure had been developed by KEI. The one is for inside using in wooden cultural properties, the flow rate is 30~35 l/min and the discharging pressure is 13~14 bar. The other one is for out-side of wooden properties, the flow rate is 25~30 l/min and the discharging pressure is 14~15 bar. To evaluate the nozzles performance test, we made the fire scenario and full-scale model of wooden cultural properties for fire test. The size of full-scale model was 4.9 m length, 4 m wide, 6.6 m height, all was made by wooden. This real fire test results showed that the low pressure water mist nozzles having a
dour size were very effectively fire extinguishing and suppression on wooden cultural properties fire. Even though the oil fuel fire was not extinguished, the fire suppression effects for the during mobilization of fire brigade was enough.
A Study for the Fire Hazard Evaluation through the Fire Simulation of an Apartment Fire Accident
Jeon, Heung-Kyun ; Choi, Young-Sang ; Choo, Hong-Lok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 69~78
In this study, Fire Hazards were evaluated through computer simulation using FDS program for an apartment fire accident. The results of fire simulation showed that the maximum heat release rate in the case of no sprinklers activation was 7,700 kW which was about 16 times of that in the case of sprinklers activation, 497 kW and there was a very high fire hazard due to the backdraft phenomenon when the door of fire room was forced to open. Regarding the hazard time of fire room temperature and detection time of detectors, available evacuation time was 32.5 seconds of minimum to 53.5 seconds of maximum. In the case of sprinklers activation, fire hazard in the apartment was showed to be very low due to the fire control by the spray cooling of sprinklers. This study shows that what a important function for fire safety is the activations of fire sprinkler system and emergency alarm system and what a large loss can cause if these systems don’t activate in fire accidents.
A Study on Occupational Stress for the Injured Firefighter: Focusing on Gyeongbuk Province
Bang, Chang-Hoon ; Hong, Woi-Hyun S. ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 79~85
The aim of the study intends to investigate safety and health of injured firefighter in Gyeongbuk province and to provide the base data for the safety and health of firefighter. The results of the study are as follows. The injured firefighter are under more job stress than general's and the effect factor of stress are "lack of reward", "organizational system", "occupational climate" and "job insecurity". The injured firefighter receive more job stress than the average of korean man about "physical environment" and "occupational climate". The prevalence post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) of injured firefighter using IES-R-K is 75 percent of the surveyed.
Study on the Effective Method of Fire Protection Technology in Railway Tunnel Fire
Park, Kyung-Hoon ; Kim, Heung-Yeol ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 86~91
In event of a tunnel fire, all kinds of equipment can be destroyed in high temperature that can exceed
, fatal structural demage can be caused by spalling of concrete structural elements. To make matters worse, there is a high possibility of the secondary damage which can lead to the collapse of the shear resisting structure. Accordingly, it is time that we developed the technology to counter fires in connection with the fire-resistant design of a tunnel structure. To secure the reliability of the fire-resistance performance of a tunnel structure, it is necessary to assess the fire's behavior on every structural element exposed to the fire as well as to calculate the tunnel fire intensity and the quantity of heat released. In this study, we drew out the fire damage range of each structural element of a tunnel and the minimum thickness of concrete cover for each fire-resistant material through some actual experiments of fire behavior on the structural elements of a tunnel.
Fire at an Indoor Shooting Range in Busan II. Causes and Fire Safety Measures
Park, Woe-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 92~97
Fire simulation by using a computational fluid dynamics model and examination of the fires at indoor shooting ranges broken out in the past were conducted, to presume causes of the fire at the indoor shooting range in Busan and suggest fire safety measures. On-site investigations and shooting tests on unburned gunpowder were also carried out. No trace of the muzzle spark and spark at the bullet trap was found in CCTV footage, and the impact of a stray bullet failed to ignite gunpowder. Cigarette was therefore presumed to be the most likely source of ignition among the potential sources. It appeared that the explosion in the shooting area was caused by violent burning of the polyurethane sound absorber and unburned gunpowder accumulated on it. The fire safety measures include prohibit of use of profile polyurethane sound absorber, removal of steel components from bullet trap, clean up and control of unburned gunpowder, etc.
The Research of the Analysis of Movement from a Fire using RTLS System
Lim, Kyung-Bum ; Kim, Ha-Young ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 98~103
The design disaster prevention of first consideration is security for the people in the buildings. However, it is difficult to make a project for considering variable cases, declined visibility of smoke, distance from another person, mentality, knowledge of clearway etc. This study purpose is, analysis variable cases and modularization of pattern movement to practice basic information for evacuation of simulation which is used RTLS (Real Time Location System) system. It is useful to sense the electric waves from the Tag and grasp the real-time position. The pattern movement of evacuation were analyzed prescription eyeglasses which is used RTLS system to consider following 3 actions; analysis of relations that declined visibility effect the decline of movement velocity, analysis rate of flow with the size of door to estimate the optimum size of door in building and analysis the pattern movement that a bottleneck situation with abundant of people passed together to these exit. The confirmed of propriety of the interpretation about the actual people to evacuate is expected applying the numerical formula in various situation.
Fire Cause Analysis of Local Heating on Carbon Type Hot Wire Electric Pad
Song, Jae-Yong ; Kim, Jin-Pyo ; Nam, Jung-Woo ; Sa, Seung-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 104~108
This paper describes electrical fire on electric pad using carbon type hot wires. A carbon type hot wires electric pad is virtually impossible to connect hot wire as a method of electrical welding or soldering. In order to connect between hot wires, that has to splice carbon type material connector. If junction of hot wires was occurrence of poor connection on electric pad, it increase contact resistance on this junction point. With increasing contact resistance, junction of hot wires on electric pad generates local heating and finally leads to electrical fire. In this paper, we analyzed shape of damage in hot wires caused by electrical local heating and investigated fire cause on electric pad using by carbon type hot wires.
The Influence of Stairway Pressurization Conditions on the Stack Effect in Super-tall Buildings
Park, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Beom-Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 109~115
Maximum pressure difference in central core type 80th super_tall buildings was estimated as 75 Pa during no outside wind due to the winter stack effect. Maximum pressure difference of 225 Pa can be obtained depending on the location of air injection fan during the stairway pressurization at fire. Bottom_only air injection system provided the best results in the sense of required air flow rates and pressure distributions. Top_only air supply system was estimated as the worst for this country. It revealed that the decrease of the temperature in the stairway due to the cold outside air injection reduced the required flow rates of the fan and significantly changed the distribution of pressure differences.
A Study on Proposals for Improving the Fire Protection Regulations for Nuclear Power Plants
Ma, Jin-Soo ; Kwon, Kyung-Ok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 4, 2010, Pages 116~122
The fire protection system of nuclear power plants shall be designed, constructed and operated, through a defense-in depth criterion to suppress the leakage of radioactivity to the outside and to allow the safety shutdown function when a fire occurs. In order to achieve these purposes, most of countries abroad operating the nuclear power plants keep up the integrated regulations, however we have two guidelines, the fire protection service act and the nuclear energy act, as mandatory requirements to apply to the fire protection systems in nuclear power plants. It has shown that USA, Canada and Japan which have long experience in operating nuclear power plants have regulations integrated technically for fire protection system of nuclear power plants. It is proposed that the things once verified the risk analysis of the fire hazard by the nuclear law in the design for fire suppression system in plants should be authorized by the fire protection service act as an exception.