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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Criminal Legal Study of Fire Investigation
Kong, Ha-Sung ; Kim, Su-Youl ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 1~9
In a side of criminal law, fire investigation, as general people fully can understand and prosecution is possible until deciding its cause and suspect, scientific researching method should be studied deeply. This paper proposes an establishment of fire investigation act and its sub-laws, constitution of joint commission for fire investigation, modernization of fire investigation equipments, substantiality of professional education for fire investigation and subjugation of departmentalism as a method to maintain and supplement an institution of fire investigation in Korea.
Research about Recognition of Government Officials Regarding Korean Disaster Management System in Charge
Lee, Jung-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 10~25
As disaster potential power of modern society grows larger, to improve and reinforce efficiently a national system which prepares and responds disasters, analyzed the survey for government officials of the department disaster management. Following is the contents of this research. First, cooperative relationship to disaster management organizations. Second, necessity of law establishment related crisis and disaster department. Third, by recognition regarding disaster management situational variable, overall recognition regarding disaster management situation, overall recognition regarding crisis type, recognition regarding occurrence possibility along disaster scale. Fourth, by recognition regarding structural variable of disaster management, the National Emergency Management Agency regarding disaster management, related organization, recognition difference of local government. It is a research about confusion regarding step of prevention - preparation - correspondence - restoration.
Study of Aerial Fire Line Construction and Suppression Method on Forest Fire
Bae, Taek-Hoon ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 26~31
In this study, attack process and aerial control line construction type which were considered forest fire type and a case of operations were suggested using the experience of aerial fire attack of all type of forest fires. As the spread rate of forest fire is effected by terrain, slope, wind speed, forest species and etc., we needed to analyze spreading direction, behavior type and intensity before heli-team constructed a aerial control line. Especially, It is important to consider safety of attack team as a their views were obstructed. In this study, we suggested a 13 methods from type A to type M about attack and construction of aerial indirect control line.
Effects of Ventilation Condition on the Fire Characteristics in Compartment Fires (Part II: Multi-dimensional Fire Dynamics)
Kim, Jong-Hyun ; Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 32~38
Multi-dimensional fire dynamics were studied numerically with the change in ventilation conditions in a full-scale ISO 9705 room. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) was used for the identical conditions conducted in previous experiments. Flow rate and doorway width were changed to create over-ventilated fire (OVF) and under-ventilated fire (UVF). From the numerical simulation, it was found that the internal flow pattern rotated in the opposite direction for the UVF relative to the OVF so that a portion of products recirculated to the inside of compartment. Significant change in flow pattern with ventilation conditions may affect changes in the complex process of CO and soot formation inside the compartment due to increase in the residence time of high-temperature products. The fire behavior in the UVF created complex 3D characteristics of species distribution as well as thermal and flow structures. In particular, additional burning near the side wall inside the compartment significantly affected the flow pattern and CO production. The distribution of CO inside the compartment was explained with 3D
distribution and flow patterns. It was observed that gas sampling at local positions in the upper layer were insufficient to completely characterize the internal structure of the compartment fire.
Study on the Ignition of Fallen Leaves by a Cigarette Butt
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Lee, Myung-Bo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 39~49
In order to find out the environment vulnerable to cigarette fire in which smoldering fire grows into flame fire, a cigarette combustion test and numerical analysis were performed using fallen leaves of P. densiflora and Q. variabilis. Tests were repeated five times on 2,304 conditions with four cases of fuel moisture content, six cases of velocity, two cases of cigaret location against direction of the wind, three cases of cigaret location against fallen leaves, two species of thickness of cigaret, two cases of slope conditions and two cases of fragileness of fallen leaves. Cigaret fire's flammability to the fallen leaves was monitored by analyzing heat transfer process using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) under the most optimal condition through an ignition test on 2,304 conditions. The result of a cigaret fire ignition test for fallen leaves, found ignition in 197 conditions out of 2,304 conditions representing 8.6% while 13 conditions representing approximately 0.6% saw ignition across five repeated tests. The result of CFD analysis, the temperature of the bottom of fallen leaves was reached on self-ignition and pilot-ignition temperature.
A Numerical Study for the Atrium Smoke Control by Fire Shutter and Evacuation
Jeon, Heung-Kyun ; Choi, Young-Sang ; Choo, Hong-Lok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 50~59
Four fire scenarios, as the cases of fire sizes of 2 MW and 5 MW, and no installation and activation of atrium fire shutter for dormitory building of Daegu 'D college', were developed and fire simulations were run using FDS (ver. 5.5.0) and Pathfinder 2009 programs. By assessing fire and evacuation, the effects of atrium fire shutter and vents on the smoke control of atrium were evaluated and this study also analyzed fire hazard and egress safety for occupants in the dormitory. Fire shutter's preventing smoke transport around atrium was much effective, but smoke layer descended down the design limit of smoke height and kept about 2 m height from the atrium floor in all cases because flow rate through vents was not enough. For the case of 5 MW fire and no fire shutter, fire hazard was higher due to visibility than temperature and allowable egress time to stairwell was short less than 5 seconds for the occupants on the floors of 4F to 7F. For total occupants, egress time out of main doorway was calculated about 136 seconds. It is sure that additional systems improving the performance of smoke control need to be installed for more safe evacuation.
Validation of FDS for the Pool Fires within Two Rooms
Bae, Young-Bum ; Ryu, Su-Hyun ; Kim, Yun-Il ; Lee, Sang-Kyu ; Keum, O-Hyun ; Park, Jong-Seok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 60~67
Fire model shall be verified and validated to reliably predict the consequences of fires within its limitations. Generally the verification and validation procedures are conducted by comparison with experimental test data. This study aims to evaluate predictive capabilities of FDS in the pool fire with two rooms and the sensitivity between input parameters such as heat release rate and ventilation rate and the output values like temperature, concentration, and heat flux. The predictive capabilities of FDS will be evaluated by comparing FDS simulation results with PRISME experimental data which result from the international fire test project. The sensitivity analysis will be conducted to decide which one of input parameters affects outcomes by comparison of FDS results with
10% changes of input parameter. From this study, the FDS predictive capabilities are within 20% error range. Heat release rate as input parameter affects most of outcomes and flow rate only has relation with concentration of oxygen and combustion products.
The Risk and Countermeasures of Asbestos Exposure at the Scene Activities of Fire Officials
Lee, Jung-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 68~78
The purpose of this study, fire officials during the field activities find causes fugitive dust of containing asbestos is the seriousness of the phenomenon is a threat case and through questionnaires, during on-site activities to prevent exposure to asbestos is effectively. Analysis of the relationship to field activities of fire officials and about the dangers of asbestos dust, asbestos cancer caused by asbestos, and to protect fire officials from the same disease like malignant mesothelioma, by varying the conditions of irrational, fire officials at the scene activities in advance of a deadly hazard is aimed to eliminate through optimization of organizational management and a safe and pleasant working conditions for fire officials through the deadly hazards at the scene of action is aimed to obviate. Also according to asbestos exposure by wearing protective equipment as well as thoroughly strengthen firefighting, firefighting awards to recognize the seriousness of the hazard factors, disease and provide compensation to the legal system, for diseases not yet recognized officially recognized by disaster supplemented by institutional, fire officials to improve morale and working conditions, etc. versus expectations is to improve public services.
Experimental Study on Features of Air Egress Velocity in Vestibule Pressurization System
Ryu, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Su-Kyung ; Hong, Dae-Hwa ; Yoon, Myong-O ; Choi, Keum-Ran ; Park, Jae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 79~86
In this study, we confirmed the fact that air egress velocity of pressure differential system which is installed in vestibule of smokeproof stairway in domestic high-rise building becomes back-flow into the vestibule not into the livingroom when the doors open to escape in case of fire by actual measurement. It concerned that fire smoke inflow into the vestibule of smokeproof stairway. so, reflux symptoms were developing the condition does not occur by creating an area of
and a model. if it‘s area is less, airflow in upper area was severely reflux. in the case upward 45 gradient of supply damper’s angle of blade, The results that reflux symptoms include upper door but bottom has some reflux. also vestibule of smokeproof stairway‘s area of
in the living room door in the direction of the flow distributon was normal. if a vestibule of smokeproof stairway is smaller, it designed to be performance-based design should be.
Numerical Analysis on Pressurization System of Smoke Control in Consideration of Flow Rate of Supply and Leakage
Kim, Jung-Yup ; Shin, Hyun-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 87~93
The fact that the smoke hinders evacuation and fire-fighting activities as well as becomes the major cause of life casualty emphasizes the importance of smoke control system. As one of the fire safety standards designed to secure the smoke safety, NFSC501A (Design Guide for Smoke Control System of Special Evacuation Stairwell and Lobby) has been proposed, preventing smoke from penetrating into the smoke-free escape route by raising the pressure of the smoke control zone higher than fire area. For model building of 20 stories, pressurization system was designed according to standard and pressure field of compartments in whole building induced by pressurization system was analyzed using the network model.
A Study on the Possibility of using Light-Wall Stainless Steel Pipe for Water-Based Fire Protection System
Nam, Jun-Seok ; Won, Sung-Yeun ; Kim, Yong-Ho ; Min, Kyung-Tak ; Park, Seung-Min ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 94~101
The pipes using in water-based fire protection systems are used steel pipes for ordinary piping, carbon steel pipes for pressure service, copper and copper alloy seamless pipes and tubes, etc. By last buildings of high-rising, complexity, in fire protection systems, the corrosion resistance, easy construction, lightweight and cost-effective use of the pipes is being considered. Among the pipes, the possibility of used for fire protection system being used in the existing copper pipe of material properties, strength, corrosion resistance, heat resistance through and compare the performance was evaluated. As a result of that assessment light gauge stainless steel pipes for ordinary piping (KS D 3595) at a water pressure of less than 1.2 MPa can be used in sufficient physical properties, strength, corrosion resistance, heat resistance and have been observed.
A Study on Measuring Residues and Ignition Characteristics of the Gunpowder by Using a Handgun
Song, Jae-Yong ; Choi, Young-Woo ; Kim, Dong-Hwan ; Nam, Jung-Woo ; Kim, Jin-Pyo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 102~106
This paper studied the measurement about the gunpowder residue quantity by using a handgun and we carried out an experiment ignition characteristics of the gunpowder residue for the investigation fire cause into the indoor shooting range in Busan. The measurement of the gunpowder residue quantity is spouted by using a 0.38 inch gun and 9 mm gun. We were carried out evaluation experiments such as impact sensitivity test, static electricity sensitivity test, friction sensitivity test and measuring a flash point for the ignition characteristics about the gunpowder residue. From experiment results, the impact sensitivity and friction sensitivity of the gunpowder residue in comparison with ball powder are highly sensitive and the gunpowder residue ignites at a relatively low temperature.
A Qualitative Study on the Fire Officials Inter Integrity
Chae, Jin ; Woo, Seong-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 107~114
Corruption in public offices can lead to corruption in overall society. Moreover, it can also result in steady growth of social expense caused by distrust in direct public relations of civil society administration. In order to devise a more comprehensive measure against corruption, it is essential to evaluate internal organization. This study suggests a scheme for improvement on fire officers' inter integrity, researched by in-depth interview. According to the study, there are numerous conventional corporate cultures remaining in the organization which fire officers are mutually trying to create reasonable and democratic corporate cultures. Furthermore, it was found out that structural issues of the organization, such as guaranteed anonymity of corruption prevention system, closed budget, et cetera, are the mostly dissatisfactory factors other than individual matters of the organizational members.
Combustive Characteristics of Pinus Rigida Treated with Ammonium Salts
Chung, Yeong-Jin ; Jin, Eui ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 115~121
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Pinus rigida-based materials by the treatment of ammonium salts. Pinus rigida plate was soaked in three 20 wt% ammonium salt solutions such as ammonium sulfate (AMSF), monoammonium phosphate (MAPP), and diammonium phosphate (DAPP), respectively, at the room temperature. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). Comparing with virgin pinus rigida plate, specimens treated with the ammonium salts had lower combustive properties and It is supposed that the combustion-retardation properties improved due to the treated ammonium salts in the virgin Pinus rigida. Also, the specimens with treated ammonium salts showed both the lower peak heat release rate (PHRR) and lower total heat release (THR) than those of virgin plate.
A Study on Electric Fire Risk and Safety Measures in Traditional Markets through the Significant Fire Events
Choi, Seung-Bok ; Lee, Chang-Woo ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 122~127
There are 1,550 small or large traditional markets in the whole country. They have many dangerous elements of fire, because of using various electrical products in poor and small space. Recently, government has supported the modernization of traditional market. But, only 50% of them has modernized. There has always been high level of fire risks because of the both modernized and nonmodernized facility are not fit for "Technical Standards on Electrical Facilities". Accordingly, we examined electrical facility setting and use about modernized and non modernized traditional markets which has ever been fired.
Mixture Fraction Analysis on the Combustion Gases of the Full-Scale Compartment Fires
Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 128~135
In this study, a mixture fraction analysis was performed to investigate the characteristics of chemical species production in compartment fires burning hydrocarbon fuels such as methane, heptane, and toluene. A series of fire experiments was conducted in the ISO 9705 standard room, and gas species concentration and soot fraction were measured at two locations in the upper layer of the compartment. The mass fractions of measured chemical species, such as unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (
), oxygen (
), and soot were presented as a function of mixture fraction and compared with state relationships based on the idealized reaction of hydrocarbon fuels. The mixture fraction analysis made it possible to rearrange hundreds of species measurements, which were done under various fire conditions and at two locations of the upper layer, in term of the unified parameter, i.e. the mixture fraction. The results also showed that inclusion of soot in the mixture fraction calculation could improve the performance of analysis, especially for the sooty fuels such as heptane and toluene.
Analysis Method for Damage Patterns of Low Voltage Switches for PL Judgment
Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 136~141
The purpose of this study is to examine the structure and heat generation mechanism of low voltage switches used to turn on or off the power supply to an indoor lighting system and investigate how the fixtures and movable contacts of the switches are damaged depending on the types of energy sources in order to secure the judgment base for expected PL disputes. Based on the Korean Standard (KS) testing method for incombustibility, this study applied a general flame to the switch. In addition, current was supplied to the switch using the PCITS (Primary Current Injection Test System). The ambient temperature and humidity were maintained at
and 40~60% respectively while performing the test. It is thought that the switch generated heat due to a defective connection of the wire and clip, insulation deterioration and defective contact of the movable contact, etc. The surface of the switch damaged by the general flame was uniformly carbonized. When the flame source was removed, the fire on the switch was extinguished naturally. From the result obtained by disassembling the switch carbonized by the general flame, it could be seen that fixtures and movable contacts remained in comparatively good shape but the enclosure, clip support, movable contact, indicating lamp, etc. showed carbonization and discoloration. In the case of the switch damaged by overcurrent, the clip connecting the wires, clip support, etc. showed almost no trace of damage, but the fixtures, movable contact, indicating lamp, etc. were severely carbonized. That is, the sections with high contact resistance were intensively damaged and showed a damage pattern indicating that carbonization progressed from the inside to the outside. Therefore, it is possible to judge the initial energy source by analyzing the characteristics of the carbonization pattern and the metal fixtures of damaged switches.
Out-of-Hospital Resuscitation of Cardiac Arrest by 119 Emergency Medical Service System
Yun, Hyeong-Wan ; Lee, Jae-Min ; Jung, Ji-Yeon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 142~149
The aim of this study was to report the out-of-hospital resuscitation of cardiac arrest along with literature consideration. CPR is technology of resuscitating patient by maintaining oxygen supply to organ, by preventing progression from clinical death to biological death, and by recovering heart beat and circulation, through circulatory support of mechanical ventilation. It is not what every patient with cardiac standstill is revived even if being implemented CPR. Patient's survival rate is decided by how quickly and correctly CPR was executed. A patient, who wasn't witnessed the cardiac arrest on the field, was performed 5-cycle CPR for 2 minutes on the field before being transferred to hospital, and was allowed to be used AED. A person, who was observed, is recommended to be used AED immediately, and then is said to be needed ACLS (advanced cardiac life support). In the Out-of-Hospital stage, it is rare in a case that 119 Emergency Medical Service System transfers by being ROSC and in a case of executing ACLS. Cardiac arrest was witnessed on the field, but CPR wasn't executed. First-aid staff executed CPR after arriving, and led to ROSC on the field with ACLS, there by having experienced 1 case of a patient's surviving to leave hospital by being ROSC on the field.
A Study on the Problems and Character for Management of Fire Prevention at the Wholesale Markets
Park, Jae-Sung ; Im, Jae-Keun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 5, 2010, Pages 150~158
There are lots of buildings with their deterioration in wholesale markets which have high concentration that can cause big fire due to difficulty of installing fire protection system in fire compartment, absence of safety awareness, access by many and unspecified people. There had been big fire that caused by these kind of fire weakness such as Seomun Market's in 2005 which costed tens of millions dollar, Dongmun Shopping District’s with 7 casualties. Now counter-measure against these fire is urgently needed. This study drew characteristic of current condition of wholesale markets and the one classified by main agent, fire cases and prevention of fire through statistical data. Also, current condition of fire prevention management and actual state were investigated by conducting a survey of person in charge of fire prevention and current practician. As a result, it was shown that securing professionalism of fire prevention, improvement of structural weakness of buildings, obtaining reliability on performance of fire protection system and internal fire education against practician in the market are needed.