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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 24, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
The Study on Experimental Method of Smoldering Ground Fire in Forest Fire
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Jang-Hwan ; Kim, Eung-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1~6
A smoldering ground fire can be a probable cause of reignition of surface fire when transmitted from Fermentation layer to Humus layer with temperature higher than that of ignition. Purpose of this paper is to identify experimental methodology on the potential risk of a smoldering ground fire, which is similar to the real surface fuel bed, and its combustion characteristics. The fuel model designed in this study is composed of 3 layers such as Litter layer, Fermentation layer and Humus layer and 8 Thermocouples are set through 3 layer at each boundary and in between to detect the temperature change and duration of smoldering and propagation velocity. As a result, it was observed that ignition conditions in the boundary between L layer and F layer determined transmission and non-transmisstion to F-H layer. In addition, range of critical humidity at which a smoldering ground fire was transmitted in a material layer was 33~44% and when temperature exceeds
, likelihood of transmission of a smoldering ground fire was high. In the research, the experimental model for multi-layer smoldering ground fire is suggested and information about propagation of smoldering fire, possibility of reignition according to moisture content, propagation velocity and temperature change are obtained, Also, the built-up methods were established to help analyze basic characteristics of smoldering ground fire.
Analysis of Thermal Interrelation by Leakage Current in Open and Closed Statues
Kim, Doo-Hyun ; Kim, Sung-Chul ; Park, Jong-Young ; Choi, Seung-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 7~12
This paper is aimed the measurement and estimation the thermal interrelation based on leakage current. The leakage models are analyzed by parameters in open and closed (Panel) states and with wood dust and rainwater, charcoal powder in leakage current occurred point. The thermal characteristic of open state that leakage current is inputted in 90 mA is higher in charcoal powder (
) than in wood dust and rainwater (
). Charcoal powder that is inputted in 110 mA shows high thermal characteristic (
) and the thermal (
) is caused by material strain of electrical wire insulation and Panel. The closed state in 90 mA is higher in charcoal powder (
) than in wood dust and rainwater (
). The open and closed state appear thermal characteristics of two times in charcoal powder than in wood dust and rainwater. The thermal data that are open and close states are used electrical fire investigation and thermal characteristic for Leakage current.
A Study on the Actual Education Condition and Improvement of Education Program about Forest Fire
Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 13~19
In this study, surveys of forest fire division of eight local government about a education program for forest fire prevention and attacking of Forest Human Resources Development Institutes were conducted. In the result, questionnaire answers about improvements of curriculum, requested subject, training camp for forest fire attacking and others were analyzed. So, we made an alternative proposal of education program about forest fire for actively meeting a change of forest condition and forest fire management policy, strengthening of ability that officers in forest fire division required, and enhancing a efficiency.
The Analysis on the Effect of Supply Air Velocities by Location of Supply Air Damper on the Performance Efficiency of the Smoke Exhaust Systems
Yeo, Yong-Ju ; Lim, Chae-Hyun ; Kim, Hak-Jung ; Kim, Bum-Gyu ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 20~27
In smoke control systems the amount of air supply is almost the same as that of smoke exhaust. This study analyzed the effect of supply air velocity on the smoke exhaust behavior using FDS tool. The results showed that fire plume can be disheveled by the rapid air velocities developed when the air supply inlet is located near the fire plume. Disheveled smoke caused the rapid descent of smoke layer level and the reduced visibility. To increase the efficiency of smoke exhaust systems supply air inlet should be located sufficiently far from the location of the fire plume.
Application of Numerical Model for the Effective Design of Large Scale Fire Calorimeter
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 28~33
The present study develops a numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics technique to analyse the thermal flow characteristics of large scale fire calorimeter and examine the characteristics of primary parameters affecting on the uncertainty of heat release rate measurement. ANSYS CFX version 12.1 which is a commercial CFD package is used to solve the governing equations of the thermal flow field and the eddy dissipation combustion model and P-1 radiation model are applied to simulate the fire driven flow. The numerical results shows that the horizontal duct system with
bend duct was shown relatively high deviated asymmetric flow profiles at the sampling location and the deviation of the velocity field was higher than that of the temperature and species quantities. The present study shows that the computational model can be applicable to optimize the design process and operating condition of the large scale fire calorimeter based on the understanding of the detail flow field.
A Study on Disaster Management Officer's Perception about the Disaster Response Exercise - Focused on General Officers and Firemen -
Ko, Gi-Bong ; Lee, Si-Young ; Chae, Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 34~44
This research paper surveyed the awareness of general administrative officials who oversee the disaster management and firefighting officials who take part in emergency rescue work in local governments on disaster response exercises. The result of the survey showed that both officials acknowledged the need of the equipment used in disaster response exercises, securing the budgets for exercises, establishing a network among related institutions, reflecting actual conditions and local characteristics to the exercises, reflecting the result of exercise evaluations to the disaster response manual and next exercises, and securing a command communication system required for exercises.
A Study on the Awareness of Fire Safety and Evacuation Guide System
Baek, Eun-Sun ; Baek, Geon-Jong ; Shin, Hoon ; Song, Min-Jeong ; Kook, Chan ; Kim, Sun-Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 45~53
The purpose of this study is to find out the most effective evacuation alarm sound which is the one of the most important element of the evacuation guidance system as a fundamental mechanism to minimize the damages of a fire. In this regard, a survey was conducted against the firefighting officers and the general public with questions about the general awareness of fire and their preference to various kinds of fire alarm sounds. The result showed that 1) even though the awareness of the interviewees on fire was improving while there were in familiar places like homes or works. But, when they were situated in unfamiliar locations, the fire safety awareness could not be deemed to be strong. This in turn calls for the education of the public and improvement of the existing policies for the enhancement of the fire related safety awareness in unfamiliar environments. 2) For the question about the possible time they could survive in a fire or the time required for safe evacuation, it turned out that the interviewees were thinking of the time required for evacuation to be short, which calls for proper actions. 3) When the visibility in a fire situation is highly limited, the most preferred answer for the alarm sound was a female voice, saying "The emergency exit is this way," accompanies with flashing lights of sirens for the emergency evacuation guidance.
An Experimental Study on the Determination of the Flow Rate for a Feasible
Generator to Extinguish the Fire
Jang, Young-Keun ; Kim, Duk-Joo ; Suh, Byung-Taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 54~60
An experimental study has been carried out to determine the flow rate for a feasible N2 generator to extinguish the fire, and this study analogized the correlations to determine the flow rate for
generator considered an Oxygen concentration, protected enclosure, discharging pressure and discharging time. We manufactured simple protected enclosure for analyzing fire-extinguishing performance of the
generator. As a
gas is exhausted on protected enclosure, a various of Oxygen concentration is measured to analyze fire-extinguishing performance experimentally. The correlations determined as an uncertainty analysis for the Oxygen concentration deviations of the theoretical and experimental value. The analogized correlations is Q = (21
)-V. In case of
protected enclosure, 0.8 MPa discharging pressure and
flow rate, the Oxygen concentration is decreased below 15% within 3 minutes.
A Study on the Development of the Single Station Fixed Temperature Detector of Low Power Consumption for Residential Fire Prevention
Park, Se-Hwa ; Cho, Jae-Cheol ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 61~68
In this paper, a research and development result for the implementation of single station fixed temperature detector for residential fire prevention is described. The detector was developed for the certification in Japanese market because of very low domestic market situation. It is in the situation that there is no other regulation especially for residential detectors in Korea, Japanese case has been reviewed. Investigation of domestic legal circumstances and a comparative study for the test standard owned by KFI (Korea Institute of Fire Industry & Technology) and JFEII (Japan Fire Equipment Inspection Institute) respectively are also indicated. The detector alarms with a buzzer and an indicating LED. In the implementation ultra low power MCU(Micro Controller Unit) is applied to control the sleeping state and the monitoring state properly with low current consumption. To sense the temperature fast response thermistor is adopted in the design of fixed temperature residential detector. Automatic test function and alarm stop function are also considered in the design. The major factors which influence to current consumption are explained for the purpose of design reference. Main electronics circuit parts related to it's characteristics of the detector are described. It is explained that the measured current and experimental result of the battery discharge can be met over 10 years operation.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Behavior of CFT Column under the Constant Axial Loading Condition in Fire
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Min, Byung-Youl ; Kwon, In-Kyu ; Kwon, Ki-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 69~75
A concrete filled square steel tube (CFT) is composed of the external steel material, which its strength is reduced in fire due to sudden temperature increase, and the internal concrete with high thermal capacity that can ensure the fire resistance performance of the structure. Therefore, research about the influence factors of the structural performance of CFT column is required in order to apply CFT column to a fire resisting structure, and additional research about influence for each condition is also necessary. Among the influence factors, the boundary condition between column and beam is important structurally, and it is one of the major factors that determine overall fire resisting performance. This study performed a fire experiment under loading in order to analyse the influences of CFT column to the boundary condition. As the results of the experiment, fire resistance time of 106 minutes was ensured for the clamped-end condition but 89 minutes for the hinge-end condition in case of the 360 cross section. And, fire resistance time of 113 minutes was ensured for the clamped-end condition but 78 minutes for the hinge-end condition in case of the 280 cross section.
Measurement and Investigation of Combustible Properties of n-Heptane for Risk Assessment of Gasoline Tank
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Jeong, Kee-Sin ; Lee, Sung-Jin ; Cho, Yong-Sun ; Yoon, Myung-O ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 76~81
For the safe handling of n-heptane, the explosion limit at
, the temperature dependence of the explosion limits and the lower flash point were investigated. And AITs (auto-ignition temperatures) by ignition time delay for n-heptane were experimented. By using the literatures data, the lower and upper explosion limits of n-heptane recommended 1.0 Vol% and 7.0 Vol%, respectively. And the lower flash points of n-heptane recommended
. This study measured relationship between the AITs and the ignition delay times by using ASTM E659-78 apparatus for n-heptane and the experimental AIT of n-hexane was
. The new equation for predicting the temperature dependence of the explosion limits of n-heptane is proposed. The values calculated by the proposed equations were a good agreement with the literature data.
Study on Fire Resistance of Beams filled with Concrete at Web Through Temperature Analysis and Load-bearing Fire Tests
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 82~88
Major structural elements such as columns and beams are designed to withstand the vertical and horizontal loads. Futhermore, when the structural elements were engulfed with fire the structural stability should be stand without failure. The beams have been developed in aspects of structural stability but an evaluation of fire performance was not done. So the data of fire resistance performance of beams filled with concrete at web on H-section is not known. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the correlation between temperature analysis and fire test with the beams and to show the fire resistance performance with two methods.
A Study on the Performance Evaluation of Fitting for Light-gauge Stainless Steel Pipe
Nam, Jun-Seok ; Park, Joo-Hwan ; Min, Kyung-Tak ; Kim, Yeob-Rae ; Song, Chul-Gang ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 89~97
In recent fire protection system, the pipings should be light weighted, seismic proof and wrought with non-welding method. The light weighted stainless steel pipes and fittings, satisfying these requirements, are already used as a fire protection system in Germany, Netherland, Taiwan, Australia, United States and Japan. Accordingly, performance evaluation tests were carried out to determine whether or not the fittings can be used in the pipings. As the performance evaluation tests, we conducted vibration test, water hammering test, bending test and fire test. With the results of the tests, we concluded that the fittings can be used in the fire protection system, and that the life expectancy of the fittings exceeds that of buildings.
A Review of Temperature Measurement of Fire Driven Flow Using Thermocouple - Measurement Bias
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 98~103
A series of fire experiments have been performed to examine the measurement bias of the bare bead thermocouple widely used in fire testing and analyze the measurement bias of bare bead thermocouple comparing with the measured temperature using the aspirated thermocouple. The measured temperature of the bare bead thermocouple was lower than that of the aspirated thermocouple in the hot upper layer while it showed opposite trends in the upper layer. Also, the bare bead thermocouple showed higher measurement bias in the lower layer rather than upper layer in the compartment fire. The maximum relative percentage error of the bare bead thermocouple against the aspirated thermocouple reached 250% in the present study. The present study points out the need of correction process of the measured temperature by bare bead thermocouple for improving the reliability of the fire tests.
Experimental Study on Fire Resistance Performance of CFT (Concrete filled Tube) Column according to Cross Section of Steel, Concrete Compressive Strengths and Load Ratios
Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Min, Byung-Yeol ; Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 104~111
The strength of steel in a concrete filled steel tube (CFT) is reduced in a fire, but the concrete filled structurally ensures the fire resistance due to its high thermal capacity. This research analyzed the fire resistance performance due to the variances of concrete strength filled inside of steel tube and the load ratios, which can influence on the fire resistance of CFT. As
CFT columns with the concrete strengths of 24 MPa and 40 MPa and the axial load ratios of 0.9, 0.6, and 0.2 in accordance with KS F 2257-1 and 7 were heated with loading to examine the fire resistance performance, the fire resistance used to 24 MPa concrete showed 27, 113, and 180 minutes according to the axial load ratios, 0.9, 0.6, and 0.2 respectively. In case of 40 MPa concrete, the fire resistance were turned out to be 19 and 28 minutes for the axial load ratios, 0.9 and 0.6 respectively. The results of fire resistance with 40 MPa concrete showed the much lower fire resistance performance than those of 24 MPa concrete. In case of 40 MPa, the fire resistance performance was not increased significantly according to the axial load ratio than that of 24 MPa. The main reason why the higher concrete strength showed lower fire resistance than that of lower guessed the internal stress had the concrete strength weak.
A Study on the Analysis, and Improvement of Fire Investigation Related to Product Liability Law
Ko, Gi-Bong ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 112~119
In this research paper, the analysis, and improvement, of conditions of fire investigation related to products were derived. The results of the research showed that the main entity that plays the role of coordinator on the scene of fire investigation is unclear, systematic devices to protect the rights and interests of fire victims are inadequate, there are limitations in deriving the cause of fire due to the lack of fire appraisal organizations in fire departments, and the product companies are passive in their initial actions. As for improvement measures, it was found that the adoption of the system in which fire departments can play the role of mediator on the scene of fire investigation, the establishment and operation of fire appraisal organizations and research institutes in fire departments, and the establishment of network between fire departments and product companies are needed.
A Study on Combustion Characteristics of Wood-Plastic Composites
Shin, Baeg-Woo ; Song, Young-Ho ; Rie, Dong-Ho ; Chung, Kook-Sam ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 120~125
Wood-Plastic Composites (WPCs) are one of spotlighting materials for the residential construction and the industry for furniture. At this study, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was measured by ASTM D 2863 and the cone calorimeter test was done by ISO 5660-1 to find the combustion characteristics of WPCs. In addition, the identical test was implemented to compare the combustion characteristics between the red pine and the antiseptic wood. The result of LOI measurement showed that the LOI of WPCs was lower than that of red pine or antiseptic wood. The cone calorimeter test showed that the heat release rate (HRR) of WPCs was the highest and the Peak HRR as well as the average HRR and total heat release of WPCs was higher than those of red pine or antiseptized wood
A Study on the Development Plan of Fire Industry though R&D Vitalization
Shin, Mi-Young ; Jung, Do-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 126~132
Due to the change of future environment like high-rise building and the use of basement space etc, new types of disaster occur in recent years. The scale of disasters is changing to bigger than past and the environment of fire industry is varied with Korea-America FTA etc. As the reasons above expressed, the necessity of technical innovation of fire industry comes to the fore. Domestic fire products don't have competitive technique than one of developed countries and also don't have competitive price than one of Southeast Asia and China. It is very important that the independent fire industry must be established using R&D vitalization to overcome these problems. In this study, we have analysed the status of domestic R&D and the domestic fire industry R&D. And we suggested the problems of above analysis and improvement. Consequently, we want to suggest the development strategy through R&D vitalization.
Effects of Job-related Stress and Problem Solving Styles on Psychological Distress of Firefighters
Goh, Jin-Kyung ; Park, Jae-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 133~138
This study is aimed to investigate the relationship between job-related stressor, problem solving style and psychological distress and the effects of job-related stress and problem solving style on psychological distress of firefighters. The Job-related Stress Scale, Problem Solving Style Questionnaire, and the Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R) were administered to 148 firefighters working in Seoul and Gyounggi. Correlation analysis revealed that job-related stress, problem-solving styles such as helplessness and problem-solving control correlated positively with psychological distress and that problem-solving confidence and approaching style correlated negatively with it. Multiple regression analysis showed that job-related negative cognition and emotion, helplessness and approaching style accounted for 43% of the variance in the psychological distress. Among problem-solving styles, helplessness had the highest predictive power for psychological distress. Self-reported helplessness is an important determinant of firefighters' reactions to problematic situations encountered in their job.
Development of Auto Mixing System of High Expansion Foam for Optimal Expansion Performance according to Changing Temperature
Kim, Ha-Young ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 139~144
Fire fighting foam is expanded when it mix with many water in mechanical method. It have adaptability, mass production possibility, long-time storage possibility. But foam isn't recommended that it use for extinguish the fire in winter. Because of, expansion ratio is changed according to exterior temperature and environment. In this study, we analysis to effect of expansion according to temperature and develop auto mixing system available for fire engine. As a result of non-standard drug mixture is 3.0% up to 30.08% depending on the temperature of the fire showed that the difference in performance occurs. In addition, analysis of the applicability of automatic mixing system design values and actual experimental data as 0.012% maximum error of the applicability of the system obtained according nataname was judged.
A Study on the Combustion Efficiency Concept in Under-ventilated Compartment Fires
Ko, Gwon-Hyun ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Seul-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 145~152
A study on combustion efficiency concept was conducted for the under-ventilated fires in a fullscale ISO 9705 room. In particular, a comparison between global combustion efficiency (CE) measured outside the compartment and local CE measured at upper layer inside the compartment was focused. Heptane, toluene and iso-propanol were used to consider the wide ranges of heat of combustion and soot yield. As a result, the global CE was decreased linearly with increasing in global equivalence ratio (GER). On the other hand, the decreasing rate of local CE was increased gradually with increasing in GER. From these results, it was known that the information on local CE was very useful parameter to understand the fire phenomena inside the compartment. In addition, it was discussed that the local CE might be used as an important parameter in the process of scaling for the compartment fires.
Characteristics of Air Egress Velocity in Vestibule Pressurization System Using the Fire Dynamics Simulator
Ryu, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Su-Kyung ; Hong, Dae-Hwa ; Choi, Keum-Ran ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 153~159
In this study, we confirmed the fact that air egress velocity of pressure differential system installed at vestibule of smokeproof stairway in domestic high-rise building becomes back-flow to stair-lobby at upper vestibule. Rather it do not back-flow to the livingroom. when fire occur and the door opens to escape from fire zone. so we carry out actual and computational fluid dynamics measurement. In the case upward 45 gradient of supply damper's blade, The simulation results that air flow of upper vestible is steady but back-flow phenomenon occurred at the bottom. However, in the case of
, direction of the flow was ideal to living room. If a vestibule’s area is smaller, it must be designed and built according to performance-based design.
An Empirical Analysis on the Firefighters' Recognition about Risk Induction Factors: Focus on Nicognition Differences between Firefighters of Seoul and Gyunggi Privince
Hyun, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Yeong-Woo ; Choi, Hee-Cheon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 160~169
A firefighter is one of the most dangerous jobs. But in many precent studies, risk induction factors have been understood as direct accident causes and classification of the factors are not logical. This studies reviews risk induction risks and categorized them into institutional, cultural and personal experience factors. institutional factors, Institutional factors are composed of educational and working conditions. Cultural factors are composed of performance oriented and considerate parts. Personal experiences are divided into two parts: experiences about organizational members and about ordinary citizens. Survey showed that working conditions were recognized so poorly by firefighters.
The Effects of Carbon Dioxide as Additives on Soot Formatio in Jet Diffusion Flames
Ji, Jung-Hoon ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 24, issue 6, 2010, Pages 170~175
The effect of carbon dioxide addition on soot formation was investigated in jet diffusion flames in coflow. Flame temperature were measured with R-type thermocouple and the boundary temperature between blue and yellow flame was confirmed. Light-extinction method was introduced for the relative soot density (1-I/
) in the in-flame region. He-Ne laser with wave length at 632.8 nm was used for the light source, and the signal attenuated by absorption and scattering was detected directly. Oxidizer velocity effect on soot formation was studied to know that the thermal influence for soot formation. The results showed that the temperature of both blue and yellow flame were decreased according to the dilution of carbon dioxide but boundary temperature was nearly constant. The relative soot density was lower when carbon dioxide was added in oxidizer stream and oxidizer velocity increased. These were caused by the reduction of flame temperature and shorter residence time for soot growth. Also carbon dioxide addition enhanced the instability of jet flames like flickering, so the flame length was a little longer than pure ethylene/air flame.