Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
Comparison of Evacuation Efficiency for Stair Width and Code for Occupant Load Calculation in High-rise Buildings
Lee, Yang-Ju ; Ko, Kyoung-Chan ; Park, Woe-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~6
An evacuation simulation was carried out to confirm evacuation efficiency for stair width and problems in calculation of occupant load for high-rise buildings. The evacuation time and number of evacuated persons from a 39 story condominium-mercantile building were calculated by using Simulex for stair widths of 1.2 m, 1.5 m, and 1.8 m. The total occupant load based on the Korean code was higher than the number of actual residents by 2.3 times, and that based on the NFPA 101 Life Safety Code by 2.6 times, respectively. For the occupant load based on the Korean code, smaller stair width resulted in lower evacuation efficiencies due to bottlenecks in egress. For the actual residents and NFPA code-based occupant load, a high evacuation efficiency and negligible effects of the stair width on evacuation efficiency were confirmed. It was shown that there was a bottleneck even at the stair width of 1.8 m for the Korean code-based occupants, while the stair width of 1.2 m provided safe egress to the actual residents or NFPA code-based occupants. This recommended further studies on possibility of lowering the level of the Korean code in calculation of the occupant load.
A Research for Identification Method of Sprayed Fire-Resistive Material by Thermal Analysis
Cho, Nam-Wook ; Rie, Dong-Ho ; Shin, Hyun-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 7~12
As recent buildings are getting more high-rise and larger, steel structures, not a reinforced concrete structure, for columns and beams among the main structural members in a building are being widely used. Steels used for the main members of a building are constructed with a fire-resistive structure by applying them with fire-resistive coatings. The introduction of a simple test method that can verify the performance of fire-resistive material constructed on a site without conducting a fire-resistant test(real scale fire test) is needed and this study derived a site analysis method possible to make a rapid and scientific analysis through the analysis of components (instrumental analysis) concerning tire-resistive materials. the possibility of application of it in analyzing congruence over site construction materials by recognizing it as a standard material after securing an inherent fingerprint area of tire-resistive materials of which performance was verified in the concrete through thermal analysis was proved through experiments. This research result can be minimize of casualties, who is harmed to building collapse according to structures fire.
Study for Using VR Techniques Performance Evaluation of the Elevator Evacuation
Ro, Se-Ho ; Yoon, Sung-Wook ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 13~18
In the disaster prevention design, it is important point to secure escape way at event of fire which makes people away from the fire more quickly and safely. Development of construction techniques leads to build many skyscrapers, and skyscrapers contains various dangers and increase levels of disaster. At basic design stage for skyscrapers, evacuation scenario is considered that occupants are escape using escape stairs and emergency elevators simultaneously at fire, but there is no evacuation program to simulate using escape stairs and emergency elevators at the same time. In this study, evacuation simulation is performed using method of VR which is based on Virtools of 3DVIA Co., and Simulex of IES Co. for safety and effectiveness where occupants are escape using escape stairs and emergency elevators simultaneously at the fire.
A Study on the Walking Speed of Crowd for Safety Evacuation Design of the Elderly
Hong, Hae-Ri ; Seo, Dong-Goo ; Hasemi, Yuji ; Kown, Young-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 19~26
Korea is rapidly becoming an aging society. As a basic research on increasing evacuation safety design at silver facilities, the study was conducted in consideration of different foot's pace according to the number of seniors and their locations in a crowding of ordinary people and seniors all together. When the seniors were located at the front, the pace reduced to 0.81m/s on average. With 10 seniors which covered 50% of the crowd, the pace decreased to 0.85m/s. It is true that Korea has no existing researches on evacuation behaviour, and functions mentioned in its evacuation safety design is lack of practicality. Therefore, it is certainly necessary to secure any data of the evacuation behavior through various studies on seniors' evacuation behaviors.
Improvement and Analysis of Fire-Fighting Service in an Aging Society
Chung, Guh-Sung ; Kim, Hyung-Doo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 27~33
Recently in Korea, the percentage of the population that is elderly has been increasing rapidly because of lower national birthrates, improvements of medical technologies and techniques, and improved diet. The trend toward an aging population has exceeded the capabilities of the existent Korean welfare system and has caused economic problems such as a lack of new jobs. The government's policies in welfare and infrastructure are insufficient. The fire-fighting administration provides special services for the elderly, including "silver ambulances." In addition, using modem technology, the administration is working on emergency contact devices for the elderly in case of accidents. The aim of this paper is to analyze the services provided for the elderly and to examine improved solutions for the fire-fighting administration.
A Study on the Effective Smoke Control Method of Large Volume Space Comparted by Smoke Reservoir Screen
Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 34~41
This research examines problem that can happen in partial smoke control method among contiguity area smoke control system through engineering examination and CFD. And the ultimate purpose of this is to secure safety of a person inhabiting at fire department by presenting improvement plan. Now a days, in large space-area such as department store or mega-mall in which mainly applies "Partial Smoke Control Method", air is suppled from adjacent area and smoke is exhausted in fire room. For various reason, however, it is confirmed through simulation that if air is suppled in one direction, this can cause a fatal result to people of fire area because of the difficulty in securing the evacuation time. As an improvement plan, air is supplied at the same time in surroundings to fire department.
The Influence of Compressive Strength and Moisture Contents on Explosive Spalling of Concrete
Kim, Dong-Joon ; Han, Byung-Chan ; Lee, Jae-Young ; Harada, Kazunori ; Kwon, Young-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 42~49
In the high temperature situation like in a fire, the high strength of concrete (HSC) has extreme danger named explosive spalling. It is assumed that the major cause of explosive spalling is water vapour pressure inside concrete. This paper examines the effect of the compressive strength and the moisture content on the initial occurrence of explosive spalling. For the effective experiment of the initial explosive spalling, the curve of ISO834 temperature profile is applied on the basis of 15 minute and 30 minute. As a result, the more increase the compressive strength and the moisture content, the more increase the occurrence and phenomenon of explosive spalling. This paper analyzes the territory of explosive spalling depending the compressive strength and the moisture content. The explosive spalling is not examined in the case of the compressive strength 50~100 MPa and the moisture content below 3% and the compressive strength over 100 MPa and the moisture content below 1%. Also, due to the HSC, which makes it more difficult to transport vapour and moisture, very high vapour-pressure may occur close to the surface, there is a greater risk that HSC spalls compared with normal strength concrete (NSC).
A Study on Investigation Method of the Electric Fire Scene Caused by Lightning
Song, Jae-Yong ; Sa, Seung-Hun ; Nam, Jung-Woo ; Kim, Jin-Pyo ; Park, Nam-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 50~56
In recently years, occurrences of lightning return strokes have been increased by global worming effect and intensity of lightning impulse voltage and current accompanied by lightning discharges has being strengthening. In Korea, 560 thousand lightning discharges happened in 200S. According to the increasing frequencies of lightning, human deaths and damages to the structure have been increased steadily. Electric fire caused by lightning return strokes due to the breakdown between power line and ground line from the ground potential rise on a process of the lightning impulse current through to the ground. The damages of lightning were occurring at same time in the neighboring areas of the lightning point. In order to protect from the lightning stroke, we made a suggestion to use protection devices and equipotential bonding at the dangerous areas. The analysis results of electric fires caused by lightning would be utilized to investigate and to find accurate fire cause in the fire scenes.
Flash Points of the Binary Solutions Using Cleveland Open Cup Tester
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Lee, Sung-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 57~62
The flash point is one of the most significant combustion properties of flammable liquids in industrial processes when evaluation process safety, In this paper, Cleveland open cup tester is used to measure the flash points for the two binary systems (n-propanol + formic acid and acetic acid + propionic acid). The measured flash points were compared with the values calculated by the Raoult's law and the optimization method using van Laar and Wilson equations. The calculated values based on the optimization method were found to be better than those based on the Raoult's law.
An Experimental Study on Structural Behaviour of Asymmetric H Beam Slim floor under Load Condition in Fire
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Min, Byung-Youl ; Lee, Jae-Sung ; Park, Soo-Yong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 63~71
When it comes to slim floor using asymmetric H-beam, it was designed that the steel member is embedded in concrete with relatively low thermal conductivity so as to minimize the deterioration of rigidity of steel member in fire. But given the bottom flange of asymmetric H-beam is directly exposed to the fire, the measure of applying the fireproof coating to improve the fire rate performance of slim floor beam was sought. The test was aimed at comparing the fireproof performance by adjusting the load ratio of 0.4 and 0.3, and The test was carried out to identify the 3-hour fire performance by reinforcing the beam as well as applying the fireproof coat, In the wake of comparing the specimen depending on variation of load ratio, lowering load ratio by 0.1 resulted in difference of 12 minutes and deflection was 39 mm. It was able to improve 12 minutes by reinforcing the beam and up to 102.4 mm in deflection.
A Study on the Character and Walking Velocity of Crowd Going up Stairs
Park, Jae-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 72~77
The effort of transferring some parts of urban functions to the underground space is growing trend among modem cities because of the limit of horizontal land use, the rise of land value, the diversification of human desire, etc. Thus, the basement of building and the subway station have deepened. It calls our attention to safety about evacuation from the underground space to the ground. Until now, the study about crowding walk in stairs has been progressed, focusing on the crowding walk that is going down the stairs, and there is no study about crowding walk that is going up the stairs. This study measured walking pace by crowd density that is going up the stairs in the subway station stairs making one-way movement of crowd. The actual survey showed that the mathematical relation 'V=0.638-0.0949p' determines going up walking velocity at a gradient of
, and the mathematical relation will be 'V=0.597-0.1067p' at a gradient of
, when it is converted, based on the average walking velocity of crowd by the slope of the stairs which is recommended by Architectural Institute of Japan.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Resistance Performance of the Reinforced Concrete Columns According to the Cross Section Size and Depth of Concrete Cover
Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Yeo, In-Hwan ; Cho, Bum-Yeon ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Min, Byung-Yeol ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 1, 2011, Pages 78~84
Recent researches of the fire resistance in concrete focus on how to secure relevant functions in the high strength concrete. However, the demand of normal strength concrete less than 40 MPa takes most of the total concrete demand. Therefore, fire resistance study needs to cover not only high strength concretes but also normal strength concretes. This study evaluated the fire resistance performance of 40 MPa concrete columns, taking the concrete covering thickness and the size of section as variables. Consequently, the fire resistance performance improved as the section size and the covering thickness became larger.