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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
A Basic Study on Required Performance and Development Direction of Fire Resistance Wall on High-rise Building
Kim, Dae-Hoi ; Park, Soo-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 1~7
Recently the interest in disaster prevention on super tall buildings is increasing. Especially in fire, against increasing of evacuation time due to high-rise, It is being tried to minimize the fire spread in building. Fire compartments using the fire-resistant wall and door, typical method to control the fire spread in buildings, delay the fire spread to other compartments and consequently evacuation time increases. But the existing provisions adjure only 2-hour fire resistance with maximum limit regardless of the super tall buildings, so this is a obstacle for research and development of the fire resistance wall in super tall buildings. In this study, we reviewed the fire resistance ratings of the wall, and presented the development directions for the fire resistance wall in super tall buildings considering fire resistance, construction and application of the wall.
Analysis of Forest Fires during Chosun Dynasty through Historical Literature Survey
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kang, Young-Ho ; Kim, Kwang-Il ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 8~21
This study surveyed historical records on outbreak and features of forest fires during Chosun Dynasty's 518 years in being and analyzed the Annals of the Chosun Dynasty; The Diaries of the Royal Secretariat, archives from Records of the Border Defense Council, The Compilation of Ministry Proposals, Posthumous Records of King Cholchong etc. Forest fires were most prevalent and extreme during King Hyunjong (14 cases) and King Sunjo (13 cases) due to strong wind, and the biggest-ever forest fire broke out in the fourth year of King Soonjo (1804) in the east coast of Korea in Kangwon province. The fire had resulted in 61 fatalities and 2,600 destroyed houses. Forest fire in the east coast of Korea, Kangwon province, in the
year of King Hyeonjong (1672) is recorded to have caused the highest number of deaths, 65people. The most frequent cause of forest fires during Chosun Dynasty was unidentified (42 cases), followed by accidental fire (10 cases), arson or lightning (3 cases), fire during hunting (2 cases), play with fire by children, destruction of patty fields and dry fields by fire and house fire (1 case respectively). By region, 56 % of forest fires erupted in the east coast (39 cases) and this was followed by the west sea (9 cases), Seoul and central region (8 cases) and the southern part of Korea (7 cases). By season, spring was found to be most vulnerable to forest fire as it accounted for 73 % of the total amounting to 46 cases. Behind were summer (11 cases), winter (6 cases) and autumn (0 case). Specifically, most forest fire broke out on April and May, which is the same as today. Archives and literature indicate that the person who involved in forest fire by accidental as well as arson had to be punished by banishment, expulsion from government office and public hanging. Also, officials in charge of the region that suffered forest fire were subject to reprimand. In conclusion, risk and gravity of forest fires were evident during the Chosun Dynasty as specified in historical archives and share many similarities with today's forest fires in terms of the duration and regional patterns.
An Experimental Study on Fire Resistance Performance Test of Non-loadbearing Ceiling Systems
Choi, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Dae-Hoi ; Park, Soo-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 22~27
Fire resistance ceiling system is the structure of which the ceiling installed under the slave of the structure has the fire resistance performance. Because of having the fire resistance performance, fire resistive coatings on steel beams can be reduced and large span structures can be constructed. So, it have advantages of convenience for construction, shorten for construction time and cost reducing. In foreign country, it is general that one system consisting of slave and ceiling is constructed as a fire resistance system. But in Korea, there are no fire resistance ceiling systems thus economical efficiency due to being high-rise and light-weight of structures is not secured. Therefore research and development of nominal fire resistance ceiling systems is necessary. On this study, fire resistances of standard non-loadbearing ceiling systems were assessed and basic informations for developing the fire resistance non-loadbearing ceiling systems were presented.
The Measurement and Investigation of Fire and Explosion Characteristics of Cyclohexanone
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 28~34
For the safe handling of cyclohexanone, the explosion limits at
were investigated. The lower flash points and AITs (auto-ignition temperatures) by ignition time delay for cyclohexanone were experimented. By using the literatures data, the lower and upper explosion limits of cyclohexanone recommended 1.1 Vol.% (
) and 9.4 Vol.%, respectively. The lower flash points of cyclohexanone were experimented
by using closed-cup tester and
by using open cup tester. This study measured relationship between the AITs and the ignition delay times by using ASTM E659-78 apparatus for cyclohexanone and the experimental AIT of cyclohexanone was
A Comparative Study on Toxic Gas Index and Stop Time of Mouse Activity
Cho, Nam-Wook ; Lee, Jong-Cheon ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 35~41
Casualties due to toxic smoke products have been reported as major fire damage. There are various tests in order to evaluate toxic smoke from a fire at home and abroad, and KS F 2271 as a test of the gas hazard of building finish materials has been conducted in Korea. The current test of the gas hazard exposes rodent, laboratory rat, to smoke gases to evaluate combustion gas toxicity by measuring acting time of that. this study performed a test of the gas hazard for combustible polymer material, Urethane and rubber flooring, and determined gases with the FT-IR. Quantitative results compared with standard value defined in BS6853 and toxicity index (R) was calculated. Using relative comparison with animal test and the toxicity index, We tried a variety of toxicity evaluation by correlation analysis of two tests.
A Study on the Design Factors of Complex Damper for Ventilation and Fire Protection
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 42~47
This study carried out the design and analysis of complex damper as basis study for development of complex damper for ventilation and fire protection. This study established design and analysis theory of complex damper based on process, kinematics mechanism and mechanism modelling of complex damper. And this study established engineering data construction and a source technology that can design each element of complex damper through motion analysis simulation based on design and analysis theory. Therefore, it got result that can apply comprehensively in development of complex damper for ventilation and fire protection from this study. Also, it sees that can ready control means and technological countermeasure of smoke to developed of complex damper with this study.
Failure Analysis of the Rate of Rise Spot Type Heat Detector on Artificially Accelerated Aging
Kim, Chan-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 48~55
This paper presents the failure analysis of the rate of rise spot type heat detectors on artificially accelerated aging. The failures of heat detector turned out by two reasons. The first one is the separation of binder from plastic moulding, resulting in the leakage of air from heat chamber. The second reason is the crack of plastic. The large cracks were maybe created by these reasons, thermal expansion difference, mechanical stress, or growth of microcrack. In the sound detector, the separation and the crack were not occurred or not developed to the critical size. The glass fibers which increase the mechanical strength were added in the binder of detector 2010G. The densities of binder or plastic of each detector were similar. However, the TGA result shows that the thermal characteristics of 2005A and 2005B were not similar.
A Study Comparing Korean, Chinese, and Japanese Fire Investigation Operating System
Choi, Jin-Man ; Kim, Kil-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 56~63
When enforcing fire investigation, duty for basic principles, responsibility of investigation, report deadline, and all sorts of standard forms are based on fire investigation report regulation which is internal instructions. This study has a purpose to prepare alternatives that are absent in Korea or have to be strengthened by comparing and examining Japanese and Chinese fire investigation report regulations with Korean one. As a result, it appears that Korea needs to standardize the report deadline of urgency fire and general fire into 30 days when additional investigation is needed, have investigators draw delays reports up when they exceed the deadline not to make work vacuum, and found and organize forms of certificate of custody and return for all fire related materials when investigators require data from fire-related people, to improve whole systems.
Analysis of Policies to Activate the Volunteer Fire Brigade in Japan
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 64~73
Japan is a representative state where the volunteer fire brigade consisting of private citizens is well developed although it has an advanced fire fighting system established by local governments. Japan realized the limitation of response by governmental fire fighting system when large-scale natural disasters such as earthquake or typhoon and has developed and promoted several policies to activate the volunteer fire brigade. This study analyzes the policies of the volunteer fire brigade in Japan in detail and suggests policies which can be introduced to activate the volunteer fire brigade in Korea.
A Numerical Study on the Influence of the Shaft Geometry on the Stack Effect
Jeon, Heung-Kyun ; Choo, Hong-Lok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 74~81
The numerical analyses for three different shafts in geometry of high buildings were carried out by using computational fluid dynamics model (FDS ver.5.3) for the calculation of the pressure difference and the location of the neutral plane and the visualization of stack effect. At 10 seconds of stack effect, the pressure difference of stack effect in the elevator shaft (79.3 Pa) almost corresponded to the theoretical value (78 Pa). At 300 seconds of stack effect, all the neutral planes of three cases were located about 49 m above floor, where was 5 m higher than the theoretical value. The maximum pressure difference between upper and lower position of shaft decreased with increasing of the geometrical complexity of shaft. This study showed that there was the difference of the stack effects among the geometries of shafts with the visualization of stack effect.
A Study on the Response Characteristics of the Wireless Fire Detector Depending on the Wall Types
SaKong, Seong-Ho ; Kim, Si-Kuk ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Kim, Hyeong-Gweon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 82~88
In this paper, an experiment was performed to confirm the effectiveness and the reliability of the wireless fire detector with a 2.4 GHz wireless module which is widely used for commercial purpose. It was the experiment of transmitted waves of wireless signals using samples of typical obstacles such as walls which may affect the wireless communication environment in the building. The experiment results show that the transmitted signal had differences in the response characteristics by wall types.
A Study for Pressure Difference and Critical Velocity by Pressurization of Elevator Shaft at High Rise Apartment
Park, Kyung-Hwan ; Yoon, Myong-O ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 89~93
It is not recommended that elevator use for egress at (super) high rise buildings because elevator shaft main roles to spread of fire smoke. But in North America used to protect this area by elevator shaft pressurization. These tests are performed at high rise apartment to verify that elevator shaft pressurization can protect to spread of fire smoke or not. and verify to used for egress at fire. Pressurization at elevator shaft make pressure difference of 50 Pa all floor at 150 CMM because this method have low friction loss from air flow. Also when dwelling door and elevator door are opened that critical velocity is performed to protect of back-layering from fire room for escape routs by 180 CMM. Therefore through out these pressurization tests by elevator shaft are estimated to have less overpressure because supply air difference are low between to satisfy critical velocity at one door opened and maintain to pressure difference all doors closed. Finally we verified that disable or residual people can use elevator for egress at fire by elevator shaft pressurization.
Full-Scale Test of Smoke-Control Performance of a Subway Tunnel
Park, Won-Hee ; Lee, Duck-Hee ; Jung, Woo-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 94~102
Hot smoke test is done in a subway tunnel. Alcohol trays of 1.0 MW and smoke generators are used for generating hot smoke. The fans equipped with the tunnel are successively run 9 min after smoke generation. It is verified how hot smoke is controlled by fans. Velocity and direction of flow, temperature and smoke density are measured and analyzed for smoke control performance of the tunnel with fans and analyzed from the fire-safety-point of view. Velocity of smoke flow is obtained by using measured velocity and temperature at the ceiling of the tunnel. The time when smoke-control flow is builded up is different for the different positions. Velocity distributions at various positions will be used for the boundaries and the comparison data in numerical simulations for evaluation on smoke-control facilities of subway tunnel.
Study of Smoke Behavior and Differential Pressure in the Refuge Safety Area According to Damper Capacity of Smoke Control
Lee, Jae-Bin ; Moon, Joo-Hyun ; Lee, Seong-Hyuk ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 4, 2011, Pages 103~109
In this study, we calculated the smoke movement at the fire area of the refuge floor which has the refuge safety area in case of fire in the high rise building by using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code of FLUENT (ver. 13.0). The buoyancy plume was applied using the temperature and flow velocity which represent 10 MW heat release rate in order to describe the fire, and the smoke movement was predicted using a species conservation equation. The pressurization system of smoke control was adopted with smoke control damper in refuge safety area, at the result, it is confirmed that the damper capacity was enough to smoke control in which the flow rate of supply was applied 25
in the case of the door at fire area opened only, and 50
in the doors at the fire area and lobby both opened case. They were satisfied in NFSC 501-A. Even though the door of fire area closed, there were smoke leakages at the gap between the door and wall. In addition, the refugee could be isolated in the fire area when the door of fire area closed during smoke control in the case of using the high damper flow rate of supply, 50
. Therefore the proper damper flow rate of supply are needed in order to prevent the damage of refugee and this study proposes the suitable condition of damper capacity according to refuge scenario.