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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 25, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
A Study on Evaluation Methods for the Fire-retardant Performance of Hanok Components
Kwark, Ji-Hyun ; Choi, Jung-Min ; Ku, Jae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 1~7
In this study, standards and test methods for building materials of domestic and foreign countries were compared and analyzed to propose evaluation methods for the fire-retardant performance of HANOK components (Traditional house). IBC and NFPA codes recently have been adopted in the US, and the properties such as critical heat flux, fire spread index and smoke density are being used as an evaluation reference. In Europe, the unified Euroclass has been adopted and the surface flammability, prototype fire test or cone calorimeter test are conducted for the performance test. Japan has the similar system as Korea where the class is classified into 3 grades. We tried to study a quantitative evaluation method of fire retardant performance for the HANOK components based on the analysis results of the several countries' standards and test methods for building materials.
Study on the Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Mortar for Fire Protection Covering Material in High Strength Concrete
Lim, Seo-Hyung ; Yoo, Suk-Hyung ; Moon, Jong-Woog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 8~13
High strength concrete is the occurrence of explosive spalling associated with high temperature such as a fire. The spalling causes the sever reduction of the cross sectional area with the exposure of the reinforcing steel, which originates a problem in the structural behaviour. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mechanical properties of lightweight mortar using perlite and polypropylene fiber for fire protection covering material. For this purpose, selected test variables were the ratio of water to cement, the ratio of cement to perlite, contents of polypropylene fiber. As a result of this study, it has been found that addition of perlite and polypropylene fiber to mortar modifies its pore structure and reduces its density. And it has been found that a new lightweight mortar can be used in the fire protection covering material.
A Study on Reduction Method of Stack Effect at Stairwell of High-Rise Building
Kim, Jung-Yup ; Shin, Hyun-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 14~20
As the height of the building increases, the stack effect in stairwell that is main facilities for evacuation becomes stronger. While the pressure rise in stairwell causes difficulties on opening the door for evacuation and has effect on smoke control system, reduction of stack effect will be necessary for providing more safe evacuation environment. The field experiments on pressure field in high-rise building are carried out to present reduction method of stack effect and the numerical analyses using network model are proceeded to design quantitatively the reduction method. As the air flow supplied from outside in lower stair and exhausted to outside in upper stair is formed in stairwell, the stack effect in stairwell is expected to be decreased.
Prehospital Care of 119 EMT for Non-traumatic Cardiac Arrest and Improvement to Increase Advanced Care Rate
Lee, Kyoung-Youl ; Yun, Seong-Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 21~31
This study aimed at evaluating and developing 119 emergency medical technicians' prehospital care for non-traumatic cardiac arrest. Total 322 EMT in Chungnam province and Daejeon city filled out the self-administered questionnaire. The data were analyzed by SPSS 18.0 for descriptive statistics. Among the 322 EMT, 309 (97%) and 169(53%) always or almost performed CPR and AED for nontraumatic cardiac arrest patient, respectively. Among the advanced EMT and nurse, IV were sometimes or not performed at 94.7% and medication including epinephrine which commonly used for survival of cardiac arrest were treated just at 9.3 % (14 person). The reason they did not perform each procedure for airway management, AED or IV was lack of manpower, limit of time or joggle of ambulance and legal restrictions. In conclusion, to increase survival rate of non-traumatic cardiac arrest in out-of-hospital, it is necessary to increase manpower, legal protection of EMS, establishment of standard operating procedure, practice for improvement technique and use of medication for ACLS.
Computer Controller Design and Movement of Hovercraft Driving Apparatus
Baek, Dong-Hyun ; Song, Ho-Bin ; Cho, Moon-Tack ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 32~38
Amphibious possible, and good fuel economy, so as leisure and transport has increased the use of hovercraft. Fire started in Korea, the prevalence is increasing in demand as the trend has been increasing steadily. In this paper, the hovercraft's forward and backward direction can be controlled in order to free the reverse bucket control system was developed. Control due to development by promoting the flow of air and turn right, turn left and easy to reverse the life-saving and stable at high speed, etc. has made possible the operation of hovercraft. The controller for the stability and fast response Fuzzy-PID method was used. To prove the validity of the proposed controller in Matlab simulation and the actual delivery at the firehouse, built into a model for the demonstration test was performed.
The Analysis of Distribution and Characteristics of Forest Fires Damage over 30 ha in Korea
Lee, Hyung-Seok ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 39~46
In order to consider the prevention countermeasure to the occurrence of forest fires, analysing characteristic of the past forest fire data is needed. This research analyzed distribution and characteristics of forest fires damage over 30 ha based on statistics data of forest fires in Korea between 1975 and 2010. As a result, the number of forest fires damage over 30 ha as 23 was most occurred in 1978. Forest fires show an upward tendency from 1970 to 2000. Forest fires of 30 ha~50 ha damaged area was most occurred. Forest fire in Gangwon province was occurred as the number of total 66 (37.0 %). Gangwon province was superior in point density analysis. The number of forest fire occurrence over 30 ha was most high to 114 (63.0 %) in April and to 44 (24.3 %) in Sunday. The occurrence number of forest fire and damage caused by forest fire is increasing more and more since 1975, appropriate authorities can use effectively in devising policy for forest fire prevention from this result.
Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Live Fire Load in a Bookstore
Nam, Dong-Gun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 47~53
Fire load in buildings greatly contribute to the time and scale of fire according to the type and quantity of the fire load. Because bookstores have a large quantity of fire load compared with other buildings which may lead to large scale fires, however, their heat release characteristics have been hardly investigated. In this study, to obtain the data applicable for the performance-based fire safety design of bookstores, the specimens representing stacked fire loads were heated in a furnace in compliance with the standard heating curve of ISO834-1:1999 to investigate their heat release characteristics. From the experiment result, the combustion velocity and heat release rate required for performancebased fire safety designs are obtained.
A Study on the Needs to Improve the Regulations and the Design Features of Fire Protection for UAE Nuclear Power Plants
Ma, Jin-Soo ; Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 54~61
The study is to analysis of fire protection regulations for the nuclear power plants (NPP) in the United States, Japan, the UAE (United Arab Emirates), and Korea with the intention of exporting NPP to the UAE. Fire protection regulations for NPP for these countries permit the fire protection design and facilities in accordance with the evaluation of the potential fire hazards. However, in Korea, the NPP is a part of power generation facilities in Korea fire protection law, and the atomic energy act classifies them as the reactor and related nuclear facilities. The fire protection law and atomic energy act are different to the criteria for the fire protection of NPP. To maintain the leading position as a nuclear exporting country, the performance-based fire hazard analysis should be reasonably incorporated in the design of the fire protection system. It was suggested that the integrated requirements of the fire protection for NPP should be incorporated to the construction article for the fire protection facilities specified in paragraph 2 of Act II, being classified into the special objects to be protected against fire, which requires a performance-based design in order to incorporate the specific requirements for NPP.
A Study on Fire Characteristics of Solid Combustible Materials Based on Real Scale Fire Test
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 62~68
A series of fire tests involving realistic solid combustible materials was conducted to quantify the heat release rate and investigate the fire growth characteristics during the initial fire growth stage. For these tests, single/double wood cribs, urethane cushion having polypropylene covers and wood crib on nylon carpet with urethane carpet padding were used as a fuel source. The fire growth coefficient of the solid combustible materials was quantified and the fire growth characteristics were compared with the
fire scenario. The mean effective heat of combustion was evaluated by the total mass loss of fuel and total energy release concept and examined the effect of the ventilation and fire condition. The present study provides the practical information on the fire growth characteristics of solid combustible material to design to a set of fire scenarios for the fire risk analysis.
Combustive Properties of Low Density Polyethylene and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Composites Including Magnesium Hydroxide
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 69~75
It was performed to test the combustive properties of low density polyethylene and ethylene vinyl acetate (LDPE-EVA) composite by the addition of magnesium hydroxide. Flame retardant of natural magnesium hydroxide was added to the mixture of LDPE-EVA in 40 to 80 wt% concentration. The composite was compounded to prepare specimen for combustive analysis by cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). Comparing with virgin LDPE-EVA, the specimens including the magnesium hydroxide had lower flashover possibility. It is supposed that the combustive properties in the composites decreased due to the endothermic decomposition of magnesium hydroxide. The specimens with magnesium hydroxide showed both the lower total heat release rate (THR) and lower CO production rate than those of virgin polymer. As the magnesium hydroxide content increases, the total smoke release (THR) and smoke extinction area (SEA) decreased.
Study on Fire Resistance of H-Section Beams Filled with Concrete at Web
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 76~84
Steel beams are one of primary member and those carries the horizontal load and floor load to axial member. To avoid structural failure when the steel beams are exposed to fire, fire resistance performance requires. Till now, the evaluation for fire resistance of the beam was conducted using the maximum load and standard fire curve defined in the KS F 2257. But recently the constructional patterns are changing toward multi-function performance to get a better structural performance and fire resistance as well. In this paper to get the databases for fire resistance, limiting temperatures of the beam, load-bearing fire tests according to load ratios, two grades of compressive concrete strengths were applied.
An Experimental Study on The Fire Resistance Performance and Spalling of 100 MPa HSC Column Mixed Fiber-Cocktail
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kim, Heung-Yonl ; Park, Kyung-Hoon ; Yeo, In-Hwan ; Kwon, Ki-Hyuck ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 85~92
Along the fire resisting capacity of high strength concrete has been brought up as a social issue, and the Ministry of Land also had notified the control standard about it, the researches for improving the fire resisting capacity have been considerably activated these days. In this study, we performed a research for developing a high strength concrete, contains the fiber cocktail, which is a hybrid of polypropylene fiber as organic matter, and steel fiber. As we analyzed the temperature of the steel part during the fire test with 100 MPa high strength concrete, there was a tendency that the lower temperature comes out with the larger cross section, and the
cross sectioned can secure the fire resistance capability, so the
is deducted as the optimal size if we consider the double economic feasibility. As well, among them the best qualified
shapes, the fiber cocktail hybrid of
PP fiber and
of steel, comes out the best ratio.
Prediction Performance of FDS on the Carbon Monoxide Production in the Under-Ventilated Fires
Ko, Gwon-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 93~99
In the present study, a numerical simulation was conducted to estimate the prediction performance of FDS on the carbon monoxide production in the under-ventilated compartment fires. Methane and heptane fires located in the a 2/5 scale compartment based on the ISO-9705 standard room was simulated using FDS Ver. 5.5. Through the comparison between the computed results and the earlier published experimental data, the performance of FDS was estimated on the predictions of the combustion gases concentration in the hot upper layer of the compartment and the effects of CO yield rate on the estimation of CO production at local points were analyzed. From the results, it was known that FDS Ver. 5.5, in which the two-step reaction mixture fraction model implemented, was more effective on the prediction of CO concentration compared to the previous FDS version. In addition, controlling CO yield rate made the predicted CO concentration get closer to the experimental data for the fires of the under-ventilated condition.
An Experimental Study on the Adaption of Announcement Based Evacuation Guidance System using Haas Effect in Large Space
Baek, Eun-Sun ; Baek, Geon-Jong ; Shin, Hoon ; Song, Min-Jeong ; Kook, Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 100~107
In this study, a simulated situation in which the visions of the evacuees were blocked by the smoke, which is one of the most dangerous factors that cause casualties in case of an emergency, was conducted for the evaluation of the performance of an evacuation guidance system. For this purpose, the behavior and time taken by the experiment subjects in simulated evacuation test were measured and analyzed. When the evacuation guidance sound signals were given by 4 speakers at the same time, most of the subject were disoriented and took generally longer in getting to the pre-designated evac point. And, using only one speaker instead of two showed a better result in terms of the evacuation behavior or and orientation. Also, when there were two or more speakers used for the broadcasting of the guidance message, it turned out that using Hass effect, and placing the speakers closer, could result in higher awareness of the guidance message and maintenance of the orientation, while it also made the subjects took short to get to the evac point.
A Study on Methods for Capacity Building of Fire Cause Investigation in Fire Stations
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 108~118
In this study, strengths related with fire investigation of fire stations are analyzed and methods for the capacity building of their fire cause investigation are suggested. The methods for capacity building of fire cause investigation suggested are focused on using potential and strengths of current fire fighting and enhancing internal capacity rather than reinforcing investigation personnel, organization, and equipment and ensuring investigation power. The methods suggested in this study are as follows. 1) Because fire investigation results are the basis of fire administration, fire marshals should change their awareness of the need of fire investigation; 2) A fire investigation system should be established to ensure statements of people concerned systematically; 3) A substantial system of fire cause investigation should be established to investigate fire scenes more than twice; 4) A substantial system of fire cause investigation should be established to use such materials as CCTV; 5) Extinguishing should be made in consideration of fire cause investigation and a scene preservation system after extinguishing should be established; 6) A fire investigation system should be established in connection with 119 first-aid and rescue teams and 7) Steps to raise the morale of fire investigation staff should be taken.
A Study on Effectiveness for Car-Crash Fires Prevention through a Full-length Speed Enforcement System in Highway Tunnels
Lee, Young-Jae ; Kim, Gab-Cheol ; Park, Hyung-Joo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 119~127
Because of most notably the increase in vehicular traffic in Korea, as measured by highway transport usage, relief is being sought by expanding the construction of highways after 1970s'. These highways have opened up over 70 % of the mountainous areas in Korea's country side which includes the construction of tunnels. Currently there are 607 tunnels installed that are being maintained and by 2015, under the next medium-term plan, Korea will build an additional 440 tunnels. In addition, the use of 1,000m double-pole tunnels is expected to increase significantly in 256 locations. There is no doubt that these tunnels will relieve traffic congestion and aid improved communications, but halfclosed underground highway tunnels in particular are required to reduce tunnel fires caused by poor vehicle maintenance, and other factors such as speeding motorists that increase the number of vehicular accidents. Double-pole tunnels in 1,000m length over require vehicle drivers to be more cautious in terms of the continuous speed limit, judged by how devastating most of car-crash fires within these tunnels can be. In order to prevent these disasters, a full-length tunnel speed enforcement system should be considered mandatorily in legal clauses.
Characteristics of Heat Flux in a Compartment Fire - Reduced Scale Test
Kim, Sung-Chan ; Ko, Gwon-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 25, issue 5, 2011, Pages 128~133
The present study performs a series of 40 % reduced scale of ISO-9705 fire test to investigate the characteristics of heat flux on the floor level in terms of fire characteristics and location in the compartment. The heat flux was measured with Schmidt-Boelter type heat flux gauge at two locations on the floor level of inside and doorway side of the compartment. Different types of fuel - methane, heptane, toluene, ethanol, polystyrene - were burned in this test series. The measured heat flux inside of the compartment was relatively higher than that of front side as the heat release rate of fire and upper layer temperature increased. The difference of measured heat flux at inside and doorway side increased for high sooty fire. The present study shows that the heat flux distribution at lower layer greatly depend on the thermal radiation from fire and upper layer, not only the upper layer temperature but also various fire characteristics such as composition of combustion gases, soot concentration, ventilation condition and so on.