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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
Experiments of Egress Behavior When Subway Car Stops on Railroad
Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Woon-Hyung ; Lee, Duck-Hee ; Jung, Woo-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.001
When the subway car stop on track, passengers have to overcome a height of 1.2 m from floor level of the subway car to the level of track for evacuation. In this experiments, participates in the group of twenties or under ages were rapidly jumping down from the subway car. However, Most elderly group were not easy to overcome the height without help of others and some of them were fell and injured. In case of merging flows, the flow rate of the group of twenties was lower than the other cases. If fire occurred in the train and train stopped in the tunnel, it will be needed a lot of total evacuation time because of the heigh difference and wall effect from subway car to outside.
A Study on Performance of Water Curtain Nozzles for Protection of Wooden Cultural Properties from Forest Fire
Kim, Kyoung-Jin ; Song, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Su-Kyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.008
This study suggests the water curtain nozzles as the way to protect important wooden cultural properties from an adjacent building fire or a forest fire. They are designed to block off the pyrolysis of timbers which occurs at
by forming a water curtain with the flow of water that spouts over a certain pressure from the bottom. The existing water curtain nozzles installed at the following sites were examined: NakSan-sa (Temple) in Gangwon-do (Province) and in Muwisa (Temple) in Jeollanam-do (South Province). As a way to improve and complement the system, this study designed nozzles with covers in order not to disrupt the landscape. Connected pipes are elevated and jet water when they are in use. Possible ways to install the connected elevating pipes to jet water effectively were investigated.
A Research of Prehospital 119 Emergency Medical Service for Stroke Patients
Song, Hyun-Mok ; Roh, Sang-Gyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 14~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.014
This study analyzes the influencing factors of prehospital 119 Emergency Medical Service for Stroke Patients in prehospital. From July, 2010 to June, 2011, 123 patients were diagnosed with Stroke in Emergency Medical Center. Among 123 patients, the prehospital assessment rates were as follows : blood pressure checked 73.2 %, pulse checked 73.2 %, respiratory checked 64.2 %,
checked 79.7 %, pupil reflex test 88.6 %, Electrocardiogram checked 14.6 %, blood sugar checked 19.5 %. Prehospital emergency medical care, Oropharyngeal airway insertion 2.4 %, Manual airway maneuvers 17.1 %, endotracheal intubation 2.7 %, oxygen supply 35.4 %, and suction and intravenous fluid therapy 0 %. The property of mental status evaluation by 119 Emergency Medical Service was nearly perfect, but the patients assessment and emergency medical care were not.
Performance Evaluation of FDS for Predicting the Unsteady Fire Characteristics in a Semi-Closed ISO 9705 Room
Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.021
The objective of this study is to evaluate the prediction accuracy of FDS(Fire Dynamic Simulator) for the thermal and chemical characteristics of under-ventilated fire with unsteady fire growth in a semi-closed compartment. To this end, a standard doorway width of the full-scale ISO 9705 room was modified to 0.1 m and the flow rate of heptane fuel was increased linearly with time (until maximum 2.0 MW based on ideal heat release rate) using a spray nozzle located at the center of enclosure. To verify the capability of FDS, the predicted results were compared with a previous experimental data under the identical fire conditions. It was observed that with an appropriate grid system, the numerically predicted temperature and heat flux inside the compartment showed reasonable agreement with the experimental data. On the other hand, there were considerable limitations to predict accurately the unsteady behaviors of CO and
concentration under the condition of continuous fire growth. These results leaded to a discrepancy between the present evaluation of FDS and the previous evaluation conducted for steady-state under-ventilated fires. It was important to note that the prediction of transient CO production characteristics using FDS was approached carefully for the under-ventilated fire in a semi-closed compartment.
A Study on the Operation Method of Emergency Power System with Reserved Firefighting Power (RFP)
Lee, Won-Kang ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.029
The purpose of this study is to propose an effective operating method of a power generator used by the Emergency Power System in case of a simultaneous fire and of the limitations of the interlock system the power supply from the emergency power generator. On the Emergency Power System with Reserved Fire-fighting Power (RFP), in case of an overload, the collective control Emergency Power System signals the main circuit breaker to shut off the supply to the emergency load, leaving the supply to the firefighting load uninterrupted to the end. The sequential control Emergency Power System signals the firefighting power supply to shut off the fire stage of the emergency load and continues to monitor the power supply. If an overload happens again from increased firefighting load, the sequential control Emergency Power System sends a secondary signal to shut down the second stage of the emergency load.
Assessment of the Combustion Diffusion Pattern and Fire Risk of a Water Purifier Damaged by a General Fire
Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 35~39
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.035
This paper analyzes the combustion diffusion pattern when a water purifier is artificially ignited outside and inside in order to provide data to examine the cause of fire of a water purifier damaged by fire. The analysis result of the combustion diffusion pattern of a water purifier shows that the combustion diffused at a higher speed when it was ignited inside the purifier than when ignited outside. It took approximately 360 seconds for the water purifier to be half-burned when ignited on the outside, and approximately 180 seconds when ignited from inside. That is, it is thought that the internal combustion speed is higher because the internal ignition causes the generated heat to be accumulated and radiated instantly. It was observed that the water purifier damaged by fire caused by external ignition showed a uniform carbonization pattern and the carbide burned down at the bottom were gradually deposited. The water purifier damaged by internal ignition showed a relatively clear boundary of carbonized surface, which formed a V-pattern. The difference in the combustion patterns presents an objective base from which to determine where the fire started. By the time the purifier was half-burned by fire, the built-in fuse had not melted and the power supply protection device did not operate. In addition, as was found in the case of the fuse damaged by a general fire, carbonization occurred at the metal holder, and it is thought that this fact may be used as a basis from which to determine the cause of a fire.
Fire Patterns According to the Blood Hb-CO Concentration of Charred Bodies
Choi, Seung-Bok ; Oh, Bu-Yeol ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 40~48
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.040
Fire patterns have been used to determine the origin and cause of fires in every setting imaginable. However, it is very difficult to identify fire patterns and causes from the fire-damaged remains of a devastated structure. If someone was killed by the fire, it is possible to identify fire patterns by analyzing the Hb-CO concentration in charred bodies of deceased as well as the pace of the fire. For example, a low level of Hb-CO concentration in the charred bodies indicate a rapid fire with accelerants and the death was caused by severe heat and thick toxic fumes. However, a high level of Hb-CO concentration in the charred bodies demonstrates that the fire was slow and/or there was a flameless form of combustion. Thus, it is possible to identify fire patterns through analyzing the level of Hb-CO concentration on the dead from the fire. In this study, the Hb-CO concentration in the charred bodies was from 3 % at the case of gas burning oneself to death to 93 % at the death caused by smoldering fire.
A Study on Improving Role of Firefighting Service Toward an Aging Society
Kang, Chang-Gon ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 49~59
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.049
This study is aimed to increase the fire-fighting manpower utilization and the increasing of its services in aging society. Due to continuous improvement of living standards and development of medical technology, the elderly population rate is being increased and it brings rapid progresses of aging society. Therefore, as a fire-fighting organization which is responsible for safety from various disasters, they should grasp comprehensively and systematically exact status of weak person from disaster in perspective of it with conjunction of all concerned department and at the same time proceed to speedy move as well as determine the appropriate emergency measures. In order to do this, safe life education for elderly people and the comprehensive measures of home security should be taken by transforming the policy from particular object-oriented policy to demand-driven policy. And through the expansion of one one nine services such as using grandeur of powerful IT nation out of old-fashioned promotion way, they should provide fire-fighting service for convenient and comfortable life of elderly people after retirement. A consideration of the elderly people is the best way to penetrate a advancement fire-fighting in aging society.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Risk at Welding·Cutting Process
Lee, Sung-Ryong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 60~66
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.060
In this study, it was evaluated the fire risk during welding cutting tasks. Welding-cutting machines are representatively used at construction sites. Inverter AC/DC TIG welding macnine and inverter air plasma cutting machine were used in experiments. Temperature of spreaded cinders was measured using a thermal camera. Cinder sizes and spread range were measured according to the height and input current. It was also evaluated the fire risk during welding-cutting process, when flammable materials were located around the working area. There were used hay, dust fence, urethane foam, vinyl, paper and oil as flammable materials. Temperature of spreaded cinders was reached at about
. Cinders were spread approximately 4.7 m, when a worker carried out cutting process at 2.5 m height. The possibility of a fire is very high, when flammable materials were located around the working area.
A Study on Improvement of Discharge Pressure Measurement of Indoor Fire Hydrant System
Min, Se-Hong ; Jeong, Sang-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.067
Indoor fire hydrant facilities and sprinkler system applied to the initial fire suppression for buildings` interior fire are pivotal roles in extinguishing the fire in the early stage. The roof shapes of recent buildings combined with distinctive local culture and design are being constructed. Distinctive roof forms, i.e. gable roof buildings are planned and built, View point planning with the roof gardens also restricts measurement of the discharge pressure on the indoor fire hydrant, It is too narrow to gauge the water discharge pressure with deploying up to 5 water hoses. To resolve these problems improvement for the efficient management of indoor fire hydrant system and the effective early stage flame extinguishment is suggested.
Combustion Characteristics of Pool and Whirl Fire on Methanol by Height of Fire Source using the Small Scale
Park, Hyung-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.073
This study is intended to understand flame behavior of pool and whirl fire by height of fire source. Liquid fuel was methanol which is used in many studies for pool and whirl fire. Size of vessel was
and the vessel was made by stainless steel. Combustion time, mass loss rate, flame temperature, flame height and air entrainment rate from the outside to flame were measured, and flame behavior was visualized with video camera. Based on the experiment, it was found that combustion characteristics by height of fire source got a more effect on whirl fire than pool fire.
An Investigation on the Thermal Characteristics of Heat-Responsive Element of Sprinkler Head
You, Woo-Jun ; Moon, Hyo-Jun ; Youm, Moon-Cheon ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 79~84
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.079
In this study thermal characteristics of heat-responsive element considering conduction, convection and rate of change of element using Response Time Index (RTI) applied to sensitivity test of sprinkler head at home and aborad are theoretically investigated. Analytic solution of temperature distributions with radial direction and time is obtained form energy transport equations, non-homogeneous 2th order partial differential equation, applying to constant wall temperature and symmetric condition in order to analyze thermal characteristics of heat-responsive element for circular cylindrical geometry. Base on the results, the analytic method of this study is fundamental data to practical use for sensitivity test of sprinkler head and design of heat-responsive element.
Prediction of Autoignition Temperature of n-Decane and sec-Butanol Mixture
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 85~90
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.085
The autoignition temperature (AIT) of a material is the lowest temperature at which the material will spontaneously ignite. The AIT is important index for the safe handling of flammable liquids which constitute the solvent mixtures. This study measured the AITs of n-Decane+sec-Butanol system by using ASTM E659 apparatus. The AITs of n-Decane and sec-Butanol which constituted binary system were
, respectively. The experimental AITs of n-Decane+sec-Butanol system were a good agreement with the calculated AITs by the proposed equations with a few A.A.D. (average absolute deviation).
Analysis of the Precautionary Measures and Causes on Explosion Accidents of a Old Dry Chemical Powder Extinguisher
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 91~99
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.091
Fatal injuries and deaths have occurred resulting from the operation or disassembling of a powder extinguishers in Korea. If a rusted powder extinguisher is exploded during operation or disassembling, it rises to the air like a rocket and hits a head, chest, or neck part of an operator, resulting in his (her) death or injury. In this study examines the explosion accident cases of a powder fire extinguisher and analyzes their causes, reactions to explosion, and precautionary measures. And in this paper suggests 1) no using of old fire extinguishers in fire drill or education, 2) education and public information on danger of old fire extinguishers, 3) indication of explosion danger to cartridge-type dry chemical powder fire extinguishers had already placed to buildings etc., 4) obligatory indication of durable years on fire extinguishers, 5) examination for introduction of system that do hydraulic pressure test about fire extinguishers that given period past, 6) construction of system that reclaim old fire extinguishers, 7) construction of system that recycle or reuse old fire extinguishers, and 8) operation of help desk related to old fire extinguishers as precautionary measure of fire extinguisher explosion accidents.
The Seismic Design of Water Extinguishing Piping Systems for Equivalent Static Analysis Method
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 100~105
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.100
In this study, seismic design in pipeline of pressurized water supply system of water extinguishing system has been carried out. This study described a generation of artificial earthquake wave compatible with seismic design spectrum, and also determined equivalent static loads to analyzed the response spectra acceleration by the simulated earthquake motion. This study constructed powerful engineering base for seismic design, and presented equivalent static analysis method for seismic design of water and gas extinguishing piping system. Also, this study readied basis that can apply seismic design and performance estimation of fire fighting system as well as pipeline of water extinguishing system from result of this research. Hereafter, if additional research by earthquake magnitude and ground kind is approached, reliance elevation, safety raising and performance based design of fire fighting system see to achieve.
A Study on Fire Performance Evaluation of EIFS on Anti-Flaming Finish by Cone Calorimeter Test
Min, Se-Hong ; Sun, Ju-Seok ; Kim, Sang-Chul ; Choi, Yong-Mook ; Lee, Seok-Ki ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 3, 2012, Pages 106~111
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.3.106
In this study, EIFS (Exterior insulation finish system) of exterior cladding was applied Cone calorimeter test to confirm the effect of flame retardant. As a results, the initial ignition points in accordance with the coated form and concentration of the flame retardant was delayed. But flame resistant treatment of EIFS cladding to control the fire will not affect confirmed that. In addition, EIFS that uses high-density and low-density due to difference in the density of the impact of the fire was no difference. The exterior of the ignition experiment occurred before and after 40 seconds, heat release rate to 100 seconds appears to occur about 90 % compared with the other exterior wall materials, the initial fire spread very fast was confirmed. EIFS cladding in order to prevent the spread of fire in the application of EIFS legally use is limited by the use of the building. And flame spread can be prevented, such as a vertical outer wall compartment measures are urgently needed.