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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
A Study on Comparison of Equivalent Length
Jeong, Kee-Sin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.001
We have studied on equivalent length tables which are used to calculate the friction loss of pipe fittings and valves of water-based fire systems in Korea. Three kinds of equivalent length tables are mainly used and unfortunately, the most extensively used table is not ascertained the reliable source. When the three tables are compared, each table has different equivalent length up to 2.4 times in same item. We should use unified equivalent length table which is scientifically reasonable in order to act up to globalization as performing lots of over-sea projects. Therefore, we propose the reasonable equivalent length tables.
Physical Response of Human Body Wearing Self Contained Breathing Apparatus
Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 8~12
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.008
The aim of study intends to investigate physical response of human body wearing Self Contained Breathing Apparatus and to provide the base data for the safety of firefighter. The results of the study are as follows. when wearing SCBA, the mean skin temperature (7 %), heart rate (28 %), rate of perceived exertion (65.4 %), metabolic equivalents (70.7 %) were significantly higher (p<.05), respiratory rate was not statistically significant. It is concluded that wearing SCBA causes significant stress to the physical systems.
Numerical Study on Skin Burn Injury due to Flash Flame Exposure
Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Bang, Chang-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.013
Many fire-fighters suffer from the burn injuries, and the severe burns are the most catastrophic injury a person can survive, resulting in pain, emotional stress, and tremendous economic costs. It is important to understand the physiology of burns for prevention from skin burns and a successful treatment of a burn patient. But a few researches have been presented because the complex physical phenomena of our inside body like non-linearity characteristics of human skin make them difficult. Thus in this study, thermal analyses of biological tissues exposed to a flash fire causing severe tissue damage were studied by using a finite difference method based on the Pennes bio-heat equation. The several previous models for skin thermo-physical properties were summarized, and the calculated values with those models of tissue injury were compared with the results obtained by the previous experiment for low heat flux conditions. The skin models with good agreement could be found. Also, the skin burn injury prediction results with the best model for high heat flux conditions by flash flame were suggested.
An Experimental Study on Fire Safety Performance of Glass Wool Sandwich Panel
Kweon, Oh-Sang ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Min, Se-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 21~27
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.021
A real A real scale fire test was performed in accordance with KS F ISO 9705 test method to investigate the combustion characteristics of glass wool sandwich panels. To do this, six kinds of specimens having different density and thickness were examined. The glass sandwich panels were installed inside the room, which had internal dimensions of 2.4 m wide
high. also, combustion characteristic are determined through the exposure of specimens to flame by the propane gas burner has a capacity of 100 kW (10 minutes) and 300 kW (10 minutes) for total 25 minutes of test time. Results of the real sale fire test, it was found that maximum HRR of each specimen was 333.2~365.5 kW, maximum heat flux was 12.4~12.9 kW/
And, maximum internal temperature for all specimens was not over
. During the real scale fire test, flash-over didn`t occur and the difference by density and thickness of specimen was not found from the results of HRR, heat flux, and internal temperature measurement.
An Analysis of Factors Affecting the Job Stress of Firefighters
Chae, Jin ; Woo, Seong-Cheon ; Ko, Gi-Bong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 28~34
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.028
Effective for the operation of fire department management of occupational stress than what organizational members perceive and to identify factors that would cause job stress. Dysfunction caused by job stress or minimize that by eliminating the stress factor that can enhance organizational effectiveness research is needed. The results of the study the impact on job stress of firefighters of the psychological environment of the most influential factor is the variable. Next, organizational culture, physical environment, orderly, and administration and human relations were not significant statistically.
Effects of CO Addition on Soot Formation in the Well Stirred Reactor
Jeong, Tae-Hee ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 35~40
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.035
Numerical investigation was performed to study on the soot formation characteristics in the WSR according to the CO addition. Ethylene and pure air were used as a fuel and an oxidizer, respectively, and three different equivalence ratios (2.0, 2.5, 3.0) were used in the calculation. The resulted CO mole fraction of 10 % CO addition showed the maximum value in spite of the least CO supply. This means that the conversion of CO to soot and other carbon compounds is weakened under incipient soot formation. The soot volume fraction was decreased with increasing the CO addition because the important species for soot formation such as pyrene and acetylene, were decreased with the addition of CO. When the equivalence ratio was 2.5, the soot volume fraction shows the highest value, which results from the contribution of fuel rich condition and reacting temperature. Furthermore, surface growth rate and species concentrations justified the HACA mechanism for soot formation.
A Study on Measures to Improve Smoke Control Performance in Case of Fire in a Clean room as an LCD Manufacturing Process
Son, Bong-Sei ; Jang, Chan-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.041
As a core process in the manufacture of state-of-the-art industrial technologies such as semiconductor and LCD, a clean room is the most important process which can affect the performance and quality of products drastically. Nevertheless, scientific research on comprehensive safety measures from a fire protection standpoint is not being carried out in Korea. This study aims to derive measures to improve smoke control systems by identifying performance and problems of smoke systems installed in clean rooms as an LCD manufacturing process and analyzing fire and evacuation simulations considering several scenarios. As a result of analysis of fires and smoke in a clean roomas an LCD manufacturing process, it is found to be necessary to stop air handling units through interlocking in case of a fire and exhaust smoke out of the room through the top of FAB in consideration of buoyancy of smoke. It is also found to be necessary to install quick response sprinkler heads and accessories to accelerate the response time, because the heat-accumulating performance of sprinkler heads decreases in this application. Despite its low density of dwelling due to the automation process, clean room is characterized by an array of complex production equipment and working environment requiring dustproof clothes, which makes it difficult to acquire evacuation safety performance. Thus, thorough control of danger factors in processes and periodic education and training are required. It is also necessary to establish a level of domestic technologies equivalent to the level of standards of advanced countries in fire protection.
Measurement and Prediction of Autoignition Temperature of n-Butanol and sec-Butanol System
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 48~53
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.048
The autoignition temperature (AIT) is important index for the safe handling of flammable liquids which constitute the solvent mixtures. This study measured the AITs and ignition delay time for n-Butanol+sec-Butanol system by using ASTM E659 apparatus. The AITs of n-Butanol and sec-Butanol which constituted binary system were
, respectively. The experimental AITs of n-Butanol+sec-Butanol system were a good agreement with the calculated AITs by the proposed equations with a few A.A.D. (average absolute deviation).
The Actual State of Hospital-based Skill Training in Level 1 Emergency Medical Technician
Roh, Sang-Gyun ; Lee, Jae-Gook ; Bang, Sung-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 54~60
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.054
This study is the analysis of the actual state of hospital-based training in level 1 emergency medical technicians (EMTs) in fire station. The survey was carried out to 42 fire fighters having level 1 emergency medical technician certification from May 11 to 12 in 2012. The results showed 56.5 %, that the level 1 EMTs of roles had direct experienced. Level 1 EMTs performance frequency of clinical practice that endotracheal intubation 66.9 %, laryngeal mask airway 8.4 %, intravenous access 76.6 %, nitroglycerin sublingual 61.2 %, bronchodilator inhalation 50.0 %, fluid loading 73.8 %, ventilator apply 57.6 %, dextrose injection 57.6 %. It is necessary to investigate the continuous study on the education among the level 1 EMTs and the continuous evaluation and analysis of problems, supplemented of guidebook, practical education programs and regulation upon the operation and management of a hospital-based skill training.
Study on Suggestion of Smoke-proof System Using a Restroom for a Refuge Space
Kim, Jung-Yup ; Shin, Hyun-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.061
In restroom on high-rise building, exhaust system comprising the blower and duct is installed to discharge the odor and the water is suppled. Thus the restroom with fire and flame protection system may be used as refuge area in a fire situation. The study presents the smoke-proof system which operates such that the exhaust system to discharge the odor is converted to air supply system and appropriate pressure difference between the restroom and the accommodation is maintained. Also real-scale test facilities of smoke-proof system for refuge space using a restroom are installed on 5-story smoke control test building and experiments for evaluating the operational performance of smoke-proof system are carried out.
Selection of Grid Size in Fire Simulation for Large Scale Buildings by Using FDS
Park, Woe-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.067
Fire simulation was carried out for an enclosure with three doorways of
and a cleanroom of
, to suggest appropriate grid size in fire simulations by using of FDS for large scale buildings. The variations of temperature and visibility with time were compared for the x and y direction grid sizes of 0.1~1.0 m (aspect ratios 0.5~5.0), fixing the z direction grid size 0.2 m. The results showed that the grid sizes 0.5 m (aspect ratio 2.5) or smaller are appropriate among the grid sizes tested, whereas 1.0 m is not acceptable. It was confirmed that estimate of the available safe egress time requires a great care due to fluctuations in temperature, visibility, etc., and further investigations on the grid size when selecting a large grid size inevitable, and on the aspect ratios for a larger grid are in need.
A Study on Fire Extinguishing Performance Evaluation of Compressed Air Foam System
Lee, Jang-Won ; Lim, Woo-Sub ; Kim, Sung-Soo ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.073
This research is to evaluate the fire extinguishing performance of Compressed Air Foam System and this test was conducted using Foam Head System. Compressed Air Foam System adopt the methods of causing the foam by mixing compressed air in foam-aqueous solution, In Overseas, CAFS (Compressed Air Foam System) is generally used because long distance discharge is possible and the water damage can be minimized by reducing the water usage. In this study, Comparative analysis on fire extinguishing effect is done through test to compare the performance between Foam System applied existing air mixture method and Compressed Air Foam System applied AFFF 3 %, foam-extinguishing-agent based on UL162 standard. In Compressed Air Foam System, the volume proportion of air mixture to foam-aqueous solution is 1 to 1 and discharging flow rate is 140 L/min, 160 L/min, 180 L/min, 200 L/min each. As a result of the test, in terms of fire extinguishing performance, fire suppression time for Compressed Air Foam Systems is shorter than for General Air Mixture System in all flow conditions.
Evaluation of Combustion Characteristics of Outdoor Advertisement Materials
Eom, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Kyoung-Jin ; Lee, Su-Kyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 79~84
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.079
Combustion characteristics of outdoor advertisement materials were evaluated for fire risk assessment about fire expanding. At this study, the flame retardancy and the limiting oxygen index (LOI) was measured by UL 94 and ASTM D 2863 respectively. At the result of flame retardancy, foamex was V-0 grade and those of others were out of grade. LOI measurement showed that the LOI of foamex was highest in the samples. The cone calorimeter test was done by ISO 5660-1 to find the combustion characteristics. The cone calorimeter test showed that the outdoor advertisement materials were not good to prevent of fire expanding. The time to ignition (TTI) of flex was the fastest and the peak heat release rate (PHRR) as well as the total heat release (THR) of acrylic panel was higher than those of others.
An Empirical Study on the Standard Re-establishment of Water Discharge Performance for the Fire Engine Pump
Min, Se-Hong ; Kwon, Yong-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.085
This paper analyzed firefighting officers` use situations such as the use time, maximum working pressure, hose diameter, etc. of fire pumps at fire sites and carried out various performance tests by pressures, hose diameters and quantities of fire pumps based on its results because the waterproof performance criterion for a fire pump installed in a fire engine is different from the operation situations at the site and is not clearly prescribed. As a result of site survey, the site uses a higher pressure than the standard water discharge pressure (0.85 MPa) or the high-pressure water discharge pressure (1.4 MPa) prescribed by the approval Standard of the fire pump performance on fire truck. In addition, as a result of pump performance test, the discharged water flow rate, water discharge pressure, etc. was measured to be very different from the currently prescribed the approval standard depending on the hose diameter and firefighting nozzle, so the result of this study proposes a new standard.
The Influence of Zoning at Shafts of Super-tall Buildings on the Stack Effect and Stairwell Pressurization
Kim, Beom-Kyue ; Kim, Hak-Jung ; Yeo, Yong-Ju ; Leem, Chae-Hyun ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 92~98
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.092
This study analyzed the effect of zoning on the distribution of pressure differentials caused by stack effect and air pressurization in a center core type of 80 story super-tall building. The results showed that maximum pressure difference more than 250 Pa can be generated by stack effect without zoning. Zoning of stairwell only resulted in 10 Pa reduction of maximum pressure difference, however, zoning of both stairwell and EV shaft especially at the same floor revealed 50 % reduction in stack effect. It was also analysed that the minimum required air flow rate occurred when the stairwell temperature reached 50 % of temperature difference between indoor and outdoor.
A Study on the Pressure Change during the Pressurization to the Elevator Lobby
Kim, Beom-Kyue ; Park, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Hong-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 99~104
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.099
This study investigated the pressure change in the fire room and elevator lobby during the air pressurization to the Elevator lobby with the various egress scenarios and the existence of vent holes in the fire room. The experiments revealed that pressure change was significantly affected by the open/closure scenarios of the front door and stairway door resulting in over pressure, under pressure and performance drop of the door closure. It also revealed that the required smoke defensive air velocity can be obtained only with the existence of vent holes in the fire room by the removal of back pressure in the fire room.
A Numerical Study of the Effect of Sprinkler Spray on the Flow Characteristics Induced by Fire
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 5, 2012, Pages 105~110
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.5.105
The present study investigates the effects of sprinkler spray on fire driven flow characteristics in a compartment based on numerical approach. The FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator), a widely used fire field model, was used to simulate the fire induced flow and sprinkler spray and a series of grid independence tests have been performed to obtain the optimal grid size. In order to validate the result predicted by FDS model, the calculated results were compared with experimental results of Magnone et al.. The FDS model matches quite well to experiments in temperature profile and mass flux through doorway, however, the discrepancy between the FDS model and experiments increases with increasing water discharge rate. As with previous study, the FDS calculation also shows a decrease of mass flow rate of combustion products through doorway due to the sprinkler spray. This study can contribute to optimize the sprinkler system design and verify the validity of the fire field model with sprinkler spray.