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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 26, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
Selecting the target year
A Study on Estimating of Additional Gas for the Unencloseable Openings of The Gaseous Extinguishing Systems
Jeong, Keesin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.001
There are specific indications about additional gas for the unencloseable openings of the carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. But there are no indications for other gas extinguishing systems including clean agent extinguishing systems only have the principle when it need, apply it. Therefore, this study suggested applying the equation of additional gas for the unencloseable openings of the carbon dioxide to all of the other fire suppression gas that we are use.
A Study on Experimental Characteristics in Fire Investigation Techniques of Flammable Liquids
Hwang, Taeyeon ; Choi, Donmook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.007
This paper is to develop analytical techniques of flammable liquids which have been used for accelerating fire in accidental fires and arsons. We tested the temperature distribution of ceiling, fire patterns on the floor, and existence of flammable liquids and a check with GC/MS about flammable liquids comparing with papers, newspapers, and clothing. Research findings are as follows. The temperature of ceiling is influenced by flame. So gasoline and thinner was observed that combustible materials would be burned by flame. The fire patten on the floor was observed that flammable liquids had specialized pattern comparing combustible materials. When combustible materials on the PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) floor was burned, they didn't react to the gas detector. But flammable liquids had opposite results. After 7 days, we identified components of fire residues with the GC/MS (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry) about existence of flammable liquids and got components of flammable liquids. Fire investigation is a complicated processes. But we understand characteristics of materials, need detail investigations, and use the GC/MS to analyse flammable materials.
A Study on the Direct Discharge Test for Verifying Design Concentration and Soaking Time for CO
Fire Extinguishing System of Total Flooding
Lee, Se-Myeoung ; Moon, Sung-Woong ; Ryu, Sang-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 15~23
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.015
Indirect Test Method is often used instead of direct test method in test method for extinguishing performance of
extinguishing facility because of high cost, environment problems and difficulties of procedure. But in the danger facilities for a unit of nation, such as a petrochemical plant, a nuclear power plant, or etc. is better to verify the performance of the extinguishment through direct discharge test. In
extinguishing system for total flooding system installed in dangerous facilities in Korea, each protected area in surface fire and deep-seated fire had selected and verified of extinguishing performance of
extinguishing facilities. To get recognized as extinguishing performance, discharged
concentration to protected area should be equivalence with design concentration standards (NFSC and NFPA). The Design Concentration means that
extinguishing agent is considerate of concentration for percentage of allowance (20 %) from extinguishing concentration which available to control of flame. As test result, surface fire and deep seated fire in protected area is obtained
design concentration and maintained design concentration more than 20 minutes as deep-seated fire. Through this study, we introduced direct discharging test method and decision method. And furthermore, especially in the dangerous facilities as a unit of Nation, we suggested necessity about reliability of extinguishing facilities to use direct test method.
A Study on the Detection Technique of the Flame and Series arc by Poor Contact
Woo, Kim Hyun ; Hyun, Baek Dong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.024
This study is on the method of the detection for flame and series arc which can be happened at poor contact point added a vibration in part of contact point of low voltage line. In general, the causes of electric fire are over current, short circuit, poor contact, ect. The over-current or short circuit among those causes is detected by measuring a instant current value, but poor contact is difficult to detect by measuring a excessive value of the voltage and current and a distortion of waveforms. And therefore, in this paper, it is studied on the optimal technique of the arc judgement using fuzzy logic and MDET (Multi Dimension Estimation Technique). And it carries out the simulation for arc detection and the experiment for controller and load test. In result, the controller and detection algoristhm, is classified with normal wave and abnormal arc wave without relation with each loads and so the controller can detect a series arc successfully.
A Study on the Fire Spread through Curtain Wall System with Fire Simulations (FDS)
Song, Young-Joo ; Gu, Seon-Hwan ; Kim, Hyun-Jin ; Park, Deuk-Jin ; Park, Jeong-Min ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 31~37
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.031
In this study, the fire risk of the curtain wall structure was compared with a general structure among the double envelope structure using a fire simulation program. To this end, a fire-story building curtain wall was modeled as virtual using the PyroSim based on a fire simulation program (FDS). And then, the fires occurred in the model, divided by curtain wall non-applied model and applied model, in the same structure and place. To identify the fire characteristics, smoke behavior characteristics, viewing distance, and volume fractions of CO and
were comparative analyzed. As a result, it was identified that the curtain wall applied model quickly filled with smoke from the top floor to under the floor compared to the curtain wall non-applied model. From this study, the fire risk of curtain wall structure was evaluated in detail using the fire simulations.
A Study on Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants and Application of the Code and Standards for Fire Protection Systems
Kim, Wee-Kyong ; Jeong, Kee-Sin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 38~44
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.038
The purpose of fire protection for the nuclear power plants (NPPs) is to ensure safe shutdown state of the reactor, to minimize the release of radioactive materials to the environment, to provide physical safety of the on-site personnel, and to limit the property damage. Fire protection and extinguishing equipments are one of the important protection measures based on the defense-in-depth concept, which can promptly detect and control and extinguish those fires that do occur, thereby limiting fire damage. However, a separate evaluation process might be additionally necessary for the construction permit and operating license because the fire protection laws of the NEMA for installation standards of the fire protection systems is not fully characterized for the NPPs. It is also not easy to implement the regulations such as the performance based design concept for fire protection system of the NPPs which are characterized for a relatively low density of employee. This study suggests a guideline for the improvement of the technical standards for fire protection systems of the NPPs by evaluating the fundamental problems drawn by reviewing laws and regulatory guides relevant to fire protection and by evaluating the applicability of the KEPIC FPN in domestic nuclear power plants.
Properties of Temperature History of Lightweight Mortar for Fire Protection Covering Material in High Strength Concrete
Lim, Seo-Hyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 45~50
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.045
The spalling causes the sever reduction of the cross sectional area with the exposure of the reinforcing steel, which originates a problem in the structural behaviour. By coating surface of high strength concrete with fireproof mortar, the high strength concrete is protected from the spalling in fire and the method to constrain the temperature increase of steel bar within the concrete. The purpose of this study is to investigate the temperature history properties of lightweight mortar using perlite and polypropylene fiber for fire protection covering material. For this purpose, selected test variables were the contents and length of polypropylene fiber. As a result of this study, it has been found that addition of polypropylene fiber to mortar modifies its pore structure and this causes the internal temperature to rise. And it has been found that a new lightweight mortar can be used in the fire protection covering material.
A Numerical Modeling of Smoke Behavior and Detection for Fire Developed in International Space Station
Park, Seul-Hyun ; Lee, Joo-Hee ; Kim, Youn-Kyu ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 51~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.051
The onset of fire on the International Space Station (ISS) is a critical problem that can threaten the life of crew members onboard and thus instantaneous fire detection and extinguishment technology has been considered as one of the most important aspects in the ISS operation. In the present study, a numerical analysis was performed to better understanding of the characteristics of smoke behaviors and detection in a pressurized module of the ISS using the NIST Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS). Numerical results indicate that the smoke flow patterns under zero-gravity condition are clearly different from those under normal gravity condition. In addition, the results obtained from numerical simulations coupled with the PM internal flows are expected to provide basic and useful information in designing the microgravity fire detection devices and establishing in fire response protocol for astronauts or the crew members.
A Study on the Decompression Performance by the Orifice Diameter
Park, Bong-Rae ; Yun, Ki-Jo ; Jang, Kyeong-Nam ; Choi, Jung-Ung ; Baek, Eun-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.057
The modern trend for high-rise buildings makes the application of fire protection systems difficult and the current systems have a limitation to provide appropriate functions. Indoor hydrant systems are fire suppression systems installed in most buildings that require valves, hoses, and nozzles to be manually operated in the event of a fire. Therefore, high discharge pressure can cause difficulty in the operation of indoor fire hydrant systems and damage to hoses due to a high reaction force. To prevent these problems, the pressure is reduced and decompression valves are commonly installed at angle valves which are the discharge points of indoor hydrants. In the case of high-rise buildings, however, there are cases where stable operation is difficult even with the installation of decompression valves. To verify this, we have measured the decompression performance by the orifice diameter and calculated the reaction force. Results of the study showed that decompression valves need to be produced in different sizes to provide stable decompression where high pressure is required as in high-rise buildings.
A Study on the Fire Resistance Performance Concerning Types of Fire Protection Method and Load Ratio of High Strength Concrete Column Using The Wire Rope
Cho, Bum-Yean ; Yeo, In-Hwan ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 64~71
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.064
The fire resistance test has been conducted under the standard fire & loading conditions to evaluate fire resistance performance, according to applying to methods of the lateral confinement reinforcement by prestressed Wire Rope and fire resistance reinforcement by Fiber-Cocktail and load ratio for high strength concrete column. The test result, for 60 MPa high-strength concrete column, It was indicated that applying to the wire rope has improved axial ductility in the fire condition, and fire resistance performance has been enhanced by more than 23 %. In addition to this, in case of applying the wire rope to 60 MPa high-strength concrete column, load can be judged that about 70 % of designed load is appropriate. If the Wire Rope and Fiber-Cocktail is applied to 100 MPa high-strength concrete column, It was shown that the fire resistance performance was enhanced by 4 times as much as applying only hoops.
A Study on Relations between Shape Factor and Temperature History of Steel of Composit Beam in Standard Fire under Same Thickness Condition of Spray-type Fire Resistant Materials
Yeo, In-Hwan ; Cho, Kyung-Suk ; Cho, Bum-Yean ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 72~77
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.072
When the concrete and steel combined composite beam is exposed to high temperature, concrete could delay temperature rising of steel by covering or increase heat capacity of structural member. For becoming of structural reinforcing by unification between materials, fire resistance rate of composite beam would be higher than simple steel beam. The temperature rising of exposed steel of composite beam is directly related with section shape and exposure length of steel. In this study, fire resistant tests were carried out for composite beams and steel beam with same thickness of spray-type fire resistant materials in standard fire, and after that, temperature histories were analysed and compared with shape factor. The correlation between steel temperature and shape factor was showed very high. This result suggests that if it can be predict the comparative advantage of member by factor which cause the performance enhancement, it could be conclude that an Standard Accreditation method can be adjust to members without indivisual certifiicate of accreditation.
Experimental Study for Improving Method of Load Bearing and Spalling Prevention of 100 MPa High Strength Concrete Column
Cho, Bum-Yean ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, In-Kyu ; Kim, Kyeong-Ok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 78~84
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.078
In this study, we have conducted a fire resistance experiment under loading condition on standard fire to evaluate the fire resistance performance according to applying reinforcement of methods for reinforcing the lateral confinement of reinforced bars (Wire Rope) and fire resistance reinforcement (Fiber-Cocktail) for 100 MPa high strength concrete column. In the result of the experiment, in case of the test objects applied by hoop, it has been shown as not possible to be applied as the fire resistance structure after satisfying the fire resistance performance for 43 minutes. In case of applying the wire rope as lateral confinement of reinforced bar, instead of hoop in identical volume ratio, it has been shown as possible to apply it to the buildings with under 4 floors after satisfying the fire resistance performance fro 69 minutes with any separate fire resistance process. Also, in case of applying with mixing wire rope method, instead of hoop, and Fiber-Cocktail mix method to prevent spall, it has been shown as possible to apply to the buildings with over 12 floors after satisfying the fire resistance performance for 180 minutes.
The Real Scale Fire Tests for Vertical Fire Spread Study of External Finishing Material
Kweon, Oh-Sang ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Min, Se-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 85~91
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.085
To reduce human life and property damage at the fire in a building, it is most critical to control flame spread in the early stage. Fire spread prevention measure generally includes fire resistance performance securing of structure member in the arson zone and use limitation based on combustion performance of finishing material. The latter is most fundamental fire safety design to determine flame spread, but domestic combustion test determines combustion performance by specimen sized fire test method. Thus, there are many restrictions in the determination of combustion performance by composite material such as sandwich panel. Especially, outer finishing material uses a variety of composite material such as dry bit, aluminum composite panel, and metal panel compared to inner finishing material. Therefore, this study would determine vertical fire spread features by a full scaled fire experiment through the test method of ISO 13785-2, an international test standard.
A Study on the Large Experiments (ISO 13785-2) for Vertical Fire Behavior Analysis of Aluminum Composite Panels in General and Flame-retardant Material
Choi, Chui-Kyung ; Min, Se-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 92~98
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.092
In this sturdy, large experimental (ISO 13785-2) was performed to analyze the building materials used in fire retardant materials for aluminum composite panel and in general properties. As a results, maximum temperature in the case of the general materials was measured in 210 seconds
, the retardant materials was measured in 1,200 seconds early
. The retardant material of aluminum composite panel, Fire behavior if the ignition is slow and the general materials in aluminum composite panel, fire ignition and combustion at the same time was growing rapidly. The general materials and flame-retardant material of aluminum composite panel was an obvious difference to the combustion ignition but after ignition combustion mode showed a similar pattern of the rapidly vertical spread of flame. The results of this study, in order to reduce the risk of aluminum composite panels for fire and the retardant materials used for ignition the slow should be actively encouraging. Also after the ignition, there is an urgent need to put out a fire in exterior materials for extinguishing facilities.
A Study on Replay Experiments and Thermal Analysis for Autoignition Phenomenon of Shredded Waste Tires
Koh, Jae Sun ; Jang, Man Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 99~108
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.099
These days, spontaneous ignition phenomena by oxidizing heat frequently occur in the circumstances of processing and storing waste tires. Therefore, to examine the phenomena, in this work, this researcher conducted the tests of fires of fragmented waste tires (shredded tire), closely investigated components of the fire residual materials collected in the processing and storing place, and analyzed the temperature of the starting of the ignition, weight loss, and heat of reaction. For the study, this researcher conducted fire tests with fragmented waste tires in the range of 2.5 mm to 15 mm, whose heat could be easily accumulated, and performed heat analysis through DSC and TGA, DTA, DTG, and GC/MS to give scientific probability to the possibility of spontaneous ignition. According to the tests, at the 48-hour storage, rapid increase in temperature (
), Graphite phenomenon, smoking were observed. And the result from the DTA and DTG analysis showed that at
, the minimum weight loss occurred. And, the result from the test on the waste tire analysis material 1 (Unburnt) through DSC and TGA analysis revealed that at
or so, thermal decomposition started. As a result, the starting temperature of ignition was considered to be
. And, at
, 10 % of the initial weight of the material reduced, and at
, 50 % of the intial weight of the material decreased. The result from the test on oxidation and self-reaction through GC/MS and DSC analysis presented that oxidized components like 1,3 cyclopentnadiene were detected a lot. But according to the result from the heat analysis test on standard materials and fragmented waste tires, their heat value was lower than the basis value so that self-reaction was not found. Therefore, to prevent spontaneous ignition by oxidizing heat of waste tires, it is necessary to convert the conventional process into Cryogenic Process that has no or few heat accumulation at the time of fragmentation. And the current storing method in which broken and fragmented materials are stored into large burlap bags (500 kg) should be changed to the method in which they are stored into small burlap bags in order to prevent heat accumulation.
A Comparative Study on the Relationship among Posttraumatic Stress, Psychological Wellbeing, and Depression by SEM - Focusing on Policemen and Firefighters
Bae, Jeom-Mo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 26, issue 6, 2012, Pages 109~117
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2012.26.6.109
The author analyzed and compared the relationship mechanism among measured variables effecting to posttraumatic stress and posttraumatic stress, psychological wellbeing, and depression in the case of 360 policemen and 360 firefighters working in Korean police stations and fire stations by the structural equation modeling. The results showed that firefighters' posttraumatic stress deteriorated psychological wellbeing and depression more than policemen's posttraumatic stress did. In conclusion, systematic prevention and management program for posttraumatic stress and mental health of public servants are needed.