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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Development of Arc Fault Interruption Control Circuit of Fault Voltage Sensing Type
Kwak, Dong-Kurl ; Byun, Jae-Ki ; Lee, Bong-Seob ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.001
This paper studies on an arc fault interruption control circuit (AFICC) of fault voltage sensing type. The proposed voltage sensing type AFICC (VST_AFICC) is an electrical fire prevention apparatus that operates the existing circuit breaker with sensing the instantaneous voltage drop of line voltage when occurs electrical faults. The existing Earth Leakage Circuit Breaker (ELB), Molded_case Circuit Breaker (MCCB), and Residual Current Protective Devices (RCDs) used in low voltage distributing system don`t have protective capability from electric arc faults to be a major factor of electrical fire. In this paper to improve such problems, a new VST_AFICC using the distortion of voltage waveform when occurs electrical faults is proposed to prevent electrical fire. There is characteristic that the control method of proposed apparatus is different from previous current sensing type. The proposed AFICC has merit that is manufactured by small size and light weight. The practicality of a new VST_AFICC is also verified through various operation analysis.
A Study on the Conditions of Injection Pressurization in the Smoke-Control Zone II. Analysis of the Conditions for Closing Force of Fire Door with Variation of Angular Velocity
Lee, Chang-Wook ; Kim, Hong-Jin ; Choi, Young-Ki ; Youm, Moon Cheon ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 6~10
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.006
This study aims to construct the performance data for smoke-control zone and realize the safety of injection and pressurization room which is composed of supply air pressure zone, vestibule, smoke-control zone and stairwell. To obtain this, smoke-control system and the device of the opening-closing force of fire door are manufactured. This subject is the analysis of the closing force, angular velocity and fire door size in the case of fixed volume flow rate. Based on the results, closing force increased as fire door size and closing angular velocity increases. Also, it is remark that there exists a critical angular velocity, which maintains constant maximum closing force even though the angular velocity increases more.
The Measurement of Combustible Characteristics of n-Undecane
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 11~17
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.011
For the safe handling of n-undecane, the lower flash points and the upper flash point, fire point, AITs (auto-ignition temperatures) by ignition delay time were experimented. Also lower and upper explosion limits by using measured the lower and upper flash points for n-undecane were calculated. The lower flash points of n-undecane by using closed-cup tester were measured
. The lower flash points of n-undecane by using open cup tester were measured
, respectively. The fire point of n-undecane by using Cleveland open cup tester was measured
. This study measured relationship between the AITs and the ignition delay times by using ASTM E659 apparatus for n-undecane. The experimental AIT of n-undecane was
. The estimated lower and upper explosion limit by using measured lower flash point
and upper flash point
for n-undecane were 0.65 Vol.% and 2.12 Vol.%.
A Study on Real Condition Estimation for Fire Protection Safety Management System Builds
Kang, Gil-Soo ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 18~24
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.018
Goverment and enterprises have been devoting a lot of dffort in order to prevent the loss of human and property due to a large, diversified fire, explosion, global warming and disasters caused by natural phenomena. But Enterprises came forward and running in the economy priority policy for profit-seeking until now in order to meet the macro purpose of quality improvement of national life and welfare promotion in company with National growth, as a result of lax risk management have had to endure the loss of precious lives and property. According to the `2007 Survey of public safety for the activation of the safety culture` of National Emergency Management Agency [NEMA], a insensitivity of safety in our society was surveyed `a serious level`. In this study, surveyed need of `step-by-step fire protection safety management system builds` in order to prevent fire safety accident and improvement of safety awareness level through a systematic management and real condition estimation of not only large business that can control risk management, but also small business that has a big risk to occur accident easily according to small budget and organization.
A Study on the Fire Reconstruction of Exterior on High-rise Building (Focus on Fire Case Including the Woosin Golden Suite in Haeundae)
Min, Se-Hong ; Lee, Jae-Moon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 25~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.025
`Heaundae Woosin Building` fire was the case that a fire breaking out on the
floor spread out the
floor which is a top story and the penthouse was destroyed by fire. After this fire, the fire safety for high rise buildings has been on the rise and several new laws and regulations related in the buildings were created. The study is to analyze Heaundae officetel building case using FDS which is one of the CFD programs for fire. The methodology of this study is to analyze the case comparing with fire spread and route from a virtual fire simulation and related articles and a video clip of actual scene fire. This study shows that a fire spreading on top of levels spent approximately 30 minutes and, which is similar to the actual fire case. Also the pattern of spread has similarity with the case. However, even if the actual fire case shows the fire pattern was "V shape", the smoke-view presents the fire dose not spread horizontally as much as the real fire case. The result shows uncertainty of the modeling based on many grids and a limitation of putting interior finish input sources and the direction of the wind might cause the difference. Also, to analyze factors influencing on a vertical fire, another fire modeling is performed by in condition of modeling environment considering concrete interior finish between buildings and no wind. The result presents the fire spread in smoke-view does not spread vertically as much as the actual case.
Validation of FDS for Predicting the Fire Characteristics in the Multi-Compartments of Nuclear Power Plant (Part I: Over-ventilated Fire Condition)
Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Jong Seok ; Do, Kyusik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 31~39
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.031
The Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) has been applied to simulate a full-scale pool fire in well-confined and mechanically ventilated multi-compartments representative of nuclear power plant. The predictive performance of FDS was evaluated through a comparison of the numerical data with experimental data obtained by the OECD/NEA PRISME project. To identify clearly the FDS results regarding to the user-dependence in the process of FDS implementation except for the intrinsic limitation of FDS such as simple combustion model, only the over-ventilated fire condition was chosen. In particular, the importance of accurate boundary conditions (B.C.) in mechanically ventilated system were discussed in details. It was known from FDS results that the B.C. on inlet and outlet vents did significantly affect the thermal and chemical characteristics inside the compartments. Finally, it was confirmed that the FDS imposed an accurate ventilation B.C. provided qualitatively good agreement with temperatures, heat fluxes and concentrations measured inside the nuclear-type multi-compartments.
A Study on the Fire Case Analysis of Air Conditioner and Preventive Measures
Kim, Dong-Ook ; Lee, Ki-Yeon ; Kim, Dong-Woo ; Gil, Hyung-Jun ; Bang, Sun-Bae ; Chung, Young-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 40~45
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.040
In recent years, many electrical fires have occurred due to complex causes. Therefore, products are required to make with scientific design considering electrical, thermal, mechanical and environmental influences. Disasters can cause losses of life and property with fall in confidence of countries and companies. And demands for safe product have been increased by reason of recent deregulation followed by limitless competition. It is necessary to design safe product in order to improve corporate image and strengthen international competitive power. This paper addresses electrical fire case of air conditioner. The use of air conditioner have recently increased as a result of global warming. The aim of this study is to provide safety design and fire prevention measures of air conditioner through cause analysis and reappearance experiments.
The Leakage Crack Calculation of the Fire Door and the Stack Effect Analysis
Kim, Il-Young ; Kwon, Chang-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 46~53
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.046
The architecture environment has changed. The corresponding design criteria should be changed. From July 27th, 2005 the Korea Standard of the fire door changed concerning the smoke resistance test which made the door gap structure more elaborate. However the National Fire Safety Codes are applied by the old data`s of England. Which in case differs in the actual construction to the blue print, making the safety standard too excessive. Analyze the results and the phenomenon that occurs due to the difference between design and reality. The National Fire Safety Codes should be revised to leakage crack calculation is presented. Difference of the air flow for the smoke protection due to the stack effect analyzed. Living patterns and evacuation patterns of the apartment reflect and reasonable air flow measurement method are presented.
Study on Ground Water Drop Pattern and Coverage Level by Helicopter
Bae, Taek-Hoon ; Lee, Si-Young ; Son, Jung-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 54~61
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.054
Aerial fire fighting is more effective on forest fire suppression than ground fire fighting. So, Aerial fire fighting is important to prevent large fire. United States suppression the joint fixed-wing and rotorcraft (Helicopter) but Helicopter only in Korea. At this point, we need to research about ground water drop pattern and coverage level for aerial fire fighting effectiveness by helicopter. In this study, we experimented water-dropping S-64E, Ka-32T, AS-350B2 of three of helicopter to operate the Forest Service and suggested efficient ground water drop pattern and coverage level. Using these study results, recognition of pilots who suppression more efficient aerial fire fighting at the scene of Forest fire.
An Experimental Study of Smoke Movement in a Kindergarten Fire
Lee, Sung-Ryong ; Han, Dong-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 62~69
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.062
In this study, a full scale experiment was carried out to analyze the heat and smoke movement. The experiment was conducted a kindergarten that is scheduled to reconstruction. The kindergarten is a two-story building and the area of each floor is 252
. 36 l heptane was used as a fuel and heptane was burned in a 0.8 m square steel pool. Maximum heat release rate was 1.7 MW at natural condition. Smoke movement and temperature variation were measured during the experiment. In the first floor corridor, smoke was moved downward about 1.4 m at 1 minute after a fire. Corridor was filled with smoke at 4 minutes after a fire. In the second floor, temperature was maintained at
or less. But, second floor rooms were filled with smoke.
Preserving Reliability of Evidence Containers for Fire Debris Containing Ignitable Liquids
Han, Dong-Hun ; Lee, Sung-Ryong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 70~74
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.070
It is very important for the collected samples at fire scenes to be properly preserved for laboratory analysis. Preserving abilities of four type containers, metal cans, glass jars, zipper and heat sealed polymer bags, with the five ignitable liquids (toluene, n-octane, o-xylene, n-decane and n-hexadecane) were examined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The glass jars with Teflon (PTFE) liner were the best ability to prevent the evaporation of the ignitable liquids.
Uncertainty Analysis of the Optical Smoke Density Measurement through the Doorway in a Compartment Fire
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.075
The present study measured the light transmission to quantify the smoke density(smoke mass concentration) through the doorway in a compartment fire and performed the uncertainty analysis to evaluate the reliability of the measurement technique. The optical light extinction method based on Bourguer`s law was applied to estimate the smoke density of doorway exhausting smoke flow in upper layer of a compartment for methane gas fires. The measurement uncertainty of the light extinction measurement was evaluated for the light transmittance, path length, and specific mass extinction coefficient and the expanded uncertainty was estimated about 20% with confidence level of 95%. The mean smoke density through the doorway for the methane fire was calculated for quasi-steady fire and the smoke density linearly increased as the GER increased.
Validation of FDS for Predicting the Fire Characteristics in the Multi-Compartments of Nuclear Power Plant (Part II: Under-ventilated Fire Condition)
Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Jong Seok ; Do, Kyusik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 80~88
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.080
The validation of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) was conducted for the under-ventilated fire in well-confined multi-compartments representative of nuclear power plant. Numerical results were compared with experimental data obtained by the OECD/NEA PRISME project. The effects of the numerical boundary conditions (B.C.) in ventilated system and the flame suppression model applied within FDS on the thermal and chemical environments inside the compartment were discussed in details. It was found that numerical B.C. on the vent flow resulting from over-pressure at ignition and under-pressure at extinction should be considered carefully in order to predict accurately the species concentrations rather than temperatures and heat fluxes inside the multi-compartment. The default information of suppression model applied within FDS resulted in artificial phenomena such as flame extinction and re-ignition, and thus the FDS results on the under-ventilated fire showed good agreement with the experimental results as the modified suppression criteria of the fuel used was adopted.
Statistical Analysis and Countermeasure about Fire Mistaken Dispatch
Eom, Sang-Yong ; Kim, Kyoung-Jin ; Lee, Su-Kyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 2, 2013, Pages 89~96
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.2.089
In this research, the fire mistaken dispatch records for the past 11 years have been analyzed by using a statistic technique. Fire mistaken dispatch occurred yearly average
time at 95 % confidence level. This is 1.2 times more than the dispatch for extinguishing the fire. Fire mistaken dispatch has been increased mainly by malfunctioning alarm among other various reasons and the reason of mistaken dispatch is different depending on the population of the region. In big cities, the burning smell accounts for the most of mistaken dispatch but in rural areas, the garbage incineration is the major reason for mistaken dispatch. As a result of calculating the mean time between fire mistaken dispatches (MTBFmd) by region, MTBFmd of Daejeon is 20.61 hr/time and its reliability is 95.26 % at t