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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of the Radiant Heat Effects according to the Change of Wind Velocity in Forest Fire by using WFDS
Song, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Su-Kyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.001
The wildland fire intensity and scale are getting bigger owing to climate change in the world. In the case of domestic, the forest is distributed over approximately 63.7 % of country and the main facilities like a industrial facility or gas facility abuts onto it. Therefore there is potential that the wildland fire is developed to a large-scale disaster. In this study, the effect distances of the radiant heat flux from the crown fire are analysed according to the change of wind velocity. The safety criteria concerning the radiant heat flux to influence on the surrounding were researched to analyse the effect distances. The criteria of radiant heat flux were chosen
. WFDS, which is an extension of NIST's Fire Dynamics Simulator, was used to consequence analysis of the forest fire. In order to apply the analysis conditions, it is researched the forest conditions that is generally distributed in domestic region. As the result, the maximum effect distances by radiant heat were showed at the horizontal and vertical direction. When the wind velocity varied from 0 to 10 m/s, the maximum effect distance increased as the wind velocity increases. Interesting point is that the maximum effect distance were shown at the wind velocity of 8 m/s. The maximum effect distance was decreased according as the fuel moisture of trees increase. This study can contribute to analyse quantitative risk about the damage effect of the surrounding facilities caused by wildland fire.
An Experimental Study on Development of a Window Sprinkler for Fire Spread Prevention along Building External Walls
Kwark, Jihyun ; Kim, Dong-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.008
In case of fire in a high-rise building fire can be easily spread along the building external walls dramatically if the flame comes out through broken windows. There are a few effective methods to prevent the fire spread at the moment. One is using a fire resistance window, and the other is using a window sprinkler that discharges water to resist flame in case of fire. In this study a window sprinkler which is installed on top of windows and prevents fire by discharging water when its heat-responsive element opens was tested using a large scale furnace in accordance with the standard temperature-time graph. Test result showed that one window sprinkler was able to protect a 2,400 mm wide window from fire for 2 hours and the window backside's temperature locally increased up to
but kept stable around
for the test duration.
A Study on the Problem of Pressure and Flow Rate by Prescriptive Code Based Design of Fire Sprinkler System
Jeong, Keesin ; Kim, Wee-Kyong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 14~19
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.014
National Fire Safety Code 103 regulates that all operating sprinkler in design area must be discharged 1 bar or more pressure and release 80 lpm or more flow rate as minimum criteria. NFSC103 also provides that the number of operating sprinkler in design area is 10, 20, 30 according to the building classification and the total flow rate is 800, 1,600, 2,400 lpm depending on 80 lpm per sprinkler. If sprinkler system is designed as above provisions, the pressure and the flow rate accordingly become smaller than the minimum criteria about 50 % sprinklers. It results in serious consequence that the purpose of sprinkler system as initial fire reaction equipment is failure. In order to solve these problems, It is desirable that Performance-based fire protection design, hydraulic calculation, is carried out to all sprinkler system.
Effects of the Geometry and Location of an Vertical Opening on the Fire Characteristics in the Under-Ventilated Compartment Fire
Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Seul-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 20~29
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.020
To investigate numerically the effects of geometry and location of vertical opening on the thermal and chemical fire characteristics in full-scale under-ventilated compartment fires, the ventilation factor (
) to estimate a theoretical maximum inflow of ambient air and the mass loss rate in a heptane pool fire were fixed for all cases. It was shown that variations in door geometry affected significantly the change in thermal and chemical characteristics inside the compartment. Variations in window location resulted in the complex change in additional fire characteristics including the fire duration time and recirculating flow structure. These results were analyzed in details by the multi-dimensional flow and fire characteristics including the vent flow and fuel/air mixing phenomena.
An Experimental Study on the Improvement of Foam Fire-Extinguishing System's Mixing Ratios by Expanding the Cross Sectional Area of the Stock Solution Inhaling Piping
Yun, Ki-Jo ; Jang, Kyung-Nam ; Baek, Eun-Sun ; Park, Bong-Rae ; Park, Hee-Joog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 30~37
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.030
The ultimate purpose of the present study is to secure a effective method for foam liquid discharge when the mixing ratio deviates from the permissible range due to a decrease in the bypass flow rate resulting from a decrease in the cross sectional area of the foam liquid piping ranging from the branching header of one foam proportioner to the branching headers of multiple branching foam fire-extinguishing systems in the region for fire extinguishing and then to the standpipe at the lower part of the storage tank when a fire occurred in a combustible tank. To this end, the cause of mixing ratio variations following changes in the flow rates of existing foam fire extinguishing systems was analyzed, methods for compensation for constant mixing ratios were investigated, and it was proved that metering orifice replacements that could expand the cross sectional area of the stock solution inhaling piping was the most effective way for the improvement of form fire extinguishing systems' mixing ratios through foam proportioner venturi, foam chamber orifice, and metering orifice replacement experiments.
Study on Guideline of Water Supply System for Forest Fire
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Nam, Song-Hee ; Keum, Si-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 38~46
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.038
Permanent water supply and water sprinkling systems are essential to protect major forests and facilities from forest fire. Back in 2005, Naksan Temple, a valuable cultural asset of Korea, was burned down in a forest fire that took place in Yangyang. This started a series of movements including installing water supply facilities and managing forests near important cultural assets. As for the existing facilities, however, they were installed without any standard guidelines for management and installation according to each constructor's specifications, which were based on the National Fire Safety Code 109. Unfortunately, this is not effective in protecting facilities from forest fires such as they have a small protection area, limited simultaneous sprinkling, and a difficult the movement of fire hose. Against this background, the study examines the condition of water supply facilities currently in use, identifies their deficiencies, and suggests how to improve the criteria for water supply service to effectively prevent forest fire. Specifically, three systems were proposed: Water Sprinkler Tower System for preventing spread of crown fires, and Forest Fire Hydrant System and Portable Water Spray System to be effective for suppressing surface fires. In addition, the standards on the performance and components of water pumps are also suggested.
Prediction of Explosion Limits of Organic Acids Using Combustion Chemical Stoichiometric Coefficients and Heats of Combustion
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.047
The explosion limit is one of the major combustion properties used to determine the fire and explosion hazards of the flammable substances. The explosion limit of organic acids have been shown to be correlated the heat of combustion and the chemical stoichiometric coefficients. In this study, the lower explosion and upper explosion limits of organic acids were predicted by using the heat of combustion and chemical stoichiometric coefficients. The values calculated by the proposed equations agreed with literature data within a few percent. From the given results, using the proposed methodology, it is possible to predict the explosion limits of the other organic acids.
A Study on the Friction Loss Reduction in Fire Hoses Used at a Fire Scene
Min, Se-Hong ; Kwon, Yong-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.052
It was described the measured friction loss depending on pressure used and changes in water flow rates for a fire hose used at a fire scene on this study. As a result of actual measurement based on the result obtained by analyzing the use situation of a fire hose such as the kind, quantity, pressure used, etc. of a fire hose, the friction loss in a fire hose under the condition of using by a fire officer at a fire scene was measured as up to 56.8 %. This is much different from the equivalent length of a fire hose used to calculate the pump head in an indoor and outdoor fire-fighting facility. There is no related restrictive regulation on friction loss, there are even no data on friction loss measured by fire hose makers, and spreading a fire hose without considering friction loss at a fire scene can result in an increased length of hose used and a high-pressure water discharge from a fire engine, so this study aims to establish a standard for an equivalent length to friction loss in a fire hose and to propose a spreading method considering friction loss in a fire hose at a fire scene.
A Study on Fire Risk of Multi-family Apartment Houses Constructed with the Exterior of the EIFS
Min, Se-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 60~65
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.060
EIFS system has the merit of low construction cost and shortening of construction period by easy-to-construct. For such reasons as mentioned above, it has been using across the board such as residential building, school, officetel, building remodeling and so on. It, however, has a drawback of generating plenty of combustible gases from styrofoam which is main material of it. In this regard, measures to prevent losses of life from combustible gases are needed urgently as fires on residential buildings applied EIFS caused human casualties resulted from combustible gases. With respect to the above, this study will analyze the risk of fires on residential facilities, such as multi-family apartment houses, schools and other buildings, applied EIFS which is the most frequently used as material of exterior wall and suggest countermeasure of it.
Study on the Assessment of the Criteria on a Door Closer for the Optimum Design of the Access Door of a Smoke Control Zone
Lee, Jae-Ou ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 66~71
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.066
The purpose of this study is to assess the criteria on a floor hinge and door closer for the optimum design of the access door of a smoke control room. The door opening force due to differential pressure is 60.75 N, 40.5 N, 32.91 N and 12.66 N when the differential pressure is 60 Pa, 40 Pa, 32.5 Pa and 12.5 Pa, respectively. The door opening force of the floor hinge and door closer to which the criteria of KS F 2806 are applied is 27.5 N, 40 N, 75 N, 100 N and 125 N for the Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 class floor hinges and door closers, respectively. This study compared the differential pressure and opening force limits of floor hinges and door closers with the values specified in NFSC 501A and found that they exceeded the criteria specified in NFSC 501A. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect the differential pressure and smoke control wind speeds as well as the opening forces specified in NFSC 501A on the design of floor hinges and door closers. The installation conditions of floor hinges and door closers of access doors differ depending on the type and name of a smoke control damper. This study found that Nos. 1, 2 and 3 floor hinges and door closers could be installed for access doors with low differential pressure and that Nos. 1 and 2 floor hinges and door closers could be installed for access doors with normal differential pressure.
Evaluation Study on the Mechanical and Thermal Properties of High Strength Structural Steel at High Temperature
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.072
Recently, building constructions have been developed toward high-rise, long span, and multi-complexed using the high strength materials, optimized section. But the structural behavior of steel structural members built with a high strength steel at fire condition is not clarified because of lacking of information of related references such as mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature situation. In this paper, to evaluate the structural stability of member or frame of steel framed building at fire situation through the engineering method, the mechanical and thermal experimental coupon tests have conducted at various high temperatures and the comparison to those of ordinary strength steels were done.
A Study on Introduction of Fire Prevention Sub-Manager for Efficient Fire Safety Management
Han, Sang-Pil ; Jeong, Mu-Heon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 80~84
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.080
In modern society, buildings has become larger, more complex and high-rise by the influences of locational and environmental characteristics from the changes of human lifestyles. Such features of the buildings, however, make building management and maintenance more difficult, especially in the aspects of health, security, and safety, etc. In order to secure safety and comfort in dwelling, housing, and working condition, it is essential to establish systematic plans and practices. Thus with the aim of investigating general status of fire safety management on specific buildings, this study mainly analyzed fire prevention manager's awareness on their works by conducting a survey, and suggested required systematic improvements for efficient fire safety management. As a result of the survey, it is concluded that introducing the system to appoint fire prevention sub-managers will promote more professional and classified management conditions.
An Ergonomic Analysis for Heavy Manual Material Handling Jobs by Fire Fighters
Im, Su-Jung ; Park, Jong-Tae ; Choi, Seo-Yeon ; Park, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 3, 2013, Pages 85~93
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.3.085
Modern fire fighting jobs have been expanded to include areas of rescue, emergency medical service as well as conventional fire suppression, so that load for fire fighting jobs has been increased. Specifically, musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back injury have been considered as one of major industrial hazards in heavy manual material handling during fire fighting jobs. This study tried to evaluate risk levels and to prepare background for reducing risk levels associated with heavy manual material handling during fire fighting jobs. This study applied two major tools in evaluating heavy manual material handling jobs which were NLE (NIOSH Lifting Equation) and 3DSSPP (3D Static Strength Prediction Program). A risk index in terms of heavy manual material handling during fire fighting jobs was identified. This index consisted of seven risk levels ranged from nine points (the first level) to three points (the seventh level). There was no job associated with the first level (the highest risk level) of index. There was only one job (life saving job) belonging to the second level (the second highest risk level) of index. The third level had jobs such as usage of destruction equipment and lifting patient. A total of basic eighteen jobs was categorized into six different levels (2nd-7th levels) of index. The outcome of the study could provide a good basis for conducting job intervention, preparing good equipment and developing good education program in order to prevent and reduce MSDs including low back injury of fire fighting jobs.