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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Experimental Study on Making Databases for Fire Resistant Steel at High Temperature
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.1
Fire at building can occur enormous damages to life, properties, and environment and the risk of fire breakout is going up higher because of application of combustible materials than before. Therefore, the steel industries are trying to develop fire resistant steel in order to sustain the load bearing capacity of steel structures during fire situation. In this paper, to give the basis data-bases for evaluation of structural stability of steel structures applied fire resistant steel, FR 490, the tests of mechanical and thermal properties at high temperature were conducted and the comparisons are done with the SM 490 that has the same mechanical one.
Evaluation of the Appropriateness of Smoke Control Conditions of Platform at the Subway Fire by using FDS
Kim, Ki-Sung ; Song, Dong-Woo ; Lee, Su-Kyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.8
In the subway, various fires continue to take place across the world. In the Daegu subway accident in 2003, many people were damaged by shortened visibility range caused by toxic gas and smoke. This paper, assuming that a subway fire happens in the Mandeok Station of the subway system in Busan, analyzed different smoke-spreading situations depending on the ventilation situation at its platform (opening of the train doors, operation of ventilation facilities in the tunnel, and working of fire door), using FDS. The calculation proved that it would be more effective to secure evacuation route when the ventilation facilities of the tunnel are not operated, than when they are on. And, it was also found that the case where the doors of the platform to the escape route and only the platform-facing doors of the subway car on fire office are open would be more effective to ventilation than the case where all the doors are open. And, it was found to be important that the fire doors of the platform are working properly.
A Study on the Development, Performance and Reliability Certification for Fire Detection System in Outdoor Area
Baek, Dong-Hyun ; Ghil, Min-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 15~18
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.15
This paper is concerned with the Performance and Reliability Certification for fire detection system in outdoor area such small and middle sized cultural assets, natural monument and outdoor facilities. Especially, if a fire were to occur in vulnerable area, it is difficulty to detect a fire. therefore we propose a high efficiency and low cost unmanned fire detection system in capable of an early detection regardless spontaneously fire or firebug. for Adoption of Intelligent Fire Detection System with movable and unmanned function breaking from the existing Conventional Fire Detection System, this Range of R&D includes the Performance test, Function test, Field test, Flame Detection test and EMI/EMS Compliance test. the Result data of Performance test, Function test and Field test is generally good during 3 months. also we checked that thermal variation test and EMI/EMS compliance test are good result data within allowable range. As a result of general test, we verified improvement results that the measure distance of fire detection extend 75 m, the Power of waiting time increase 4 hours, the Power of operation time increase 3 days and the context awareness with video as well as sensors.
Temperature and Flow Velocity Analysis for Fire in Synthetic Heat Transfer Fluid Boiler
Kim, Yeob-Rae ; Son, Bong-Sei ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.19
The fire took place in the synthetic heat transfer fluid boiler. This study uses simulation to investigate the first, second and third passes and the temperature in the fire burner. The boiler`s internal fluid is more or less unsteady due to the out of order inverter. As the operation continues, the flame`s flow and speed are unsteady. The synthetic heat transfer fluid leak spouted about 120 kg/min in the form of vapor in the early period of the fire. The flame extended to the second and third passes. The highest temperature of the second and third pass is
, respectively. The simulation shows that the temperature is
in the low part of the third pass. The synthetic heat transfer fluid spouted through the cracked part of the fire box in the first pass and accumulated on the turn table. The temperature rises to
in the low part of the burner. Therefore, it is expected that the temperature of the interior of the fire box is above
. The temperature of the burner rises to a maximum level several times in a short period. On account of that, several explosions occur in the fire burner.
The Assessment for Coupling Integrity of Pressurizer Support Bolting
Cho, Nam-Jin ; Kim, Woo-Chang ; Kim, Hak-Joong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 26~31
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.26
In nuclear power plant, anchor bolts for pressurizer supports are sufficiently used in terms of safety reason, but field inspections have reported that some bolts exceed the limit of their allowable hardness. Because the high level of hardness may lead to failures due to the stress corrosion or fracture toughness, a regular inspection is required for the bolts in nuclear power plant. Thus, this research measures the hardness of bolts currently used in pressurizer supports and then estimates maximum allowable stresses preventing failures by stress corrosion and fracture toughness. Using the ANSYS program, the stresses of the bolts in the regular condition and accidental condition have been calculated, and the possible maximum stress has been compared with the estimated allowable stresses. From the results, the stresses of bolts in the accidental condition satisfy the allowable safety stress from the stress corrosion failure. However, in the future, it shall be needed to consider the reflection of the structure assembling method on the assembling procedure to ensure the pressurizer integrity during maintenance period time.
A Study on the Revision of the National Fire Safety Codes of Sprinkler System
Jeong, Keesin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 32~37
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.32
This paper suggested to revise unreasonable national fire safety codes of sprinkler system. Also proposed to modify the definition of "the gridded sprinkler system" and to add "the feed main" in terms of the definition of the pipes. In order to operate the regulations of discharge pressure of the sprinkler head efficiently, this paper checked the minimum criteria of pressure and flow for the pipe schedule sprinkler system of NFPA 13 and suggested to establish the similar minimum demand criteria. It proposed to be amended properly the pressure calculation formular in the pressure tank system and to use the correct K value due to change in pressure unit and to use the [bar] as a unit of pressure for the sake of using the existing K-factor etc.
Fire Extinguishing Capability of an Automatic Spreading Fire Extinguisher in Accordance with Horizontal Distance from a Fire Source
Kwark, Ji-Hyun ; Kim, Dong-Suk ; Ku, Jae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 38~43
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.38
An automatic spreading fire extinguisher usually installed in a closed area like a boiler room, a laundry store or a restaurant`s kitchen room is one of the fire protection equipments. This extinguisher automatically discharges dry powder, extinguishing fire. As this extinguisher has the extinguishing capability applicable to the nominal protection area, objects outside the area cannot be properly extinguished. However only its number is being requested according to the floor area in the related laws, and the extinguishing capability depends on the distance from a fire source. In this study we tried to investigate the extinguishing capability of the automatic spreading fire extinguisher in accordance with horizontal separation distance from a fire source. It appeared that the maximum horizontal separation distance was about 30 cm for both class A and B fire to be certainly extinguished.
A Study on Carbon Monoxide and Other Gases During the Fire Test (A-class:1st Rating ＆ B-class:1st Rating)
Jeong, Incheon ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 44~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.44
This research is to identify how much toxic combustion gases are produced from Korea standardized real fire test (Class A&B) by using Room Corner Tester (RCT) and how much those gases are possibly dangerous to testing personnel by estimating the level of carboxyhemoglobin (% COHb). It is confirmed that testing personnel can be affected as more than 40% COHb from Class A 9th and 10th rating in respiration minute volume (RMV) 2 and from Class A 5th to Class A 10th rating in RMV 3 during the time for initial three minutes. Also, in the case of Class B real fire tests, although it is considered rather safe for the initial 1 minute, testing personnel can be affected as more than 20% COHb from Class B 16th to 20th rating in RMV 3 during total test time. Currently, the Korea standard is only focusing on the protection measures against the heat, but the it is neglecting the protection measures against toxic combustion gases. Therefore, according to this study, it is strongly recommended that testing personnel should wear a self-contained breathing apparatus, or the equivalence depending on the real fire test rating.
Combustion Characteristics of Pinus rigida Plates Painted with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid Derivatives
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.57
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Pinus rigida plates treated with piperazinomethyl-bisphosphonic acid (PIPEABP), methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MPIPEABP), and N,N-dimethylethylenediaminomethyl- bis-phosphonic acid (MDEDAP). Pinus rigida specimens were painted in three times with 15 wt% alkylenediaminoalkyl- bis-phosphonic acid solutions at the room temperature. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). As a result, the combustion-retardation properties were increased by due to the treated alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acid solutios in the virgin Pinus rigida. Especially, the specimens treated with chemicals showed both the later time to ignition (TTI) (148-116 s) and longer time to flameout (Tf) (633-529 s) than those of virgin plate by reducing the burnig rate. Compared with virgin pinus rigida plate, the specimens treated with the alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acids showed partially low combustive properties. However the specimens treated with PIPEABP showed both the higher peak heat release rate (PHRR) (187.56
) and higher total heat release rate (THRR) (75.7
) than those of virgin plate.
Measurement of Autoignition Temperature of n-Propanol and Formic acid System
Cho, Young-Se ; Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 64~69
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.64
The autoignition temperatures (AITs) of solvent mixture was important index for the safe handling of flammable liquids which constitute the solvent mixtures. This study measured the AITs and ignition delay time for n-propanol and formic acid system by using ASTM E659 apparatus. The AITs of n-Propanol and Formic acid which constituted binary system were
, respectively. The experimental AITs of n-propanol and formic acid system were a good agreement with the calculated AITs by the proposed equations with a few A.A.D. (average absolute deviation). And n- Propanol and formic acid system was shown the minimum autoignition temperature behavior (MAITB).
The Measurement and Prediction of Maximum Flash Point Behavior for Binary Solution
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Lee, Sungjin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 70~74
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.70
The flash point is one of the most important physical properties to charaterize fire and explosion hazard of liquid solutions. The maximum flash point of liquid mixture is larger than those of the individual components. In this study, the flash points of 2-pentanol+acetic acid system were measured by Seta flash closed cup tester. This system exhibited the maximum flash point behavior. The flash points were estimated by the Raoult`s law and the optimization methods using the van Laar and Wilson equations. The calculated values by optimization methods were found to be better than those based on the Raoult`s law.
Spatial Relationship of the Left Ventricle in the Supine Position and the Left Lateral Tilt Position (Implication for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Pregnant Patients)
Yun, Jong Geun ; Lee, Byung Kook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 5, 2013, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.5.75
Application of the left lateral tilt position has been recommended during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of pregnant patients. However, the left lateral tilt could displace the left ventricle (LV) besides the gravid uterus and may compromise the cardiac pump mechanism of CPR. Thus, we investigated the effect of left lateral tilt on the spatial relationship between the anterior-posterior axis (AP axis), which represents the direction of sternal displacement during CPR, and the LV. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scans of 90 patients who underwent virtual gastroscopy using MDCT. Virtual gastroscopy was performed with the patient both in the left lateral tilt position and in the supine position. On an axial image showing the maximal area of the LV, the angle between the AP axis and the LV axis (
), the shortest distance between the AP axis and the mid-point of LV cavity (
) and the shortest distance between the AP axis and the LV apex (
) were measured. In the supine scans, the LV was situated on the left side of the AP axis in 87 patients (96.7%). On the left lateral tilt scans, the mean tilt angle was
were significantly longer in the left lateral tilt position (p<0.001), but
was comparable between the positions. This study indicates that the left lateral tilt position may compromise the cardiac pump mechanism of chest compression in pregnant cardiac arrest patients.