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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Effects of Various Disk Shape of Hydrant on the Pressure Drop
You, Woo Jun ; Shim, Myoung Gyu ; Sung, Kun Hyuk ; Yu, Jae Bum ; Youm, Moon Cheon ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.001
In this study, the effects of various disk shapes of hydrant on the pressure drop are experimentally and numerically analyzed. The test methods for measuring pressure drop of hydrant are comply with standard of Underwriters Laboratory (UL). The hydrant as used in this study has one inlet, diameter 150 mm, and three outlet, 114.3 mm diameter for one outlet and 63.5 mm diameter for the others. The pressure of the hydrant are measured in the range 760 L/min~2,270 L/min for 63.5 mm outlet and 3,030 L/min~6,060 L/min for 114.3 mm outlet. Also, the numerical results of pressure drop are compared with the experiments to verify the accuracy and to analyze the of various valve shape of hydrant on the pressure drop. The engineering parameters, flow coefficients, are reduced from 181.57 to 136.35 (
) with inclined angle of disk from
. These results are able to practical use for design hydrant to minimize pressure drop.
A Study on B Class Fire Extinguishing Performance of Air Ratio in the Compressed Air Foam System
Lee, Jang-Won ; Lim, Woo-Sub ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 8~14
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.008
This research is to evaluate the fire extinguishing performance at a mixing ratio of pressurized air in the fire extinguishing system of compressed air foam (CAF) which injects compressed air into foam liquid and then discharging. The experimental device is made use of exclusive foam extinguishing facility for compressed air foam that is produces based on Canada National Laboratory and UL 162 standard, apply model of oil fire (B Class) 20 unit in accordance with "Standard of Model Approval and Product Inspection for Fire Extinguishing Agent" to the fire Extinguishing model. Compressed air is injected through the air mixture and study the tendency depending on increasing air foam ratio 1 : 4, 1 : 7, 1 : 10. In addition, the comparison experiments between synthetic surfactants foam and AFFF carry out with it at the air foam ratio 1 : 4. As a result, in the condition of same discharging flow, fire extinguishing effect of AFFF is the fastest at the air foam ratio 1 : 7 and the slowest at 1 : 10. Moreover, the fire extinguishing effect of AFFF in the comparison expeiments between AFFF and synthetic surfactants foam is faster than the other.
Inverse Estimation of Convective Heat Transfer Coefficient, Emissivity and Flame Heat Flux on the Surface
Yoon, Kyung-Beom ; Park, Won-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 15~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.015
The convective heat transfer coefficient, emissivity, and flame heat flux on the surface of Duglas fir are estimated by using repulsive particle swarm optimization. The surface temperature, mass loss rate, and ignition time are measured for various incident heat fluxes from a cone heater of the cone calorimeter. The calculated surface temperatures obtained by using the optimized convective heat transfer coefficient, emissivity and flame heat flux on the surface in this study match well with those obtained from the test. The maximum error between the predicted and measured surface temperatures for the three different external heat fluxes is within 2% showing reasonable agreements. The methodology proposed in this study can be used to obtain various values related to heat transfer on a flaming surface that are difficult to measure in experiments.
Evaluation of Structural Stability of Fire Resistant Steel Produced by Thermo-Mechanical Control Process at High Temperature
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.021
Fire resistance steel, grading 490 MPa, had developed by using Thermo-mechanical control process (TMCP) and it has better performance at welding, seismic resistance than those of the ordinary structural steel, But the fire resistance performance is required to verify against the ordinary fire resistance, FR 490. Therefore this study was done to make database of mechanical properties at high temperature and to evaluate the structural stability at high temperature in terms of materials and structural member such as H-section from that of FR 490. The result of this study was that the structural stability of TMCP was lower than that of ordinary FR 490 at the range up about
A Study on the Fire Resistance Performance of Reinforced Concrete Columns according to Axial Load Ratio
Hwang, Kyu-Jae ; Cho, Bum-Yean ; Yeo, In-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 26~31
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.026
This study, to evaluate the technology of the fire resistance design of Reinforced Concrete columns based on fire resistance performance design, was suppose to use as basic data for performance design through a measure of temperature and deformation using heat transfer analysis and Heat-load test of the Reinforced Concrete columns as parameter is the axial load ratio. In accordance with axial load without eccentricity, the load ratio of 0.30, 0.35, 0.40 and 0.47 were imposed on columns. As a result of this study, 0.40 or more of axial load ratio can be ensured that the fire resistance performance was considered satisfactory.
The Real Fire Test in Bedroom for the Performance Based Fire Design
Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Kwon, In-Kyu ; Kweon, Oh-Sang ; Kim, Heung-Youl ; Chae, Seung-Un ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 32~37
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.032
For The performance based fire design of the buildings, the fire characteristic such as proceeding and scale of the fire should be figured out but, there is lack of relevant information because of different conditions and difficulties of mock-up test like type of division space, ventilation condition, etc, in buildings. Therefore, in the study, a heal release rate etc, the engineering characteristic data value on the fire is proposed by mock-up fire test for division space in buildings. The mock-up fire test is carried out in a bedroom with 2.4 (L)
2.4 (H) m model. Initial ignition was started from trash box and the test was carried out for 30 min. As a result of the fire test, flame was broken to outside within 7 min and 50 s after starting the test and the maximum heat release rate was measured as 3,810.6 kW at 9 min and 34 s.
Comparative Study on the Estimation Method of Fire Load for Residential Combustibles
Choi, Su-Young ; Kim, Jung-Yong ; Nam, Dong-Gun ; Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 38~43
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.038
As a preliminary study to evaluate the reliability of the calculation method of fire load for residential furniture combustibles, the present study estimates the fire load considering the volume data obtained by the 3D geometrical information of combustibles and material properties based on the literature survey and sample burning test. A kitchen sink cabinet, couch and workstation were investigated for estimating its fire load and real fire test have been performed to measure total energy released from the combustibles. Based on total energy measured from real fire test, the relative error of the estimated fire load due to literature survey and measured material properties showed 6~120% and less than 20%, respectively. It shows that the estimation error of fire load are greatly affected by its material properties as well as geometrical information of combustibles and the present study will be able to contribute to accurate estimation of fire load.
Design Consideration about Large Caliber Piping of Polyethylene Material
Kim, Eung-Soo ; Yoon, Myong-O ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 44~49
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.044
As the polyethylene of high strength and ductility stabilized chemically has been mass-produced, it is spreading widely as material of industrial piping and water service piping. Recently, High density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe has been used even in water supply system of plant as buried pipe instead of cast iron pipe in domestic, but HDPE pipe has a probability of occurrence of damage if plant design and operating conditions are not considered. As a result of reviewing with respect of system design engineering based on operating conditions and verification test results, the specific design criteria for the use of HDPE piping in fire water supply system need to be established because of the possibility of crack damage due to water hammer.
Radiation Effects on the Ignition and Flame Extinction of High-temperature Fuel
Kim, Yu Jeong ; Oh, Chang Bo ; Choi, Byung Il ; Han, Yong Shik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 50~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.050
The radiation effects on the auto-ignition and extinction characteristics of a non-premixed fuel-air counterflow field were numerically investigated. A detailed reaction mechanism of GRI-v3.0 was used for the calculation of chemical reactions and the optically-thin radiation model was adopted in the simulations. The flame-controlling continuation method was also used in the simulation to predict the auto-ignition point and extinction limits precisely. As a result, it was found that the maximum H radical concentration,
, rather than the maximum temperature was suitable to understand the ignition and extinction behaviors. S-, C- and O-curves, which were well known from the previous theory, were identified by investigating the
. The radiative heat loss fraction (
) and spatially-integrated heat release rate (IHRR) were introduced to grasp each extinction mechanism. It was also found that the
was the highest at the radiative extinction limit. At the flame stretch extinction limit, the flame was extinguished due to the conductive heat loss which attributed to the high strain rate although the heat release rate was the highest. The radiation affected on the radiative extinction limit and auto-ignition point considerably, however the effect on the flame stretch extinction limit was negligible. A stable flame regime defined by the region between each extinction limit became wide with increasing the fuel temperature.
Combustive Characteristics of Wood Specimens Treated with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acids
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.057
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Pinus rigida specimens treated with piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP), methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MPIPEABP), and N,N-dimethylethylene-diaminomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MDEDAP). Pinus rigida Plates were painted in three times with 15 wt% alkylenedi-aminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acid solutions at the room temperature. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was indicated that the specimens treated with chemicals showed the later time to peak mass loss rate (
) = (315~420) s than that of virgin plate by reduc-ing the burning rate except for
(280 s) treated with DMDAP. In adition, the specimens treated with chemicals showed both the higher total smoke release rate (TSRR) (407.3~902.0)
than those of virgin plate. Especially, for the specimens treated with PIPEABP, 1st-smoke production rate (1st-SPR) (0.1250~0.1297) g/s was lower than that of virgin plate, while the 2nd-SPR (0.183 g/s) was higher. Thus, It is supposed that the combustion-retardation properties were improved by the partial due to the treated alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phos-phonic acids in the virgin Pinus rigida.
Numerical Study on the Reacting Flow Field abound Rectangular Cross Section Bluff Body
Lee, Jung-Ran ; Lee, Eui-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 64~69
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.064
The Numerical simulation was performed on the flow field around the two-dimensional rectangular bluff body in order to simulate an engine nacelle fire and to complement the previous experimental results of the bluff body stabilized flames. Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) based on the Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) was employed to clarify the characteristics of reacting flow around bluff body. The overall reaction was considered and the constant for reaction was determined from flame extinction limits of experimental results. The air used atmosphere and the fuel used methane. For both fuel ejection configurations against an oxidizer stream, the flame stability and flame mode were affected mainly by vortex structure near bluff body. In the coflow configuration, air velocity at the flame extinction limit are increased with fuel velocity, which is comparable to the experiment results. Comparing with the isothermal flow field, the reacting flow produces a weak and small recirculation zone, which is result in the reductions of density and momentum due to temperature increase by reaction in the wake zone.
Combustion Characteristics of Pinus rigida Plates Painted with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid (M
Jin, Eui ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 70~76
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.070
Four kinds of new piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid
) were synthesized and their combustive properties of Pinus rigida plates treated with
were tested. Pinus rigida specimens were painted in three times with 15 wt%
solutions at the room temperature. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, com-bustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). As a result, the combustion-retardation proper-ties were increased by due to the treated
solutions in the virgin pinus rigida. Especially, the specimens treated with
showed both the lower peak heat release rate (
) (162.02~145.36) s and total heat release rate (THRR) (73.0~67.4)
than those of virgin piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP)-plate. Compared with virgin PIPEABP-plate, the specimens treated with the
showed low combustive properties. However the specimens treated with
showed both the shorter time to ignition (TTI) (67~23) s and the time to flameout (Tf) (472~433) s than those of virgin PIPEABP-plate by increasing the thermal conductivity.
Smart Fire Image Recognition System using Charge-Coupled Device Camera Image
Kim, Jang-Won ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.077
This research suggested smart fire recognition system which trances firing location with CCD camera with wired/wire-less TCP/IP function and Pan/Tilt function, delivers information in real time to android system installed by smart mobile communication system and controls fire and disaster remotely. To embody suggested method, firstly, algorithm which applies hue saturation intensity (HSI) Transform for input video, eliminates surrounding lightness and unnecessary videos and segmentalized only firing videos was suggested. Secondly, Pan/Tilt function traces accurate location of firing for proper control of firing. Thirdly, android communication system installed by mobile function confirms firing state and controls it. To confirm the suggested method, 10 firing videos were input and experiment was conducted. As the result, all of 10 videos segmentalized firing sector and traced all of firing locations.
A Study of Smart Robot Architecture and Movement for Observation of Dangerous Region
Koo, Kyung-Wan ; Baek, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 83~88
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.083
Catastrophic disasters are sprouting out recently, i.e., the radiation leaks and the hydrofluoric acid gas leaks, etc. The restoration work for these kinds of disasters is very harmful and dangerous for human beings to handle themselves, thus allowing manless robots to fly the reconnaissance planes over to the disaster stricken areas and do the necessary work instead. For this endeavor and purpose, we created and tested an intelligent robot that can inspect those areas, using Mbed (ARM processor) technology temperature sensors and gas sensors aided by CAM (Computer-Aided Manufacturing) cameras. Also, HTTP Server, PC, androids and their combined efforts allow their remote controlled operation from far away with timing control. These intelligent robots can be on duty for 24 hours, minimizing the accidents and crimes and what not, and can respond more quickly when these misfortunes actually happen. We can anticipate the economic effects as well, derived from the reduced needs for hiring human resources.
A Phenomenological Study on the Flame Spread of Air Conditioner Indoor unit by Fire Tests
Choi, Seung-Bok ; Lee, Seung-Hun ; Choi, Min-Ki ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 89~96
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.089
The purpose of this study is to check the fire origin and cause of the fire by observing the shape of the flame propagation in air-conditioner indoor unit through the fire tests. We supposed that the flame is spread from the surroundings to the top of the air-conditioner and ignited on top of the air-conditioner with n-heptane. And then repeated this experiment twice under the same conditions. After the ignition, refrigerant filled in air-conditioner and lubricating oil exploded with large explosion and flame having high temperature and pressure belched out rapidly due to bursting refrigerant pipe linked air-conditioner between 734 seconds and 559 seconds. After result of checking the combustion residue we found that almost all of that was lost except a part of the evaporator, motor and metal. The position of short-circuit traces of wiring for the air-conditioner ignited itself is similar to that of fire damage by external flame. Therefore, we verified that it is not certain to determine the ignition cause and point by only the shape of the combustion residues.
A Study on the Legislation for Separate Prime Contracting in the Fire Facility Business
Lee, Chang Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 97~103
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.097
This study analyzes the present public construction ordering system focussing on the legal framework for the fire facilities construction business and investigates the problem of subcontracting, and further reviews why Separate Prime Contracting should be recommended in policy, social, legislative and regulative terms. This study suggests the amendment of Fire Facilities Construction Business Act, with new bill drafting. The result of this study shows the present public construction ordering system has huge disparities between main building construction business and fire facilities construction business, and recommend Separate Prime Contracting should be adopted in the fields of fire facilities construction business. The system of Separate Prime Contracting may secure business entities' responsibility and higher quality of fire facilities, and also result in reasonable construction practices in reasonable costs. This system may also contribute to improve public safety level in fire facilities construction.
The Effects of Transformational Leadership on Organizational Culture and Innovation in the Fire Fighting Organization
Park, Chang-Soon ; Choi, Kyu-Chool ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 104~114
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.104
This study is intended to figure out the effects of supervisors' transformational leadership on organizational culture and innovation in the fire fighting organization. To achieve this, a survey was carried out to fire officers from the National Emergency Management Agency and Seoul Metropolitan Fire & Disaster Headquarters. The results are as follows. First, the effect of supervisors' transformational leadership on organizational culture showed that supervisors' transformational leadership had an effect on group culture, norm culture and rational culture by sub-factors of organizational culture in the fire fighting organization. Second, the effect of organizational culture on organizational innovation showed that group culture and rational culture had an effect on organizational innovation. Third, the effect of supervisors' transformational leadership on organizational innovation showed that supervisors' transformational leadership had an effect on organizational innovation. As for findings stated above, supervisors' transformational leadership had positive effects on organizational culture and innovation in the fire fighting organization. Consequently, supervisors' energetic and change-seeking leader-ship for junior staffs with existing organization-and new generation-oriented new thinking system can contribute to rational culture and development-oriented innovation based on norms in the group.
A Study on the Efficient Operation of Self-audit in Large-scale PSM Workplace
Min, Se-Hong ; Kim, Seok-Won ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.115
Industrial facilities are becoming bigger and more up to date, And a kind of the hazardous material used in the industrial filed is diversified. Therefore, serious accidents such as leakage of toxic materials, fire and explosion, is continuously occurred. There is Process Safety Management (PSM) system of the several preventive systems, but it is supposed to be a limitation to ensure safety or huge PSM industrial sites where have potential to catastrophically invisible and unexpected risks because it is still being managed by instruction and inspection of authority having jurisdiction other than self-regulating management differing from the primarily aim of PSM system. To verify safety management system of work-place, supplementation of existing system is urgently required. In this study, it suggests that PSM self-audit be emphasized significantly analyzing problems of the current systems for enhancing self-audit be emphasized significantly analyzing problems of the current systems for enhancing self-control safety through efficient self-audit management and improving the existing system and improving the existing as verifying the system there of, as well as studying methods which can support institutionally.
Analysis of Predicted Instructions about Shockable Cardiac Arrest Patients by Dispatcher at 119 Emergency Situation Management Center
Jeong, Eun-Kyung ; Jeong, Ji-Yeon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 27, issue 6, 2013, Pages 122~128
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2013.27.6.122
This study analyzed the emergency activity daily reports and emergency instruction sheets of the research subjects and proceeded with the shockable cardiac arrest cases transported to 119 emergency units for two years before the hospital from January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2011. The most frequently predicted instruction by the dispatchers at the 119 Emergency Situation Control Center was 74 cases of fainting (33.3%). Among varied types of predicted instructions, 112 cases (50.5%) like fainting, chest pain, general prostration and others were not able to be predicted while predictable instructions involved with cardiac arrest such as consciousness disorders, difficult breathing, cardiac attacks and convulsion were 110 cases (49.5%). In such cases, success rates of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) trials by eyewitnesses at predictable instructions involved with cardiac arrests were significantly higher. As mentioned, situation agents must categorize types of cardiac arrests accurately by posing questions over assessments regarding patients' consciousness and respiration in detail. The patients categorized by such methods must guide eyewitnesses to be able to do CPR. Moreover, not only emergency medical technicians who receive predictable instructions involved with cardiac arrests given by dispatchers (49.5%) but also filed emergency medical technicians who are not able to reach a precise conclusion to non-cardiac arrests on unpredictable instructions on cardiac arrests (50.5%) must prepare for situations related to cardiac arrests before being dispatched to the field.