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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
A Study on Fire Features of Double-Skin Facade Structure by Using Fire Simulation (FDS)
Gu, Seon-Hwan ; Kim, Hyun-Ho ; Song, Young-Joo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.001
This study aims to address the fire characteristics of Double-skin facade using the Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). To end this, Double-skin facade was classified into the four structures, that is Box, Shaft-box, Corridor, Multistory, through PyroSim program which was based on FDS, and further each structure of fire characteristics were analyzed numerically as well as comparatively in the current study. This study also examined smoke movement, smoke density, smoke detectors, and visibility in order to closely identify the each structure of fire characteristics. The results of the study discovered that the Box structure did not significantly affect smoke which was rising in the other rooms, except for the fire room whereas the Corridor structure had positive effects on Double-skin facade horizontally. In addition, the Shaft-box structure showed the fastest vertical movement by means of the shaft, on the other hand, rising smoke influenced the other rooms as well. The Multistory structure along with rising smoke had a great impact on the other divided rooms in a vertical way.
A Study on the Improvement of Safety Management of Hazardous Chemicals Handling in the Workplace
Jeong, Gyeong-Sam ; Baik, Eun-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 12~19
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.012
Workplaces handling hazardous chemicals are scattered, because of old-aging facilities are have been operating for more than 20 years, there is still has the risk of an accident. Advanced countries including the UN and strengthen regulation of chemicals, but the frequent leak accidents have become a big issue socially. In the case of subsequent domestic accidental chemical accident, the government and related departments for the overall prevention, preparedness, response system has been checked and improved. In this study, improvements of the related system and the plan of safety management for on the prevention of accidents and the initial response were suggested throughout the analysis of problems on the actual condition of safety management and such as standard of the related systems for handling, management for occurring the main cause of the leak and chemical accidents from hazardous chemicals handling in the workplace.
An Analytic Study on Structural Stability according to Boundary Conditions and H-section Column Lengths Made of An Ordinary Grade Structural Steels (SS 400) at High Temperatures
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.020
Steel column is very important an structural element in steel framed building and plays a key role in sustataining the applied external load. Generally, the fire resistance performance of steel column has been executed by application of fire standard and vertical furnace having a limitation in height. Therefore, the fire resistance test was conducted with a H-section column having 3500 mm in length and hinge to hinge boundary condition. And the fire protective material derived from the fire test can be applied to any kind of boundary conditions and lengths. However, it is hard to determine the fire resistance. In this paper, to make sure the structural stability of them at high temperature according to various boundary conditions and lengths of H-section column, an analysis was done by using the mechanical properties and an heat transfer theory.
Development of Compensation-Type Fire Detector Using Metal-Insulator-Transition Critical-Temperature Sensor
Jung, Sun-Kyu ; Kim, Hyun-Tak ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 26~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.026
A Compensation-type fire detector (CFD) is operated with two functions of a differential-temperature detector and as a fixed-temperature detector. The differential-temperature detector observes a rate of temperature increase, and the fixed-temperature detector measures a given fixed temperature. The differential-temperature detector does not observe the outbreak of fire in slowly increasing temperature conditions, whereas the fixed-temperature detector is not able to observe the outbreak of fire in conditions under predetermined temperature level. We developed a CFD to compensate for weaknesses of both detectors. To compensate for the disadvantages, a sensor of the sensor metal-insulator-transition critical-temperature sensor was used. Temperature coefficient of resistance is the sensitivity for sensor. At
, temperature coefficient of resistance of metal-insulator-transition critical-temperature sensor was 14.15%. Temperature coefficient of resistance of thermistor was about 0.5%. This CFD was operated as two ways that fixed-temperature detector and differential-temperature detector in one sensor.
A Study of Effect of the Radiative Heat Flux on the Evacuation of Agents
Bae, Sungryong ; Kim, Jung-Yup ; Shin, Hyun-Joon ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.031
Recently, the safety assessments with using the various evacuation programs are performed for improving the performance of fire and evacuation safety in the building. Generally, the evacuation programs can simulate the human behavior in fire situation by applying the variation of the movement speed and Fractional Effective Dose (FED) index in the smoke. However, if the simulation is performed without optional setting around the fire, the agents do not avoid the fire and they move through the fire. Therefore in this study, we define the radiative repulsion force which exists between the fire and the agents. Moreover, we modify the Helbing`s movement model by adding the radiative repulsion force. As a result of the modified movement model, all agents move around the fire and they do not enter the upper bound area of radiative heat flux,
. From these results, we verified the reliability of the modified movement model.
Measurement of the Device Properties of Fixed Temperature Heat Detectors for the Fire Modeling
Park, Hee-Won ; Cho, Jae-Ho ; Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Kim, Sung-Chan ; Nam, Dong-Gun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 37~43
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.037
The high predictive performance of fire detector models is essentially needed to assure the reliability of fire and evacuation modeling in the process of Performance-Based fire safety Design (PBD). The main objective of the present study is to measure input information in order to predictive the accurate activation time of fixed temperature heat detectors adopted in Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) as a representative fire model. To end this, Fire Detector Evaluator (FDE) which could be measured the device properties of detector was used, and the spot-type fixed temperature heat detectors of two thermistor types and one bimetal type were considered as research objectors. Activation temperature and Response Time Index (RTI) of detectors required for the fire modeling were measured, and then the RTI was measured for ceiling jet flow and vertical jet flow in consideration of the install location of detectors. The results of fire modeling using measured device properties were compared and validated with the experimental results of full-scale compartment fires. It was confirmed that, in result, the numerically predicted activation time of detector showed reasonable agreement with the measured activation time.
Studies on the Morphology of Smoke Particles for Each Type of Fire by Using Steady State Tube Furnace
Goo, Jaehark ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 44~51
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.044
Smoke from fire is a mixture of combustion gases and particles which include micro-droplets formed from condensed organic vapors and carbonaceous agglomerates. The inhalation of smoke particles causes adverse health effects, and it is prerequisite for the hazard and risk analysis of the smoke particles to know how they behaviour in the respiratory tract. The characteristics of the absorption and adsorption of toxic gases and the amount and location of the particle deposition within the respiratory tract that determine the adverse health effects are related to the morphology and the size distribution of smoke particles. In the present work, as a preliminary study for the adverse health effects of smoke particles, the morphologies of the smoke particles from combustible materials were investigated for each fire stage: smouldering, well-ventilated flaming, small under-ventilated flaming, fully-developed under-ventilated fire. The steady-state tube furnace method given in ISO/TS 19700 was used for the generation of smoke particles. The fire stages were controlled by changing furnace temperature and equivalent ratio. The morphologies were analyzed by using Transmission Electron Microscope (Bio-TEM) by collecting the particles on TEM grids put on each stage of a cascade impactor.
Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Heat Transfer for the Location Selection of Anti-freeze for the Fire Protection Piping with Electrical Heat Trace
Choi, Myoung-Young ; Lee, Dong-Wook ; Choi, Hyoung-Gwon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.052
In this paper, the unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation were solved to find out the optimal location of electrical heat trace for anti-freeze of water inside the pipe for fire protection. Since the conduction equation of pipe was coupled with the natural convection of water, the analysis of conjugate heat transfer was conducted. A commercial code (ANSYS-FLUENT) based on SIMPLE-type algorithm was used for investigating the unsteady flows and temperature distributions in water region. From the numerical experiments, the isotherms and the vector fields in water region were obtained. Furthermore, it was found that the lowest part of the pipe cross-section was an optimal position of electrical heat trace assuming the constant thermal expansion coefficient of water since the minimum temperature of the water with the position is higher than those with the other positions.
Improvement for the Job Safety in the Scene Activities of Fire Fighters
Kim, Jong-Seo ; Lee, Dong-Ho ; Park, Jong-Tae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 58~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.058
This study was performed to propose measures to improve and secure safety in the scene activities of firefighters. First, the majority of firefighters thought that working environment and equipment in fire station were inadequate for perforeming work tasks safely. Second, influential factors threatening safe scene activities mainly arose externally such as insecure working conditions of firefighting or emergency scene. Third, improvement in working environments was pointed out as the most urgent issue to secure safety. Firefighters recognized the expansion of field workforce in system, personnel management and the foundation of hospitals for firefighters hospital in working environment, and the development and distribution of safe equipment and change and inspection of air respirator facepiece on regular basis in equipment as urgent issues to be improved.
A Study on Factors Affecting Formation of Social Capital for Volunteer Fire Brigade
Woo, Seong-Cheon ; Chae, Jin ; Go, Gi-Bong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 64~70
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.064
A Volunteer Fire Brigade is a voluntary social services organization that performs various assistance works in fire fighting activities such as fire fighting and rescue of human lives on a part-time basis. Recently, it has also assumed an important role in the creation of security culture of local society. Besides, it provides diverse service activities related to security of local society. However, as this kind of volunteer fire brigade organization is not in a vigorous state, research for an improvement is being carried out in earnest. As part of a vitalization plan of the volunteer fire brigade, an attempt was made in this research to present an activation plan of the volunteer fire brigade through formation of social capital. Accordingly, efforts were made in this research to investigate and analyze an awareness of social capital among the volunteers and to present on this basis a plan for formation of social capital for the volunteer fire brigade of local society. As a result of the research, it turned out that social norm has the major effect on the formation of social capital for volunteer fire brigade. Therefore, it is our belief that an independent statute should be established to nurture and develop volunteer fire brigades. And when strong mutual trust among the volunteers are formed and efforts for devotion to local society are made on this basis, the security level of local society will be enhanced further.
Perceptions about the Professional Ethics of EMT
Yun, Hyeong-Wan ; Lee, Jae-Min ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 1, 2014, Pages 71~78
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.1.071
Complex ethical issues of Emergency Medical Techinician (EMT) out-of hospital emergency medical scene and the ER (Emergency Room) behaviors were studied. The survey was conducted by 500 EMT group members working in the field of ambulance work and general hospital and it was about their work ethics, discussions and solutions about the transferred patients, and ethics regarding Do Not Attempt Resuscitate (DNAR). The survey includes work ethics, awareness about the target job, a discussion on the transfer of patients, measures, and deathbed. Discussions about the patient`s condition and diagnosis results were majorly absent during patient transportation at the emergency care scene. More than 90% of emergency care transfer were inappropriate. Sometimes, EMT working in the field facing morally unethical problems beyond their responsibility. When EMT, who can not make death diagnosis, received deathbed related DNAR issues, they gone through severe ethical conflicts. The institutional support and therapy for EMT was weak. In Korea, especially in the accident site, ethical issues education is more needed than DNAR prevalence of education and guidance. If ethics training and guidance are given to EMT, a lot of moral errors in the field can be resolved.