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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Design Program Development of the Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing System Using an Optimization
Lee, Dong-Myung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 1~9
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.001
In this study, it was developed to the design program optimization the design factors of the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system on the basis of design theory for the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system, national emergency management agency (NEMA) notice No. 2012-11, KS B 6261 and steepest descent method of optimization. The design program was developed to C++ compiler based on established the logic and algorithms and was to operate on the Windows operating system. The optimization of design factors for the carbon dioxide fire extinguishing system are minimized subject to constraint on agent flow rate, emission time and design variables (pipe size etc.). It was verified to the design program performance for test system, and it was provided to the foundation for optimal design in fire fighting field. Also, it is considered to improve the efficiency of the fire extinguishing system and to maximize of fire suppression as the construction of the carbon dioxide extinguishing system based on the optimal design factors.
A Study on the Necessity of Introducing Evacuation Instrument in High-rise Buildings - Focusing on Elevator Type Evacuation Instrument -
Choi, Kyu-Chool ; Ra, Pan-Ju ; Seul, Yeong-Mi ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 10~19
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.010
The fast evacuation from fire floors to evacuation floors in high-rise building fires can minimize the human damage. In this study, an evacuation instrument, which are applicable to the high-rise buildings of adaptable escape mechanisms by the current NFSC 301 (national fire safety code 301), were selected to analyze the applicability in the high-rise buildings over 11th floor through the site adaptability test. The results of the site test were as follows. The elevator type evacuation instrument of new concept developed as a new technology by compensating the defect of evacuation instrument limiting in the high-rise buildings over 11th floor had completed the stability test and the performance certification test in fire stations, which there were no problems in the introduction of the elevator type evacuation instrument as an escape mechanism in the high-rise buildings. The elevator type evacuation instrument using escapers' weight without using electric power was an escape mechanism that many people could evacuate in a short period of time when a fire broke out in the high-rise buildings. In particular, The elevator type evacuation instrument operated by nonpower had the adaptability as a customized escape mechanism considering user characteristics in the buildings for the disabled or patients with an advanced disease.
Effect of Radiation Models on the Suppression Limits in Counterflow Methane/Air Diffusion Flames
Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Cho, Jae-Ho ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Oh, Chang Bo ; Park, Won-Hee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 20~28
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.020
Effect of radiation models on the suppression limits in counterflow
/air diffusion flame was numerically investigated with fundamental experiments for the numerical validation.
were considered as extinguishing agents. The differences in extinguishing concentration between OTM and SNB radiation models which have different accuracy levels were examined. As a result, there is no considerable difference in extinguishing concentration for the
dilution as the radiation models with different accuracy levels were used. As the
having strong radiative effect was diluted in the low strain flames, however, the radiation model with high predictive accuracy such as SNB should be used. In particular, the
dilution in fuel stream leads to the significant difference in extinguishing concentration between OTM and SNB models. Therefore, it is necessary that the radiation model should be reasonably chosen with the consideration of numerical accuracy and computational time for the prediction of extinguishing concentration.
Simulation of Fire in Large Cleanrooms
Park, Woe-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 29~33
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.029
Cleanroom fires were simulated by using Fire Dynamics Simulator. A grid size of
was selected following review of grid sizes. Fires in three large cleanrooms were investigated to confirm safety by applying the requirements on temperature, visibility, and carbon monoxide concentration in performance based design. The worst situation without sprinkler system and air flow of 0.1 m/s downward in the cleamrooms was considered. It was confirmed that all the three cleanrooms were safe in case without sprinklers since the temperature was below the safety requirement. Decrease in visibility and carbon monoxide concentration due to the fires were negligible.
Quantitative Difference in the Extinguishing Concentration of Inert Gases with Fire Suppression Criteria in a Cup Burner Test
Cho, Jae-Ho ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 34~42
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.034
The concentrations of inert gases (
and He) required to induce the flame instabilities such as swing, rotation, lifted and blow-out were measured in a cup burner nonpremixed flames for
fuels. Quantitative differences in the extinguishing concentration with fire suppression criteria (i.e. blow-out or onset of flame instability) were also examined. It was found that the difference in extinguishing concentration was increased with the appearance of lifted flame and the low extinguishing performance of inert gaseous. The maximum difference in extinguishing concentration with the suppression criteria was approximately 35% at the highest fuel velocity condition (1.3 cm/s) for the
-air nonpremixed flame. It can be also expected that the extinguishing concentration by the criteria based on the onset of flame instability will provide the useful information from the viewpoint of the accurate and economical design concentration.
Analysis of Fire Patterns of Flammable Liquids for Oil Flow Tests of Compartment Fires with Reduced Simulation
Joe, Hi-Su ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.043
The purpose of this study is to analyze the flame propagation speed, radiation range, diffusion pattern and combustion completion time of a fire by filling a divided space with single combustible substance. It was found that the flame propagation speed was the fastest (0.2 s) for kerosene and the lowest (82.1 s) for alcohol. In the case of paint thinner, it took 19.0 s for the flame to reach its peak at the fastest speed after ignition while in the case of alcohol, it took 138.6 s for the flame to reach its peak at the lowest speed. In the case of the combustion of 200 ml of flammable liquids, the combustion completion time was 79.9 s for paint thinner, which is the shortest, 135 s for gasoline, 170 s for kerosene, 231.4 s for diesel and 337.0 s for alcohol. In addition, when flammable liquids are combusted, the lower part of the flame is governed by laminar flow pattern and the upper part of the flame showed turbulence pattern. In the case of a test performed for bean oil, it could be seen that if the fire source was removed, the flame was automatically extinguished without further combustion and that white smoke was generated due to incomplete combustion.
Evaluation of Structural Stability at High Temperatures for Beams Made of High Strength Structural Steels (SM 570) by Analytical Method
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 49~54
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.049
Beams play an important role to transfer an applied load on the floor into columns. However, if the beams affected by a fire the length will be changed longer or shorter and the structural stability decreased gradually and resulted in structural failure. Therefore, the fire regulation requires that structural beam has to satisfied with a constant fire resistance. The fire resistance conducted by a constant size and boundary condition in an horizontal furnace. But this is not enough to adopt a beam made of high structural steels having various lengths. In this study, in order to suggest structural behaviors of beams made of high structural steels at high temperature, mechanical properties at high temperature and heat stress analysis were used and the surface temperature, expansion, displacement and variance of maximum load according to lengths of the beam were compared with those of SM 400.
Combustion Characteristics of Wood Specimens Treated with Methylenepiperazinomethyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid (M
Jin, Eui ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.055
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of pinus rigida specimens treated with methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid
)s and methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP). Pinus rigida Plates were painted in three times with 15 wt%
and PIPEABP solutions at the room temperature respectively. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was indicated that the specimens treated with
showed the lower speed to peak mass loss rate (
), (0.104~0.121) g/s than that of PIPEABP plate. In adition, the specimens treated with
showed both the lower total smoke release rate (TSRR), (224.4~484.0)
production (0.0537~0.0628) kg/kg than those of PIPEAB plate. Especially, for the specimens treated with
by reducing the smoke production rate except 2nd-smoke production rate (2nd-SPR), (0.0254~0.02270) g/s treated with
, 2nd-SPR (0.0117~0.0146) g/s was lower than that of PIPEABP plate. Thus, It is supposed that the combustion-retardation properties were improved by the partial due to the treated
in the virgin plate.
A Study on the Necessity and Contents of the Installation Criteria of the Fire Suppression Education & Training Facilities
Song, Woo Seung ; Ham, Seung Hee ; Yoon, Myung O ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 62~71
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.062
The importance of the firefighting education & Training is being magnified in order to enhance and strengthen a firefighters' ability and to reduce the firefighters' fatality and casualty. Therefore, It is needed to expand the facilities. In this study, with a comparative analysis of the global firefighting education & training facilities for fire suppression, we try to present the necessity and the basic contents of the establishing the installation criteria for the domestic firefighting education & training facilities. It has to contain specific purpose of the training and minimum standards for the structures with a guarantee of an international level. Naturally, the top priority is a safety of trainees and trainers. And, it should pay attention to a higher effectivity of the training course with a active reflection of the standard operation procedures' scenarios. Simultaneously, by securing a similarity and a compatibility to the other standards, it must maintain the balance of a whole standard.
A Study on the Problems and Improvement Solutions for the Ambulance Stretcher
Ham, Seung Hee ; Song, Woo Seung ; Yoon, Myung O ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.072
The purpose of this study is to draw the improvement plan through the analysis of problems of main stretchers that are being used by the 119 EMS. In order to find out the problems, we used the literature review and analysis, survey questionnaire and we also made full use of KJ method (Kawakita Jiro method, affinity diagram), graph method, and priority matrix method to produce the improvement indicators. The problems of main stretchers are summarized as follows. they are being recognized as part of the emergency vehicle, they have the imperfection of performance verification criteria, and they cause the injuries of paramedics and patients accidents in operation. The indicators such as the ease of operation, the high performance, the multi-function, the driving performance, the durability and the lightweight, was produced to improve the problems. The results of the interconnection analysis and the applying priority matrix method on the indicators are the ease of operation
the driving performance
the high performance
the durability and the lightweight in order of importance.
Predictors of Emergency Medical Transports Use Based on 2009 Korea Health Panel
Kang, Kyunghee ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 80~86
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.080
Based on 2009 Korea Health Panel, this study investigated socio-economic and clinical characteristics associated with emergency medical transport use, and analyzed a simple predictive model of emergency medical transport use. Analysis results were summarized as follows: First, emergency medical transports such as 119 ambulance were more used than private cars, taxis, or walk-in. Second, between a user group and a non-user group of emergency medical transports, there were statistically significant differences in age, the level of education, family composition, house type, household income, the relationship with the head of household, insurance types, the presence of handicap, the presence of chronic disease, reasons to emergency medical service use, and treatment after emergency medical service completed. Third, age, household income, the presence of handicap, reasons to emergency medical service use, and treatment after emergency medical service completed were statistically significant predictors associated with emergency medical transports use. To improve emergency medical service system, the characteristics and predictors associated with emergency medical transports are more concerned.
Analysis on the Voltage, Current and Temperature Signals for Free and Locked Operation of Three Speed Electric Fan
Kim, Yoon Bok ; Kim, Doo Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 3, 2014, Pages 87~91
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.3.087
This paper is aimed to find electrical fire danger for analyzing the characteristics of temperature, current and voltage signals for motor on electric fan. In order to attain this purpose, detected were the temperature, current and voltage signals on electric wire with free (normal state) and locked (abnormal state) motor. For voltage and current signals, voltage signal is no big difference with normal and abnormal states and current signal is higher in abnormal state (highest 309 mA) than the normal state (highest 203 mA). In the case of Temperature signal, the temperature distribution of the motor as a whole is different. It is difference in the case of the normal state
and the abnormal state
. In particular, most of the electric wiring to the motor of the fan is attached to the fixture of motor back. Considering at allowable temperature (
) of the electric wire could be accelerated to insulation deterioration. The results of this study will be effectively used in analyzing for electric fire and developing the preventive devices of electric fan.