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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
An Experimental Study on the Automobile Engine Room Fire Using the Extinguishing Agents
Han, Yong-Taek ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Kwon, Sung-Pil ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.001
Several complex devices and equipments are installed in the car's engine room, including various kind of oils or other flammable materials. So re-ignition is very likely to take place in it. In addition, it is restrictive for the driver or the occupant to open the bonnet and to spray the fire extinguisher in the engine room due to the high possibility of explosion. Therefore, a fire extinguishing system, which can detect a fire and inject the fire extinguishing agent to extinguish it, and fire extinguishing agents including HFC-227ea, which can stand the high temperature within the engine room and hold the viscosity sufficient to keep it in the kind of foam, were developed and tested. And the suffocation effect and the cooling effect come from the fire extinguishing principle of the foam fire extinguishing agent and the inhibiter catalyst effect come from the one of HFC-227ea was led simultaneously, and fire extinguishing agents without the secondary damage caused by residuals after the fire extinguishment like a case of the powder fire extinguishing agent, were developed. And experiments using a vehicle collision after the discharge is complete, foreign material can be removed without extinguishing the advantage that experimental results obtained.
Ignition Temperature of Hydrogen/Air Mixture by Hot Wire in Pipeline
Kim, Dong-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.008
In order to improve safety for hydrogen network infrastructure, the ignition temperature by hot wire was investigated for different hydrogen compositions in pipelines. The result shows that minimum temperature for ignition decreased with decreasing hydrogen composition. The minimum temperature was confirmed at a hydrogen composition of approximately 10 vol.%. The one of the reasons is supposed that buoyancy force should generate the convection of gas mixture. It was also found that humidity had a little effect on ignition temperature, flame temperature.
A Study on Combustion Patterns of Flammable Liquids by Contained Oil Test
Joe, Hi-Su ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 14~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.014
The purpose of this study is to analyze combustion patterns by filling a specific container with a flammable liquid and performing combustion tests in a divided space. The container used for the test is made of plastic, 20 mm in depth and 150 mm in width. After the liquid was ignited, its combustion process was photographed using a digital camera and video camera. It was found that in the case of benzene, the flame reached its peak at the fastest speed about 60 s while in the case of alcohol, the flame reached its peak at the lowest speed about 360 s, which is approximately six times slower than the benzene. In most cases, when the flame reached its peak, smoke generated was dark as the plastic container and flammable liquid were combusted simultaneously. After completion of the combustion, it was possible to sample oil vapor from all flammable liquids excluding soybean oil as a result of the examination of oil vapor using a crime investigation tube. That is, it can be seen that there is significant difference in flame propagation speed, pattern, etc., depending on the combustible substances.
Comparison of Standards for a 1ϕ 2 W MCCB and Study on the Evaluation of Heat Resistance Characteristics
Choi, Chung-Seog ; Lee, Jae-Hyuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 21~28
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.021
This study obtained the following results by analyzing the standards related to a
2W MCCB and evaluating its heat resistance characteristics. Since KS C 8321 corresponds to IEC 60947-2 standards, most of the related regulations are similar. The NFPA, which presents the user oriented safety regulations, contains no details about tests or inspections, etc., but it does specify in detail the regulations directly related to safety. It can be seen that KS C 8321 classifies in detail the items about tests and inspections. However, IEC 60947-2 and IEEE C37.51 simplified the test and inspection items or omitted some of them. When applying thermal stress to an MCCB for 6 hours at
using a heat resistant experimental device, it was found that the actuator lever was transformed and moved in the tripped state. In addition, most of the fixing hanger was melted down, losing their function. When applying thermal stress to the MCCB at
, it showed nothing peculiar, but the fixing hanger was partly deformed at
. It was found that the fixing hanger was deformed and the name plate was discolored at
. It can be seen from the analysis of the internals of the MCCB that the trip bar has been melted away and that the up and down operator has moved up. The experiment performed by applying a withstanding voltage of 6 kV for 60 s showed that all items remained intact. In addition, the evaluation of the insulation performance performed by applying DC 500 V using an insulation-resistance tester showed good insulation performance.
Numerical Study on the Validity of Scaling Law for Compartment Fires
Ko, Gwon-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.029
In this study, to assess the validity of scaling law which was based on the ventilation factor and utilized in fields of compartment fires, numerical simulations were conducted on full- and 2/5 reduced-scale compartment fires using FDS and simulation results were compared with the previously published experimental data. The numerical modeling used in this study was verified by comparing the predicted temperature at several points of the upper layer with the experiment data. Temperature and concentration distribution inside of compartments and velocity profile at door of compartment are analyzed to assess the validity of scaling law. Comparison between the predicted results on the full- and reduced-scale compartments shows good agreements on the inner compartment flow patterns, outflowing flame patterns from the compartments, and vertical temperature distributions.
Investigation of the Prediction Performance of Turbulence and Combustion Models for the Turbulent Partially-premixed Jet Flame
Kim, Yu Jeong ; Oh, Chang Bo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.035
The prediction performance of 9 model sets, which combine 3 turbulent models and 3 combustion models, was investigated numerically for turbulent partially-premixed jet flame. The standard
(RKE) and Reynolds stress model (RSM) were used as a turbulence model, and the eddy dissipation concept (EDC), steady laminar flamelet (SLF) and unsteady laminar flamelet model (ULF) were also adopted as a combustion model. The prediction performance of those 9 model sets was evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively for Sandia D flame of which flame structure was measured precisely. The flame length was predicted as, from longest to shortest, RSM > SKE > RKE, and the RKE predicted the flame length of the jet flame much shorter than experiment. The flame temperature was over predicted by the combination of RSM + SLF or RSM + ULF while the flame length obtained by RSM + SLF and RSM + ULF was well agreed with the experiment. The combination of SKE + SLF and SKE + ULF predicts well the flame length as well as the temperature distribution. The SKE turbulence model was most superior to the other turbulent models, and SKE + ULF showed the best prediction performance for the structure of turbulent partially-premixed jet flame.
Measurement of Autoignition Temperature of Propionic Acid and 3-Hexanone System
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 44~49
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.044
The autoignition temperaturs (AIT) of solvent mixture is important index for the safe handling of flammable liquids which constitute the solvent mixtures. This study measured the AIT and ignition delay time for Propionic acid and 3-Hexanone system by using ASTM E659 apparatus. The AITs of Propionic acid and 3-Hexanone which constituted binary system were
, respectively. The experimental AIT of Propionic acid and 3-Hexanone system were a good agreement with the calculated AIT by the proposed equations with a few average absolute deviation (A.A.D.). And Propionic acid and 3-Hexanone system was shown the minimum autoignition temperature behavior (MAITB).
A Study on the Appropriateness of Design Fire Size Determining for Performance Based Design in Korea
Lee, Se-Myeoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 50~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.050
The quantification of fire size in buildings must be preceded in order to design the trial of performance based design (PBD). When design fire size is determined appropriately, the trial design will become economical and safe design against fire risk. There are many problems in determining design fire size because of lacks of fire engineering data and short history of PBD in korea. Therefore, this paper has surveyed the guideline of design fire in other countries, real experimental data for a few occupancies and the cases of design fire size determining for PBD in Korea. Also, it has proposed the guideline of design fire size for various occupancies in korea after analyzing the appropriateness of design fire size.
Combustive Properties of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) Specimens Treated with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid Derivatives
Jin, Eui ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 57~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.057
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDF) specimens treated with piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP), methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MPIPEABP), and N,N-dimethylethylenediaminomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MDEDAP). MDF Plates were painted in three times with 15 wt% solution of the alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acids at the room temperature, respectively. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). It was indicated that the specimens treated with chemicals showed the later time to peak mass loss rate (
) = (340475) s than that of virgin plate by reducing the burning rate. In adition, the specimens treated with chemicals showed the higher
production (0.0883~0.0963) kg/kg than that of virgin plate. Especially, the specimens treated with chemicals showed the higher mean smoke extinction area (
) than that of virgin plate. Thus, It is supposed that the combustion-retardation properties were improved by the partial due to the treated alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acids in the virgin MDF Plate. However, It gave a negative effect on smoke reduction.
Arson Fire Analysis Involving the Use of Flammable Liquilds as Accelerants
Choi, Min-Ki ; Han, Dong-Hun ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 64~72
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.064
Flammable liquids residues in fire debris and pyrolysis products of flammable materials were analyzed by using Gas detecting tube, Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometers (GC/MS), and Pyrolyzer. Comparison studies between chemical components detected in debris fired with and without Flammable liquids were performed. Though Flammable liquids were not present in debris, Gas detecting tube colors were also changed. Chemical components produced from conventional combustions were different from those produced from pyrolysis. Due to the difference of the reaction conditions between combustions and pyrolysis, different chemical products were produced. Petrochemical products of PVC wood-linoleum block could produce ignitable chemicals, such as toluene, ethylbenzene, undecane, and dodecane. So, for better fire investigation more consideration of those chemicals will be porformed.
A Study on the Relationship between Leadership Styles and Organizational Outcome in Oklahoma's Volunteer Fire Department
Shin, Yong-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.073
This study aims to determine dominant leadership styles of the U.S. volunteer fire department and analyzes relationship between leadership styles of a fire chiefs and organizational outcome. This study reviewed 205 volunteer fire fighters in Oklahoma State which is located in middle and southern part of the U.S. As research results, it turned out that the most common leadership type of volunteer fire chiefs is transformational leadership. The second most common leadership type is transactional leadership. Laissez-faire leadership was the least common leadership type. This study analyzed that transformational leadership and transactional leadership have positive relationship with organizational outcome. In contrast, laissez-faire leadership has negative relationship with organizational outcome. Also, it turned out that the volunteer fire fighters evaluate that transformational and transactional leadership decrease as working years of current volunteer fire chiefs increase.
The Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Symptom and Patient Transport Work of 119 EMTs by Ergonomics Tools
Hong, Sung-Gi ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.081
This study identified the complaint ratio of musculoskeletal symptom by 119 EMTs and investigated the work risk extent through ergonomics evaluation about the patient transport works, which cause work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) to 119 EMTs. For this, the complaint ratio of musculoskeletal symptom utilized questionnaire tool based on KOSHA Code H-30-2008 and the risk extent about the patient transport work evaluated by using ergonomics evaluation tools such as OWAS, RULA and REBA. According to the study result, 60.9% of 119 EMTs experienced musculoskeletal symptom. Among them, the symptom on back was the most common (36.1%). The work, which mostly causes WMSDs, has been found as patient transport work (48.4%). Among the patient transport motion, loading/unloading of ambulance cot to/from ambulance and the lifting of patient by stretcher were OWAS risk-level 3 and RULA/REBA risk-level 3 to 4. Among the patient transport environment, carrying patient on stairway using emergency mini-stretcher, moving patient in vehicle using spine board and piggy-back carrying or cradle carrying patient on stairway or slope way were OWAS, RULA, REBA risk level 3 to 4. It is suggested that immediate improvement in work postures for these works should contribute to prevention against WMSDs to 119 EMTs.
Research of College Students Recognition for the Safety Management of Living and Laboratory
Hong, Young-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 89~96
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.089
The purpose of this study is to examine the awareness survey on the life and laboratory safety of the college students. For the research, data was collected from 442 students of health, engineering, fire fighting and food & cook department. Research tools were used SPSS win 19.0, the mean and standard deviation, t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient was used. Comparing the life safety consciousness with laboratory safety consciousness, showed life safety awareness and safety laboratory has recognized the similarities (Pearson's correlation coefficient
, p < 0.001). Results of awareness survey to safety management, the safety awareness are difference with the type of respondents major subjects. This order was Food & Cook > Fire fighting > Health > Engineering department.
Effect of Fire Fighters' Turnout Gear Materials Air Gap on Thermal Protective Performance
Lee, Jun-Kyoung ; Kwon, Jung-Suk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 97~103
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.097
To ensure adequate protection from the risk of burns, fire fighter's turnout has a composite of more than three components and air gaps between layers of materials. During the flame exposure, radiation and convection heat transfer occurs in the air gap, thus the air gap acts as a thermal resistance with non-linear characteristics. Therefore, in this study, the experiments were performed to identify the effect of various air gap width (0~7 mm) on the thermal protective performance of fire fighter's clothing. The temperatures on each layer and RPP (Radiant Protective Performance, the most effective index representing the thermal protective performance) were measured with various incident radiant heat fluxes. The temperature at the rear surface of the garment decreased and RPP increased with increasing air gap width because the thermal resistance increased. Especially, it could be found that RPP value and air gap width has almost linear relation for the constant incident heat flux conditions. Thus relatively simple RPP predictive equation was suggested for various incident heat flux and air gap conditions.
A Study on the Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Methods in Ambulance
Shin, So-Yeon ; Kim, Jee-Hee ; Kim, Gyoung-Yong ; Kang, Shin-Woo ; Bang, Sung-Hwan ; Yun, Jong-Geun ; Roh, Sang-Gyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 4, 2014, Pages 104~111
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.4.104
The purpose of this study is to investigate the CPR within ambulance. The Subjects were 890 emergency medical technicians in fire department in Gyeonggido. After continuing education program, the emergency medical technicians completed the questionnaires from January to February, 2012. Questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, method of chest compression (one handed or two handed), chest compression - ventilation ratio, and hands only CPR. Data were analyzed by frequency analysis and Chi-square test, t-test. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was followed by Scheffe post-hoc test to analyze changes in all parameters between all groups. One handed chest compression accounted for 14.0% and two handed chest compression accounted for 86.0%. Hands only CPR accounted for 71.7% and standard CPR (30:2) accounted for 28.3%. In order to perform the high quality CPR, as least three persons must be dispatched in the ambulance. The flexible management of manpower may improve the survival from the cardiac arrest. A systemic approach for educating and training EMT's in CPR is needed.