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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Heat Release Rate with Various Diameter of Heptane Pool Fire Using Large Scale Cone Calorimeter
You, Woo Jun ; Nam, Dong-Gun ; Youm, Moon Cheon ; Kim, Sung-Chan ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.001
The present study has been conducted to analyse the effects of various pool diameters on the measurement of heat release rate (HRR) of heptane fire using large scale cone calorimeter (LSC). The burning rate which is the major parameter for HRR compared with the previous model suggested by A. Hamins. The combustion efficiency for heptane by oxygen consumption method is about 91%, which is almost same with the previous results of 92% suggested by J. Gore. The convective HRR by enthalpy consumption method was 54% lower than HRR by oxygen consumption method. This results are practical use for establishing the reliability of heat release rate for fire experiment.
Carbonization Patten and Operation Characteristics of a 1Φ 2 W MCCB Damaged by PCITS
Lee, Jae-Hyuk ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 8~13
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.008
The purpose of this study is to analyze the damage pattern when overcurrent is applied to a thermal magnetic type molded case circuit breaker (MCCB) using a Primary Current Injection Test System (PCITS). When an overcurrent of 150 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 seconds with the trip bar of an MCCB being damaged, it was found that the surface of the temperature control device (bimetallic strip) positioned at the right was significantly carbonized. When an overcurrent of 300 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 s under the same conditions, the entire temperature control device was deteriorated, becoming flattened and in close contact with the MCCB. When an overcurrent of 450 A was applied to the PCITS for 5 s, the coil of the temperature control device was melted and disconnected. In addition, it was observed that the contacts, the enclosure and upper cover were deformed and there was a trace of carbonization on them. When approximately 3 s had elapsed after an overcurrent of 600 A was applied, white smoke occurred inside the MCCB and a flame was radiated out, after which the overcurrent supply stopped with "phutt" (whomp) sound. It was observed that when the same type of MCCB is damaged by a general flame, the surfaces of its handle, terminal, arc divider (extinguisher) and temperature control device were carbonized uniformly. In addition, it was found that the trip bar of the operating mechanism was melted down and the metal operation pin was moved while being tripped.
A Study on the Firefighting Equipment in Petrochemical Plants
Kim, Bong-Hoon ; Choi, Jae-Wook ; Lim, Woo-Sub ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 14~22
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.014
Hydrocarbon fires and explosions in petrochemical plants have occurred repeatedly every year. But domestic law of fire protection system is insufficient for the worst case scenario. In this study, we analyzed domestic and foreign standards of fire protection system in petrochemical plants and surveyed firefighting equipment of 32 petrochemical plants in ulsan petrochemical complex. Finally, it is necessary to design fire water supply based on the worst case scenario in petrochemical plants and firefighting equipment such as fixed water spray system, elevated monitor nozzle, water curtain, large amount foam monitor system should be installed for the worst case scenario in petrochemical plants.
A Validation Study of Temperature Field Predicted by Computational Fire Model for Spray Fire in a Multi-Compartment
Kim, Sugn-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 23~29
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.023
The present study has been conducted to investigate the validity of the computational fire model and the results predicted by BRANZFIRE zone model and FDS field model are compared with a real scale fire test with spray fire in a multi-compartment. The liquid spray fires fueled with toluene and methanol are used as the fire source and the quantitative measurement of heat release rate is performed in an isolated ISO-9705 compartment with a standard door opening. The temperature field predicted by FDS model showed good agreement with the measurement in the fire room and the corridor, and BRANZFIRE model also gave acceptable result in spite of its simplicity and roughness. The mean temperature predicted by FDS model corresponds with measurement within maximum discrepancy range of 25% and the overall mean value of FDS model matched well with experimental data less than 10%. This study can contribute to establish the limitation and application scope of computational fire model and provide reference data for applying to reliable fire risk assessment.
Numerical Study on Air Egress Velocity in Vestibule Pressurization System : Characteristics of Air Flow in the Vestibule with Multiple Fire Doors in an Apartment Building
Seo, Chanwon ; Shin, Weon Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 30~36
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.030
The pressurized smoke control system in the vestibule is important for fire safety in buildings because it is concerned with egress time of people and the safety of fire fighters. The vestibule pressurization system can prevent smoke from entering the vestibule using differential pressure when fire doors are closed and using the egress velocity when fire doors are open. Air supplying units in the vestibule need to be arranged by taking account of the location of doors and the volume of the vestibule in order to assure the uniform air egress velocity through a fire door when it is open. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted for the vestibule where multiple doors are installed and it was found that the reverse flow occurs when the damper position in vestibule is not appropriate.
Numerical Study on the Effect of Heat Release Rate and Interior Opening on Fire Flow Velocity in the Case of Interior Fire in an Apartment Building
Seo, Chanwon ; Shin, Weon Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 37~43
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.037
In the case of interior fire in an apartment building, contamination of vestibule area by fire smoke before air fan operating when fire doors are open makes the evacuation of people very difficult. In order to investigate the effect of heat release rate (HRR) and interior opening on fire flow velocity, numerical simulations using Fire Dynamics Simulator were carried out. In simulations, actual dimensions and configuration of an apartment building were considered and interior leakage and HRR were varied. From simulation results, it was found that fire flow velocity distribution is significantly influenced by HRR and interior opening resulting in the change of the location of a neutral plane. Also, it is shown that there is a larger difference of the fire flow velocity between upper and lower part of the fire door when the neutral plane becomes closer to the ceiling.
The Study on the Prediction of Temperature Curve by Compartment Fire Experiment
Kweon, Oh-Sang ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 44~51
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.044
In this study, the Mock-up office space experiments have been performed for the fire behavior analysis of the compartmented space used for the performance-based fire safety design of buildings. Mock-up test was conducted using the compartmented office space dimensions, which are 2.4 m wide, 3.6 m wide, and 2.4 m hight. Test was conducted with the combustible materials such as a desk, a chair, a computer ect. The fire load in the Mock-up office space was
. As a result, the temperature of the central compartment space to reach
were 394 to 408 s. The temperature of the corner near the entrance edge to reach
were 404 to 420 s. At this study, the temperature curve in the compartmented space has been predicted using the temperature data appling the BFD curve. The BFD curve factor based on the fire tests was determined by the maximum temperature of
, 7 min to reach the maximum temperature, and the shape coefficient of 1.5. The initiating fire was rapidly increased to 9 min, and decreased.
Study of Structural Stability for H-section Beams Made of Fire Resistant Steels (FR 490) at High Temperatures by Analytical Method
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.052
When structural elements of steel framed structures are exposed to fire situations, the structural stability begins to decrease due to dislocation of substantial. The increase of the beam length causes an additional stress and deflection. These can be serious factors to cause a severe failure of structures. To improve the fire resistance of beams, prevention of the heat from a fire by coating with fire protection material is essential for beams. The FR 490 was developed to enhance fire resistance compared with SM 490 steel. However, the fire resistance of FR 490 H-beams has not been evaluated by analysis method since it was developed. In this paper, materials properties in high temperature and a heat transfer and thermal stress theory were used in the evaluation of the fire resistance of FR490 H-beams. The fire resistance of FR490 steel beams was compared with that of SM490 beams. The comparison verified that the structural stability of FR490 beams at high temperature was superior to that of SM490 beams.
A Preliminary Study on the Fire Safety Testing Method for Fire-resistance Paints Using an X-ray Analysis Method
Shim, Ji-Hun ; Cho, Nam-Wook ; Kim, Kang-Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 58~63
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.058
Fire-resistance paints are supposed to become intumescent and diminish heat transfer along the steel frames in case of a fire. If unsatisfactory fire-resistance paints which do not satisfy their standard specification are used, it may result in a severe disaster. Because satisfactory fire-resistance paints are hardly discriminated from the unsatisfactory ones by a simple visual inspection, more reliable and convenient onsite evaluation methods are necessary. Here we report the preliminary study result on the fire safety testing method for fire-resistance paints using an X-ray analysis method. It was found that the existence and quantity of effective constituents in fire-resistance paints can be detected by the X-ray analysis method. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showed that P and Cl elements are much more enriched in fire-resistance paints, compared to normal paints. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses showed that ammonium polyphosphate is present as the main crystalline material in fire-resistance paints, but absent in normal paints. The X-ray analysis method is expected to be used for the onsite inspection of fire-resistance paints with the upcoming availability of portable XRF and XRD instruments.
A Study on the Fire Sources Analysis Using the Optical Characteristics of Smoke Particles and Neural Networks
Jee, Seung-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 64~70
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.064
The neural networks were able to be used by analyze fire source with the optical characteristics of smoke particles. The neural networks were learned the optical characteristics for three types test fire (paper, wood, flammable liquid). These test fires which were adopted in this study were also used to performance test of smoke detector according to UL268. A smoke chamber which was able to detect light extinction and scattering simultaneously was created. The optical characteristics of smoke particles were measured by the smoke chamber. And the results were used to input data for the neural networks. The neural networks distinguished the fire source accurately for paper fire, wood fire or flammable liquid fire. The neural networks distinguished accurately the combined fire source such as paper-wood fire, paper-flammable liquid fire or wood-flammable liquid fire.
Combustive Properties of Medium Density Fibreboards (MDF) Treated with Bis-(Dimethylaminomethyl) Phosphinic Acid and Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acids
Park, Myung-Ho ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 71~79
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.071
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Medium Density Fibreboards (MDFs) treated with chemicals of the bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid (DMDAP), N,N-dimethylethylenediaminomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (DMDEDAP), piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP), and methylpiperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (MPIPEABP). MDFs were painted in three times with 15 wt% solution of the bis-(dimethylaminomethyl) phosphinic acid and alkylenediaminoalkyl-bis-phosphonic acids at the room temperature, respectively. After drying MDF treated with chemicals, combustive properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contents were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1), test for flame retardant (NEMA Notice No. 2012034), and gas chromatography (KS M ISO 11890-2), respectively. It was indicated that the MDFs treated with chemicals showed the longer time to combustion time (CT) = (442~492) s than that of virgin plate by reducing the burning rate except for CT treated with DMDAP. In adition, the MDFs treated with chemicals showed both of the higher char area (44.33~61.33) kg/kg and char length (10.33~11.67) cm than those of virgin plate. Especially, the MDFs treated with chemicals showed the higher mean volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (0.188~0.333) g/L than that of virgin plate within the prescribed limits. Thus, It is supposed that the combustion- retardation properties were improved by the partial due to the treated chemicals in the virgin MDF.
A Study on the Education Satisfaction of Entry-Level Firefighters
Chae, Jin ; Go, Gi-Bong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 80~88
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.080
The purpose of this study is to present an effective plan that can improve satisfaction of curriculum for preparatory firefighters who participated in a course for entry-level. It also aims at examining which elements have a significant effect on curriculum is what satisfises the entry-level firefighters through survey and research for education satisfaction. Independent variables influencing education satisfaction of entry-level firefighters include training facilities, training contents, instruction, relationships between trainers and trainees and relationships between trainees. Suggestions in terms of policy based on analysis of this study are as follows. Transfer effect of training for entry-level firefighters should be produced. Demander centered training should be given so that various methods can be attempted. In addition, sensibility training should be boosted through mutual sympathy between trainees and trainers and trainers should make constant effort to improve expertises, multidisciplinary training of various fields should be given.
A Study on the Safety Management Differences According to Social Welfare Facility Type
Shin, Hyo-Jin ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 89~97
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.089
At a time of growing importance of safety management in the social welfare facility by the increase of social welfare facilities, this study analysed safety perceptions about facility management, facility conditions, and facility structure and arrangement. This study sample consisted of 204 service providers and service users in 12 social welfare facilities. T-test and ANOVA were used to find the group differences among facility types. The findings were as follows. Firstly, safety perceptions of the service providers were significantly higher than those of service users in terms of facility management, and facility structure and arrangement. Secondly, in terms of facility types, the respondents in the family service center had lower safety perceptions than the respondents in other service in all three areas. Thirdly, facilities that are of 10 years or older had higher safety perceptions than the respondents of facilities that are 6 to 10 years old in the area of facility management, and facility structure and arrangement. Fourthly, in regard to building heights, the respondents in 3 to 4 story facilities had statistically higher safety perceptions than respondents in 1 story facilities. Finally, looking at the relationship between floor area and safety perceptions, safety perceptions of the respondents of less than
and more facilities were significantly higher than those of
Factors Affecting the Satisfaction of Simulation Education about Emergency Delivery for Paramedic Students
Baek, Mi-Lye ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 98~103
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.098
This study investigated the confidence, satisfaction, and psychological safety and identified factors affecting the satisfaction of 41 paramedic students. Data, which consists of pre and post-confidence items on visual analogue scale, 21 satisfaction items and 10 psychological safety items was analyzed using SPSS WIN 21.0 program. After the simulation education, the students were told to write what they felt about the education. Then the students' comments, which were categorized as effectiveness and difficulty, were analyzed. Satisfaction of general characteristics showed a significant difference in age (t = -2.22, p = 0.03) and psychological safety of general characteristics showed a significant difference in gender (t = 3.70, p = 0.00) and age (t = -3.65, p = 0.00). Pre-confidence is low (4.37); however, post-confidence increased to 6.22. It showed a significant difference in pre and post-confidence (t = -5.878, p = 0.000). Satisfaction was correlated with psychological safety (r = 0.516, p = 0.001). The variables affecting satisfaction were psychological safety (t = 3.021, p = 0.005) and post-confidence (t = 1.936, p = 0.061). These variables accounted for 27.6% of the satisfaction according to a regression analysis. The simulation education may be the new effective paramedic education strategy of emergency childbirth. Repetitive simulation learning with further development of various scenarios, more education time, and more faculties will be able to train field compatible paramedics.
Comparison of Effectiveness on Hospital-based Skill Training in Level 2 Emergency Medical Technician
Kim, Dong-Ok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 5, 2014, Pages 104~109
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.5.104
This study is analysis of the effectiveness and satisfaction index of hospital-based skill training (HST) in level 2 emergency medical technicians. The purpose of this study is to provide basic data for the effective operation. The survey carried out to 70 level 2 emergency medical technicians who participate in HST from July 29 to August 22 in 2013. From the study, self evaluated operation skills scale were 3.09 before training and 3.80 after training. It showed statistically significant enhancements. satisfaction index were 3.80. appopriate education periods were (1~2) weeks (64.3%). the longer the time had been since their training completion, the higher education satisfaction. The multilateral studies on problems and needs of HST and development of training programs that includes hospital training monitoring are necessary.