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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Numerical Study on Air Egress Velocity in Vestibule Pressurization System : Damper Locationfor Uniform Air Egress Velocity in the case of Two Fire Doors
Seo, Chanwon ; Shin, Weon Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.001
Vestibule pressurization system should produce uniform air egress velocity to prevent the intrusion of smoke into escape route when fire accidents occur inside a building and fire doors are open for evacuation of people. Air supplying units in the vestibule need to be arranged by taking account of the location of doors and the volume of the vestibule. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted for the vestibule where two doors are installed varying the location of a damper and louver angle. From simulations, we found that when the damper in the vestibule is located at the center of the wall opposite to two fire doors, the uniform air egress velocity can be obtained.
A Research of Grain Size Analysis of Particulate Matter in Fire Effluent
Kim, Sung-Soo ; Choi, Seo-Yeon ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 8~12
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.008
Interior finishing materials using noncombustible were regulated by the building codes to prevent the spread of fire and protect occupants. The average deed of stopping time of experimental mouse exposing combustion gas were measured by KS F 2271 gas toxicity test. At that time, The average deed of stopping time under 9 minutes were judged a inconsistence. This experiment method has limit to find out a cause of toxicity effect factor. In this study, particle size analysis were performed for investigate a major factor.
A Study on Wind Distribution of Mountain Area by Spot Measurements and Simulations
Kimg, Eung-Sik ; Lee, Byung-Doo ; Cho, Min-Tae ; Kim, Jang-Whan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 13~21
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.013
Forest fire has a number of variables and since the effects of wind fields are bigger than any other variables, it is essential to know wind direction and velocity for the forest fire extinguishing techniques and the prediction of fire spread. With regards to the local area that has a high chance of forest fire, the data from meteorological observatory in the area is used for the estimation of wind velocity. It is relatively easy to obtain automatic weather station (AWS) data which are available for the whole nation. There is a chance that the data from the weather station may be different with the actual data at the mountain areas. In this study simply shaped hills (Sae-byeol hill of Jeju Island and port Ma-geum in An-myeon Island in the sea side) were selected as the experimental locations to minimize the distortion of the wind field by the adjacent geographic features. Spot measurements and analysis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the given geographic features were conducted to examine and compare their consistency. As a conclusion It is possible to predict wind patterns in these simple locations.
The Study on Surface Fire Spread in Fuel Bed
Kim, Jeong-Hun ; Kim, Eung-Sik ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Jang-Whan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 22~27
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.022
In this study a Fuel bed where surface fire spreads through is made to measure the data such as the flame height, radiation, spread rate and temperature distribution of Fuel bed. As experimental variables species of trees, wind velocities and slop are chosen. Fallen leaves of Quercus Variabilis (Q.V.) and Pinus Densiflora (P.D.) are used as fuel. Wind velocity is controlled by simply designed wind turnnel from 1 to 5 m/s. Slope of fuel bed is changed from
. For the measurements of temperature distribution and spread rate total 35 of K-type 1.6 mm thermocouples are positioned as a lattice design. Radiant heat flow meters are used besides video camera and thermovision camera.
Combustive Properties of Pinus rigida Plates Painted with Alkylenediaminoalkyl-Bis-Phosphonic Acid Salts (M
Park, Myung-Ho ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 28~34
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.028
Two kinds of new piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid
) were synthesized and their combustive properties of Pinus rigida plates treated with
were tested in comparison with the previously synthesized chemicals. Pinus rigida specimens were painted in three times with 15 wt%
solutions at the room temperature. After drying specimen treated with chemicals, combustive properties were examined by the cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). As a result, the combustion-retardation properties were partially increased by due to the treated
solutions in the virgin Pinus rigida. Especially, the specimens treated with
showed both the lower peak heat release rate (
) (173.48~145.36) s and total heat release rate (THRR) (73.0~55.2)
than those of virgin piperazinomethyl-bis-phosphonic acid (PIPEABP)-plate. Compared with virgin PIPEABP-plate, the specimens treated with the
showed low combustive properties. However the specimens treated with
showed both the shorter time to ignition (TTI) (58~18) s and the time to flameout (Tf) (564~456) s than those of virgin PIPEABP-plate by increasing the thermal conductivity.
Comparison of Egress Modeling and Experiments for Flow Rate in the Bottleneck
Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ; Woo, Sujin ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Woon-Hyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 35~40
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.035
Bottleneck occurs as many people crowd into narrow doorway or corridor. Delaying egress time is occurred by bottleneck effect, and it is very important phenomenon on the egress analysis for building fire. An analysis of egress time should includes flow rate for considering bottleneck. Flow rate is numbers of people who pass the narrow gate as door or start point of corridor per unit length and unit time. The flow rate resulted from egress modeling should be approached to the result of experiments. In this study, flow rates from modeling by `Pathfinder` and experiments was compared. The difference between the result from egress modeling and the one from experiments was verified. The average value of experiments is
, and the maximum average value of modeling is
Comparison of Egress Modeling and Experiments for Joint Flow Rate in the Staircase
Hwang, Eun-Kyoung ; Woo, Sujin ; Kim, Jong-Hoon ; Kim, Woon-Hyung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 41~46
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.041
Junction at the staircase is one of key factors for building egress analysis. The most important factor is the congestion at the door or somewhere connecting from bigger area to smaller one. The other factor is the congestion in the staircase. It happens when people from upper floors meets people from the connecting floor. Especially egress situation at the high-rise building is worse. The simulation of the junction is only described by physical agent algorithms in egress model. For that reason, the description of phenomena will validate with the result of experiment and estimate the gap between modeling and experiment. In this research, the experiment of the junction and the simulation was conducted and validated. The gap between the experiment and the modeling was estimated. The flow rates of modeling were lower than the modeling.
A Study on the Risk of Electric Shock from the Sprayed Water for Fire Suppression of the PV Installed Building
Kim, Jinsun ; Kwon, Seong-Pil ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 47~51
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.047
In this study we investigated the risk of electric shock and the possibility of current flow from the sprayed water when fire took place in a photovoltaic (PV) installed building. The sprayed water was analysed by using a mathematical model, a water spray system for water conductivity was made. With changing the initial water flow rate the water resistance was measured, and compared with the numerically expected value. As the experimental and numerical computing result, we were able to define the requirements that must be considered in the fire of PV systems.
A Study on the Application Scheme of Fire Identification Considering the Heat Release Rate Characteristics of Inflammable Material
Kang, Jung-Ki ; Oh, Jin-Hee ; You, Woo-Jun ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 52~57
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.052
The present study suggests the fundamental method for the prediction time of the fire origin by analyzing the combustion phenomenon of inflammable material in the building structure. The heat release rate (HRR) with time variant is evaluated for the interphone as a inflammable material, which is opted from the fire incidents in the stairwell. the fire dynamics simulator (FDS ver. 6.1) is applied in order to analyze the difference of the smoke inflow time to the downstair from the fire event area with various fire pattern. The results show that the maximum inflow time difference for the case of the interphone made from ABS materials is about 4.93 times with the input conditions of heat flux values and the environment in the FDS for the fixed stairwell which composed of total volume
and the height of each floor 2.5 m. This research can be practical information for the application method of simulation scheme with experimental data to the fire Identification.
A Study on the Improvement for Sensitivity Test of Flame Detectors
Baek, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 58~61
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.058
Flame detectors has been used more than heat & smoke detector, because this is more effective to catch fire and ceiling height in spite of high price. For upgrade to flame detector, Compare to national or abroad standard about performance test, sensitivity test, sectioning indoor or outdoor, after service and management. As a result, Europe and America have only sensitivity test, no have not operation test and sectioning indoor & outdoor. In performance test, action is put to focus to credit and durability, Not operation test is to be able to tune the sensitivity to match the environment of the site. Also, we need code about aftercare, quality assurance responsibility and implement special detector institution by Certificate Authority implement.
Measurement of the Device Properties of Photoelectric Smoke Detector for the Fire Modeling
Cho, Jae-Ho ; Mun, Sun-Yeo ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Nam, Dong-Gun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 62~68
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.062
The high predictive performance of fire detector models is essentially required for the reliable design of evacuation safety using the fire modeling. The main objective of the present study is to measure input information in order to predict the accurate activation time of photoelectric smoke detector adopted in fire dynamics simulator (FDS) recognized a representative fire model. To end this, the fire detector evaluator (FDE) which could be measured the device properties of detector was used, and the input information of Heskestad and Cleary`s models was obtained for a spot-type photoelectric smoke detector. In addition, the activation times of smoke detector predicted using default values into FDS and measured values in the present study were quantitatively compared. As a result, the Heskestad model could result in an inaccurate the activation time of photoelectric smoke detector compared to the Cleary model. In addition, there was a distinct difference between the default values used into FDS and the measured values in terms of device properties of smoke detector, and thus the activation time also showed a significant difference.
An Improvement of Fire Safety Code for Rack-Type Warehouse in Korea
Kim, Woon-Hyung ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 69~75
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.069
Recently Amore pacific rack-type warehouse fire broke out and argue an urgent improvement of fire protection design code including automatic sprinkler and detection design. Various type of commodities have their unique fire characteristics from fire spread rate and heat lease rate and fire hazard depends on storage height, rack arrangement, aisle width, fire load etc. With increasing ceiling height for more storage space prevent effective water spray of sprinkler head, also delays detection time causes failure of early suppression. To achieve fire protection code performance of this occupancy, Major code articles relating to a classification of commodity, sprinkler system installation, detection and fire fighting are reviewed and suggested based on fire case analysis, code review between country and field survey.
Comparative Analysis of Tidal Volume and Airway Pressure with a Bag-valve Mask using RespiTrainer
Shin, So-Yeon ; Lee, Jae-Gook ; Roh, Sang-Gyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 76~81
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.076
The purpose of this study was to comparative analysis of tidal volume and airway pressure after one-rescuer BVM, two-rescuer BVM, advanced airway devices with a Bag-valve mask using RespiTrainer. The data were obtained from June 2 to 10 in 2014. The collected data were analyzed using the SPSS WIN 18.0 program. The results showed that BVM ventilation using the endotracheal intubation produced higher mean tidal volume
, Two-rescuer ventilation
, King LTS-D
, Laryngeal mask airway (LMA)
. Peak airway pressure was higher in BVM ventilation using the endotracheal intubation. As a result, the study confirmed that the BVM Ventilation by endotracheal intubation and Two-rescuer BVM ventilation to one third the bag depth squeeze method is appropriate.
Modular Building for Urban Disaster Housing: Case Study of Urban Post-Disaster Housing Prototype in New York
Ford, George ; Ahn, Yong Han ; Choi, Don Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 82~89
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.082
Disasters that destroy homes and infrastructure and cause significant financial damage are becoming more common as population centers grow. In addition, several natural disasters have resulted in a major loss of life and created countless refugees due to damage to housing. After major catastrophic disasters, it is very important that the government agencies respond to post-disaster housing issues and provide resources such as temporary housing before the full rehabilitation and reconstruction of destroyed and damaged housing. To provide affordable temporary housing for residents who may lose their homes as the result of a catastrophic disaster including storms, government agencies must develop a post-disaster housing prototype. In general, government agencies should explore several different forms of factory-built single-story, single family housing, such as modular homes, panelized homes, and precut homes. In urban cities including New York and Seoul, it is very important to provide housing which supports the demand for higher-density living spaces than single-family homes or trailers typically available due to the high population density and the desire to resettle as many residents as possible in their former neighborhoods. This study identified the urban post-disaster housing prototypes that may provide higher density housing with high quality living spaces, high air quality, and energy efficiency as well as rapid deployment. A case study of "Urban Post-Disaster Housing Prototype Program in New York" was conducted through a detailed interview process with a designer, engineer, contractor, the Office of Emergency Management (OEM) in New York, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and temporary occupants. An appropriate disaster housing program that can provide living spaces for victims of disasters that keeps residents in their community and allows them to live and work in their neighborhoods was developed.
Case Analysis of the Harmful Chemical Substances` Spill
You, Jisun ; Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 90~98
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.090
Lately accidents of harmful chemical substance in korea were repeatedly replaying. We studied problems and preparation plan in 2008 years~2014 years through analysis cases of harmful chemical substance. Leakage of chemical substance`s accident situation shows that leakage in the workplace is the most 10 cases, accounting for 58.6% is the largest proportion in 2009. Leakage according to explosion accounting for 50% (5 cases) in 2004, 25% (4 cases) in 2007 and 33.3% (4 cases) in 2011 has very irregular change. Therefore, A major cause of accidents is lack of safety management. Harmful chemical substance showed various aspects, high residual substance and non-visible characteristic so response and recovery was easy. And the second damage to move a distance causes environment pollution. So a mutual-assistance system and integrated system of related organization have to build and expert of chemical incident response and therapist of chemical substance response have to establish to do efficient and rapid response.
The Relationships among Job Stressors, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment of Police Officials-Focusing on Moderating Effects of Social Support
Bae, Jeom-Mo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 99~107
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.099
Author analyzed the relationship among job stressors, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment of police officials. And the Author analyzed the moderating effect of social support on the relationship between job stressors, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment. First, I found that job stressors associated with characteristics of the job or the organization affect job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Job stressors significantly affecting job satisfaction were found to be perceived uncontrol and role ambiguity. Second, the job satisfaction`s impact on organizational commitment in the impact relationship was significantly very large. Third, despite the role overload, the group with a high social support had a high job satisfaction. In addition, if there is high level of social support, job satisfaction could significantly increase organizational commitment.
A Study on Combined Processes of Sliding Arc Plasma and Corona Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Improve the Efficiency Treatment of Harmful Substance
Kwon, Woo-Taeg ; Lee, Woo-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 28, issue 6, 2014, Pages 108~113
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2014.28.6.108
The combined process of Sliding Arc Plasma and corona dielectric barrier discharge process (CDBD) was used to efficiently improve harmful substance, which convert into OH radicals which have strong oxidation potential, and so have deodorization and sterilizing effects, by generating specific radicals and anion and then reacting with the moisture contained in harmful substance. As a result of experiment, even if the size of SAP reactor is reduced from 80 A to 50 A, there is no much change and therefore it is judged the size of reactor may be minimized. And it was confirmed that after the anion and ozone generated from CDBD rector react with harmful substance, a anion was reduced from 510,000 ppb to 470 ppb and ozone from 98 ppb to 22 ppb. It was also judged the stability and durability of plasma producer are excellent. Accordingly, it is considered the harmful substances which exist in indoor air quality will be efficiently improved and removed by using further plasma combined process through this study.