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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Study on the Deep Stead Fire Spread Temperature by the Change of the Wood Flour Density
Kim, Jin Su ; Rie, Dong Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.001
The productivity and demand of porous material has been increasing by development of industry and increasing income. In particular, the fire caused by using wood flour risks wood processing industry and stock farm. The heat transfer of wood flour is carried into the depth direction by effect of oxidizer around flame, flame sometimes is progressed as smoldering. In the case of progressing as combustion fire, identifying the location of fire is difficult, and it leads to failing fire aid fire fighting. Therefore potential cause is acted as raising additional damage. This paper conducts experiments of downward deep seated fire of natural convection conditions. The samples is New Zealand wood flour that is demanded much in the domestic and oversea market. In this experiment, temperature of deep seated side is measure by changing wood flour density in holder The densities used in experiment are 3%, 5%, 10%, 15%. As a result, the tendency of temperature inside decreases as wood flour density increases. But, in the case of density which is above
, the phenomenon, decreasing temperature, is not shown. The result of measurement show that average flame spread speed of wood flour is 0.249 mm/min.
Performance of Decompression Orifices Attached to Indoor Hydrant Discharge Outlets
Park, Bong-Rae ; Lee, Meng-Ro ; Jang, Kyung-Nam ; Baek, Eun-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 6~12
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.006
Indoor hydrant facilities are used to fight initial fires before more intense fire extinguishing activities. Fire extinguishing facilities should ensure good fire extinguishing performance and the safety of users. Indoor hydrant facilities are mostly installed in buildings and facilities, and users must manipulate valves, hoses, and nozzles manually. When the discharge pressure is higher than 0.70 MPa, there is a high possibility that problems with manipulation and hose breakdown can occur. To prevent these problems, a method to attach orifice-type decompression valves to the angle valves of indoor hydrant discharge outlets has frequently been used for decompression methods. However, the decompression performance was reduced due to structural problems of the decompression valves over time. Accordingly, based on three-stage initial pressures, applicable pressure ranges were selected by measuring the decompression performance according to the diameter of the decompression orifices. Based on the data, stable decompression valve models are proposed. These models have the lowest decrease in decompression performance, regardless of time.
Vertical Evacuation Speed in Stairwell of a High-rise Office Building
Joung, Suck-Hwan ; Yoon, Myong-Oh ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 13~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.013
As building height is increased, more careful decisions about the required safe egress time is needed for evacuation. This study analyzed the influence of three training sessions on the vertical speed of evacuation in the high rise building. Evacuation experiments were done in a high-rise office building in Seoul, and we analyzed the vertical evacuation speed as a function of density using a camera. Controlled and uncontrolled total evacuation were compared using the Pathfinder simulation. The process of repeated training, changed the specific stair utilization rate from 6.3% to 39.5%. The vertical evacuation speed as a function of density was analyzed using the equation s = 1.004 ? 0.288D, which is very similar to the equation used in a different study. The total evacuation time of the special controlled total evacuation was reduced by about 25% compared to the simultaneous evacuation.
Leakage-reduction Measures at a Joint between CPVC Piping for a Sprinkler System and a Pipe Expansion
Lim, Chun-Ki ; Lim, Yun-Tack ; Baek, Eun-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.021
In this study, we try to suggest measures to reduce leakage at a joint between CPVC piping for a sprinkler system and a pipe expansion through reviews of domestic and foreign standards and related tests. The quality of the waterproof rubber packing material between a valve socket and pipe expansion nut was examined. In the leak test, the valve socket material over the expansion part of the metal pipe nut was found to use a metal part or a schlorinated polyvinyl chloride pipe nut part. In addition, the KS B 0221 standard for parallel pipe threads with threaded and thread inspection criteria and inspection standards in order to ensure an acceptable quality of valve socket, there is a need to amend the regulations to comply with the KS B 5223 (screw thread limit gauges parallel pipe threads). We do not have detailed standards for expansion piping nuts for waterproof rubber ring material, so we need to amend the relevant criteria for EPDM material to be used with excellent waterproofing, for which both NBR and EPDM are currently used.
Propagation Speed and Characteristic Analysis of Flame in Compartment Fires of Flammable Liquids
Joe, Hi-Su ; Lee, Jae-Ou ; Choi, Chung-Seog ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.031
This study analyzed the flame characteristics when igniting 200 ml of flammable liquids containing equal parts gasoline and another flammable liquid. These mixtures were used to fill a divided space in a simulation. The length of one side of the divided space was 2,000 mm, and the length of the combustion device was 1,000 mm. The mixture with alcohol had the highest flame propagation speed (0.7 s), while the mixture with light oil showed the lowest (1.2 s). The gasoline and acetone mixture reached peak flame in 25.5 s, at the highest speed, while the mixture with light oil reached peak flame in 163.7 s at the lowest speed. The gasoline and light oil showed the longest continuous combustion time (332.7 s), while the gasoline and paint thinner showed the shortest (121.5 s). A fire inspector who is examining the scene of a fire needs to analyze both the statements of the first eyewitness and the flame characteristics collectively.
An Experimental Study on the Fire Risk of a Firewood Boiler
Lee, Sung-Ryong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.037
In this study, experiments were carried out to evaluate the fire risk of a firewood boiler, which is mainly used as a winter heating apparatus in rural areas. The ambient temperatures of the combustion chamber and the duct were measured. The fire risk of tar inside the duct was also investigated. The temperature decreased less than
in the region more than 40 cm from the combustion chamber. Fire- flakes were scattered in the range of less than 60 cm from the combustion chamber. The temperature inside the rose to above
. At 2 m from the boiler body, the temperature inside the duct was increased to about
. The ignition temperature of tar was about
. The temperatures of the boiler and duct surface were above
. Combustible material ignited when it contacted the boiler surface or duct surface.
Smoke Removal Effect by Water Mist Spraying
Park, Tae-Sung ; Kong, Ha-Sung ; Kim, Myung-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 43~47
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.043
Water mist was sprayed on small compartment areas filled with smoke that formed from two different combustibles. The water-mist injection pressure and time were varied, and changes in the light extinction coefficient were measured over time. The smoke removal effect was analyzed with a light sensing smoke meter in different experimental conditions. Using the meter, the changes in smoke density were converted to changes in DC voltage over time to obtain the changes in the light extinction coefficient. The water mist was more effective in eliminating the smoke formed from glowing compared to flaming combustion. The smoke removal effect was significantly better with greater injection pressure and injection time.
Improving Performance of Foam Proportioner Utilizing Metering Venturi Type
Joo, Seung-Ho ; Kong, Ha-Sung ; Gong, Ye-Som ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 48~52
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.048
In this study, we have evaluated whether the mixing ratio is proper by creating a mixing device for foam proportioner that mainly is employed in practice utilizing a metering venturi type. In case of the mixing ratio for 3%, water under pressure of 76 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 31.75 mm in diameter have showed up the fluctuation rate just as much as 3.1~3.5% of the mixing ratio. Because water under pressure of 101.6 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 38.1 mm in diameter have showed up 3.3~3.7% of the fluctuation rate, water under pressure of 101.6 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 38.1 mm in diameter have satisfied 3.0~3.9% of performance criterion. And also, in case of the 6% of mixture rate, water under pressure of 76.2 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 31.75 mm in diameter have showed up the fluctuation rate just as much as 6.4~6.8% of the mixing ratio. Because water under pressure of 101.6 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 38.1 mm in diameter have showed up 6.0~6.8% of the fluctuation rate, water under pressure of 101.6 mm in diameter and the original liquid of a foam fire extinguishing agent of 38.1 mm in diameter have satisfied 6.0~7.0% of performance criterion.
Problem Analysis of Power Capacity and Main Line Voltage Drop of Electric Power System for Fire Protection
Choi, Seung-Kyou ; Son, Bong-Sei ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 53~58
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.053
The number of high-rise buildings and skyscrapers has increased drastically, and accordingly, the power capacities and main line lengths of electric power systems for fire protection are also rapidly increasing. This is generating new of problems like shortages in power capacities and increases of main line voltage drops outside of the rated voltage range. This problem can have serious effects on fire protection systems and a variety of electric devices may not work properly in emergencies. As such, theoretical calculations were performed for these systems in an actual fire protection facility. The problems in the electric power system were extracted and analyzed, and the results show that it is necessary to search for new measures for the safe and rational design and operation of electric power systems for fire protection.
Follow-Up Survey Fire Truck Deterioration
Lee, Jang-Won ; Kim, Eui-Tae ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 59~64
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.059
This study analyzed results of the causes of failure in 1,022 fire trucks currently being used in South Korea (aerial ladder, aerial platform, pumper, and chemical fire trucks). The results show that 46% of aerial ladder trucks have defective in the elevator brake systems, 29% of aerial platform trucks have contamination in the hydraulic oil, 37% of pumpers have defective in the pneumatic cylinders of the air supply system, and 39% of chemical fire trucks have defective in the powder fire extinguishing systems. The principal reasons for malfunctions are deterioration of the apparatuses, and accumulated fatigue from repetitive use of certain components, such as pneumatic cylinders in the air supply system and wire rope jamming in rollers in the ladder apparatus. These manufacturing defects should be improved upon in the manufacturing process. As a result, the fire trucks, which are used for 5 years or more, need precise inspections in accordance with the Regulation on Fire Apparatus Maintenance. Fire apparatuses have a service life of 10 to 12 years or more. They need to be replaced or require life extension, and they should be kept in top shape with the best maintenance for public safety.
A Study on Introduction of Student Volunteer Fire Department in Dormitory far from Fire Station
Baek, Doo-San ; Lee, Seung-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 65~69
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.065
The university dormitory have various functions and large floating population so in the occurrence of fire, there could be heavy casualties. Also, when university dormitory is located far from fire station, it is difficult to fire brigade arrives on Golden Time. Therefore, university dormitory need response capabilities for fire by itself. This study conducted a simulation experiment on those residing in K University dormitory in Gangwon-do, where site proximity is unfavorable, to observe evacuation characteristics of the occupants. As a result, evacuation is delayed due to a lack of evacuation routes and administrator, some students lack of fire awareness. Also fire brigade didn't arrive on Golden Time. Therefore, to resolve problems it is proposed that a student fire volunteer department.
A Study of Paramedic Students' Perception Type on Female 119 Paramedics
Han, Song-yi ; Park, So-mi ; Choi, Eun-sook ; Lee, Jae-min ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 3, 2015, Pages 70~80
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.3.070
This research was conducted to improve the image of female emergency workers in a fire service organization by studying the perception trends of the increasing number of female paramedics. This human resource can be utilized more effectively by using the study results as baseline data. We conducted a survey from May 1 to June 30, 2013. The survey was analyzed using Q methodology and the program QUANL. For the Q sample, 31 emergency rescue paramedic students who had experienced ambulance field education were selected. As a result, four types of female paramedics were found; "superwoman," "hero" (who pushes against limits of stamina), "delicate guardian angel," and "skillful desk worker." The explanation powers were as follows: type I: 42.2%; type II: 4.8%; type III: 4%; and type IV: 3.6%. The sum of the figures explained 54.7% of the total variables. Generally, the students recognized female paramedics as professionals, but physical strength, baby care, and caring were considered as burdens. This requires changes in the organization's perception of female paramedics and an institutional strategy.