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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Experimental Study on Separate Evaluations of Fire Resistance of SFRM for Steel Beams and Columns
Jeon, Soo-Min ; Kim, Jae-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.001
It is necessary to obtain a fire resistance certification in order to use SFRM in Korea. The fire resistance tests for certifications are performed separately for beams and columns and the certifications are different. We could assume that the same SFRM has different thicknesses for beams and columns because the conditions of the fire resistance tests for them differ in the section factors etc. But most of the SFRMs in Korea have the same thicknesses for beams and columns. So the question arises as to there were the differences between the fire test results for beams and columns reside. The purpose of this study is to consider the separate evaluation of the fire resistance of members through a comparative analysis of the temperature data obtained from fire certification tests.
Prediction Method for Fire Load Prediction of Bedding and Bags Using a Standard Normal Distribution
Kim, Hyun-Do ; Nam, Dong-Koon ; Cho, Sung-Woo ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 7~14
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.007
This study suggests basic data for fire-resistant compartments to prevent fires from spreading in a traditional markets. As representative combustible goods handled in traditional markets, bedding and bags were chosen. The fire loads could be calculated using the porosity of the materials based on a standard normal distribution. The bedding and bag porosity were 98.7%, and 94.39%, respectively. The the fire load of bedding is
, and that of bags is
Evaluation of Early Suppression-Fast Response (ESFR) Sprinklers in Facilities and Residences for Elderly People
Choi, Young-Sang ; Gong, Ye-Rin ; Kong, Ha-Sung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 15~20
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.015
This study compared, through a fire simulation, temperature changes of the smoke layer and the air layer, and height fluctuations of the smoke layer, according to the sprinkler head installation and non-installation, and the sprinkler head types in elderly-care facilities. When a standard response sprinkler worked, the radiant heat exceeded the conditions for the occurrence of flashover. However the ESFR sprinkler prevented flashover. When the early response head worked, inhabitants were not damaged by radiant heat because the maximum value of the heat flux remained
, which is less then the burn hazard criterion of
. The highest temperature of the room when fire occurred exceeded the safety standard in all of the smoke layer and the air layer, but the highest temperature was kept below the safety standard after it fell down rapidly. Because the height of the smoke layer was maintained above 1.1 m when the early response sprinkler worked, the falling of the smoking layer was much more delayed than in the case where the standard response sprinkler was used.
The Prediction and Measurement of Combustible Properties for Bromobenzene
Ha, Dong-Myeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 21~25
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.021
The usage of the correct combustion characteristics of the treated substance for the safety of the process is critical. For the safe handling of bromobenzene being used in various ways in the chemical industry, the flash point and the autoignition temperature (AIT) of bromobenzene was experimented. And, the lower explosion limit of bromobenzene was calculated by using the lower flash point obtained in the experiment. The flash points of bromobenzene by using the Setaflash and Pensky-Martens closed-cup testers measured
, respectively. The flash points of bromobenzene by using the Tag and Cleveland automatic open cup testers are measured
. The AIT of bromobenzene by ASTM 659E tester was measured as
. The lower explosion limit by the measured flash point
was calculated as 1.63 Vol%. It was possible to predict lower explosion limit by using the experimental flash point or flash point in the literature.
A Study on On-site Discharge Testing for Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems
Park, Jun-Hyun ; Kang, Tae-Seok ; Kim, Jae-Hwan ; Kim, Wee-Kyong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 26~32
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.026
Carbon dioxide principally extinguishes fires by smothering, but an acceptable amount of extinguishing agent is needed. To assure the performance of carbon dioxide systems in Korea, computer programs certified by NEMA are being applied in system design. But the design errors can occur because the geometry of a model test facility is not the same as that of the actual fire area. Since the discharge rate tends to vary considerably with the flow pattern in a pipe, an on-site discharge test is necessary to ensure the performance of the system, especially with low pressure carbon dioxide. Technical standards for carbon dioxide systems do not give detailed guidelines for discharge tests at present. Based on comparative analysis of standards and practical tests, this paper suggests a methodology for on-site discharge tests.
Analytical Structural Stability Evaluation for H-section Beams Made of Ordinary Structural Steels Based on Boundary Conditions at High Temperatures
Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 33~38
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.033
Loads applied on the floor are transferred through beams to columns. The beams can be designed as both end fixed or simple beams. The load bearing capacity of a beam depends on each boundary condition. However, when the load bearing capacity of a beam is evaluated in fire tests, all kinds of beams are tested using simple beam conditions. In this study, an analytical method performed using heat transfer theory and heat stress analysis based on the mechanical and thermal properties of SS-400 steel at high temperature. This method was used to clarify the differences between the two types of boundary conditions at normal and high temperature. The results show that the load bearing capacity of a both-end fixed beam at high temperature is superior to that of a simple beam. Therefore, the application of simple beam conditions in fire tests for evaluation of load bearing capacity is conservatively safe compared to fixed boundary conditions.
A Study on the Development of a Duct-dedicated Intelligent Fire Detection System
Kim, Si-Kuk ; Lee, Gun-Ho ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Lim, Woo-Sub ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 39~48
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.039
This research was done to develop a duct-dedicated intelligent fire detection system to prevent fires and minimize fire damage of the industrial duct having a high fire risk. To understand the fire hazards of the ducts, the analysis was centered on the Daegu Textile Industrial Complex, where industrial ducts are used frequently. With this in the background, dedicated fire detectors and fire alarm control panel, which can prevent fires and to minimize fire damages to the ducts, were designed and produced, after which the performance was confirmed. As a result of performance experiments, it was shown that a duct-dedicated intelligent fire detection system had excellent adaptability and temperature accuracy. Through real-time temperature monitoring of the inside of the ducts, it was confirmed that duct fires could be efficiently extinguished by stepwise control of linkage facilities according to the setting temperature.
Hazard Assessment of Combustion Gases from Interior Materials
Seo, Hyun Jeong ; Son, Dong Won ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.049
Toxic gases from five types of interior building materials were investigated according to Naval Engineering Standard (NES) 713. The materials were plywood, indoor wall coverings (wood wall plate members and pine wood), reinforced Styrofoam insulation, laminate flooring, and PVC. Specimens were measured using an NES 713 toxicity test apparatus to analyze the hazardous substances in combustion gas from the materials. We used the US Department of Defense standard (MIL-DTL, Military Standard) to calculate the toxicity index of the combustion gas. Emissions of
from all specimens did not exceed the NES 713 limit of 100,000 ppm. The amount of CO gas emissions from reinforced Styrofoam insulation was 6,098 ppm. 25 ppm and 49 ppm of formaldehyde were released from the reinforced Styrofoam insulation and PVC flooring, respectively. These values were less than the limit of 400 ppm. The highest emissions were from
emitted by plywood and were above the limit of 250 ppm. The toxicity index of the specimens were calculated as 5.19 for plywood, 4.13 for PVC flooring, 2.35 for reinforced Styrofoam insulation, 2.34 for laminate flooring, and 1.22 for indoor wall coverings (pine wood). Our research helps us to understand the properties of these five interior materials by analyzing the combustion gas and explaining the toxicity of constituents and the toxicity index. Also, it would be useful for giving fundamentals to guide the safe use of interior materials for applications.
Gas Mask Removal Efficiency of CO, HCl, HCN, and SO
Gas Produced by Fire
Kong, Ha-Sung ; Gong, Ye-Som ; Kim, Sang-Heon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 57~60
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.057
The removal efficiencies by elastic fire gas mask of toxic gases CO, HCl, HCN, and
produced by a fire have a key role in saving lives. The elastic fire gas mask comprises a visible window, elastic hood, gas purification canister, and air vent. It does not have hair or neck thongs, which makes it easy to use and put on quickly. This research examined the removal efficiency of toxic gases by such a mask. The removal efficiencies for CO with a background concentration of 2505.0 ppm were 99.99 and 99.98% after 3.5 and 8.5 min, respectively. The residual CO concentration was drastically increased after 8.5 min. The removal efficiencies for HCl, HCN, and
with background concentrations of 1003.0, 399.0, and 100.3 ppm, respectively, were 100% after 20 min.
Study on Exposed Piping with High Risk of Fire
Kim, Yeob-Rae ; Baek, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.061
PVC pipe has excellent corrosion resistance and chemical resistance and is broadly used. However there are no regulations regarding exposed piping material in buildings. There is growing concern about the vulnerability of piping to fires and generating toxic gas. Exposed piping should be made of incombustible materials to prevent spreading of toxic gas and to minimize damage to life and property in case of fire. Many big structures are being built, and concerns regarding damage by fire are continuously growing. In these circumstances, we should reinforce fire safety standards for buildings and heighten safety consciousness to become a well-developed country. For these reasons, we investigated the materials used for exposed piping and the standards of well-developed countries to enhance safety. We tried to figure out the alternatives by examining the actual conditions of each region's buildings. Based on the use of incombustible materials for exposed piping in each region, we tried to enhance the effectiveness for safety by suggesting revisions for related laws and regulations.
Fire Characteristics of Flaming and Smoldering Combustion of Wood Combustibles Considering Thickness
Kim, Sung-Chan ; Nam, Dong-Gun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.067
A series of fire tests was conducted to examine the fire characteristics of flaming and smoldering combustion of engineered wood products, which have been widely used for furniture and finishing materials in buildings. The engineered wood products of MDF, plywood, and chipboard were ignited by a radiant cone heater with incident heat flux of
. During the fire test, key parameters representing the fire characteristics such as the heat release rate, yield rate of combustion product, and effective heat of combustion were quantified in terms of thickness. The tests show two peak points of HRRPUA due to lateral fire propagation in the initial stage, followed by later fire penetration through the specimen thickness. The mass loss rate of flaming combustion was 5 times higher than that of smoldering combustion, while the CO yield rate of smoldering combustion was 10 times higher than that of flaming combustion. This study can contribute to the understanding of fire behavior of wood combustibles and provide useful data for fire analysis.
Investigation on the Field Application of the Flammable Limit of Vaporized Gasoline
Kang, Jung Ki ; You, Woo Jun ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 73~80
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.073
In this study, the conditions of explosion range of gasoline, which is used as combustion improver, are experimentally analyzed. Two types of compartment, which is the small scale (
) and the middle scale (
), are mocked-up and the auto-control systems are installed in order to measure the vaporized gasoline and the moment of pressure, ignition time and maximum pressure. In case the maximum flammable limit of gasoline is up to 22.4 Vol% not the generalized range of 1.4~7.6 Vol% when nichrome igniter of
is used. These results can be appled to the analytical prediction of fire identification in the field of explosion.
A Study on the Development of a Low-cost Device for Measuring the Optical Smoke Density
Kim, Bong-Jun ; Cho, Jae-Ho ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ; Park, Seul-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 81~88
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.081
A low-cost device using the light-extinction method was developed to measure the optical smoke density in various fire experiments in the present study. The relative measurement accuracy of low-cost device was evaluated through the comparison of optical density measured by a high-cost standard device consisting of He-Ne laser, photo detector and various optical components. The low-cost device was composed of laser module, photocell and acrylic board. From the experiments using a smoke generator can be easily adjusted the smoke concentration, it was found that the low-cost device could measure the smoke density within the range of
, compared to the standard device. In addition, the reliability of low-cost device was also confirmed in the experiment using a polyethylene flame. Finally, it is expected that the low-cost device developed with real-time measurement and simple installation for measuring the smoke density will be used instead of the high-cost standard device.
Fire Safety Consciousness Indicators Development and National Fire Safety Consciousness Research
Jeong, Mu Heon ; Park, In-sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 89~94
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.089
The purpose of this study is to investigate national fire safety consciousness (FSC). A FSC survey would help with proper fire safety policy. Indicators to define and measure efficiently the FSC were broken down into five areas: prevention, alarm, evacuation, extinguishing, and damage expansion prevention. The indicators were developed using Parasuraman's method based on domestic and foreign research materials and meetings with experts. FSC was surveyed using the indicators on Gallup Korea. The results of the survey analysis show that evacuation is lowest, followed by extinguishing, alarm, prevention, and damage expansion prevention.
A Study Symptoms by Types of Burn Patients in Pre-hospital Stage
Park, SangKyu ; Lee, JeongHyeok ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 4, 2015, Pages 95~104
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.4.095
The purpose of this study is to investigate differences in initial patient states based on types of burn accidents in the pre-hospital stage. 1,223 items of transfer data from burn accidents of Gyeonggi-do emergency medical services in 2013 were used. Burn accidents were most common in children younger than 10 years old (26.0%) and happened mostly at home (51.3%). Patient states by burn type were stable on average, but burns by electricity showed 10.7% of awareness condition U (Unresponsive), which was higher than that of the other burn types. Initial patient states for this type were shown to be serious, unlike other burn types, with temperatures of
and third degree burn depth (39.28%). Understanding initial patient states based on burn type is necessary in order to do effective approach in the pre-hospital stage.