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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2015
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2015
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2015
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2015
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2015
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
Selecting the target year
Combustion Characteristics of Hinoki Cypress Louver after Pressure Impregnation with Boric Acid, Borax and Ammonium Phosphate
Park, Hyung-Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.001
In this study, the combustion characteristics of Hinoki Cypress Louver were measured after performing pressure impregnation with aqueous solution of boric acid, borax, and ammonium phosphate. The characteristics measured include ignition time, critical heat flux, and mass loss rate by incident hear flux (25, 30 and
). The samples used for the test were
, and the 5 min variation for each incident heat flux was measured 3 times. The results show that the ignition time for incident heat flux of
showed a delay effect of 17.4 to 21.3% except for Type C-H. There was no significant difference at 35 and
in the average mass loss rate in Types A-H and D-H, which had lower rates than Type N-H, which was predicted to be higher than that of Type N-H (
) by 38.22 to 60.46%. It is thus expected that at the time of initial primary fire, there would be a delay effect against fire spread.
Influence of Stack Effect in High-Rise Buildings on Wind Effect in Jeju (Comparative Analysis of Seoul and Jeju)
Lim, Chae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 6~12
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.006
This study used CONTAM modeling to analyzed analyze the stack effect in high-rise buildings for the terrain and weather conditions of Seoul and Jeju. The differential pressure caused by the stack effect is a function of the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the height of the vertical shaft. Jeju is considered more stable than Seoul, because it is warmer than Seoul in winter. The differential pressure in Jeju is about 60% that of Seoul in for the same height of buildings in winter. However, Jeju is an island and the neutral plane is raised by over 56% by strong winds, although there is less differential pressure caused by the stack effect in Jeju than in Seoul. Due to the raised neutral plane, the region and magnitude of negative pressure in the lower part is larger in Jeju than in Seoul.
Combustion Characteristics of Pinus rigida Specimens Treated with Phosphorus-Nitrogen Additives
Chung, Yeong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 13~19
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.013
This study was performed to test the combustive properties of Pinus rigida specimens treated with phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) additives. Each Pinus rigida specimen was painted three times with 15 wt% P-N additive solutions at room temperature. After drying the treated specimens, the combustion properties were examined using a cone calorimeter (ISO 5660-1). The time to ignition (TTI) for the treated specimens was 90 to 148 s except for the specimen treated with PP/
, and the time to flameout (TF) was 556 to 633 s, which was longer than that of virgin plate. While the The specimens treated with P-N additives showed 12.5 to 43.4% higher mean heat release rate (
) and 11.8 to 43.1% higher total heat release (THR) than virgin plate. The effective heat of combustion (EHC) was by 2.9 to 17.5% lower than that of virgin plate. It can thus be concluded that the combustion-retardation properties were partially improved compared to those of virgin plate.
Explosion Risk of 2-Ethylhexanoic Acid
Kim, Won-Kil ; Kim, Jung-Hun ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 20~25
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.020
In order to examine the explosion risk of 2-ethylhexanoic acid, we experimentally studied the explosion limit, explosion pressure, and rate of increase of the explosion pressure at different oxygen concentrations. The lower explosion limit was 3.2% at a temperature of
, and the oxygen concentration was 40 to 70%. The upper explosion limit was 4.5% and the lower explosion limit was 4.0% at an oxygen concentration of 21%.The maximum explosion pressure of 2-ethylhexanoic acid was 1.4161 MPa at an oxygen concentration of 70%, and the rate of increase of the explosion pressure was 62.692 MPa/s at this concentration.
Research on the Current Status of Installation and Awareness of Fire Extinguishers and Awareness of Fire Extinguishers
Lee, Wonjoo ; Kwon, Shin Young ; Lee, Chang-Seop ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 26~32
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.026
The main purpose of this study is to propose a directionfor fire safety education and to discuss the current issues of fire extinguisher training A survey was conducted, and the results show that only 52.1% of homes have a fire extinguisher, whereas over 93% of public and private work places (e.g., schools and businesses) have a fire extinguisher. Approximately 90% of the survey participants had fire extinguisher training experience. However, only 65.8% of the public and private work places conducted fire extinguisher training regularly. 42.5% of survey participants had not been trained in the past year. In the survey result on fire extinguisher knowledge, participants showed a score of 3.95/5.00 for how to use a fire extinguisher and a score of 3.00/5.00 for the meaning of the ABC ratings of fire extinguishers. An independent T-test showed that the "the installation of fire extinguishers in the house" and "regular fire safety education in your group" have influences on the "the knowledge of fire extinguishers" (p < .05).
Numerical Analysis of Unsteady Heat Transfer for Location Selection of CPVC Piping
Choi, Myoung-Young ; Choi, Hyoung-Gwon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.033
In this paper, a numerical experiment was conducted to find out the optimal location of electrical heat trace for anti-freeze of water inside the CPVC pipe for fire protection. The unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with energy equation were solved. Since the conduction equation of pipe was coupled with the natural convection of water, the analysis of conjugate heat transfer was conducted. A commercial code (ANSYS-FLUENT) based on SIMPLE-type algorithm was used for investigating the unsteady flows and temperature distributions in water region. From the present numerical experiment, it has been found that the vector field of water inside the PVC pipe is opposite to the case of steel because of the huge difference of material properties of the two pipes. Furthermore, it was found that the lowest part of the pipe was an optimal position for electrical heat trace since the minimum water temperature of the case was higher than those of the other cases.
Experimental and Numerical Studies on the Failure of Curtain Wall Double Glazed for Radiation Effect
Nam, Jiwoo ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ; Kim, Dong-Joon ; Kim, Sung-Won ; Nam, Jun-Seok ; Cho, Seongwook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 40~44
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.040
National and international standards for curtain wall glass are focused on wind pressure and insulation performance, but disasters such as fires and earthquakes are not considered. Failure of curtain wall glass during a fire in a skyscraper increases the loss of lives and property due to the spread of fire. Therefore, the fire resistance of curtain wall glass should be investigated, and technology to prevent glass failure should be developed to prevent fire damage due to spreading fire. It is important to predict the starting point of cracks and the cause of glass failure to prevent it effectively using the limited water in a skyscraper. In this study, double glazed glass was exposed to a radiator in an experiment performed to analyze the thermal characteristics. The results show that glass that was not directly exposed to high temperature and pressure was broken. To identify this failure case, numerical analysis was performed. Three glass specimens were installed in an ISO 9705 room and exposed to radiation using a radiator, and a thermocouple was used to measure the temperature on the surface of the glass. Widely used double glazed glass was analyzed for weakness to fire.
Calculation and Measurement of Flash Point for n-Decane + n-Octanol and Acetic Acid + n-Butanol Using a Tag-Open-Cup Apparatus
Ha, Dong-Myeong ; Lee, Sungjin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 45~50
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.045
The flash point is one of the most important properties for characterizing the fire and explosion hazard of liquid solutions. In this study, a Tag open-cup apparatus was used to measure the flash points of two flammable binary mixtures, n-decane + n-octanol and acetic acid + n-butanol. The flash point temperature was estimated using the UNIFAC (Universal Functional Activity Coefficient) group contribution model and optimization method. The experimentally derived flash point was also compared with the predicted flash point. The two methods can estimate the flash point fairly well for the n-decane + n-octanol and acetic acid + n-butanol systems.
Experimental Performance Evaluation of a Fire System for Apartment Buildings
Jung, Jong-Jin ; Hong, A-Reum ; Son, Bong-Sei ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 51~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.051
In Korea, measures to maintain sustainable fire safety performance for apartment buildings are insufficient in terms of fire-fighting products, skilled personnel, and maintenance status. Also, because of the particular features of a fire compartment, it has structural problems that are very likely to cause damage to human life when a fire occurs. Currently, problems with the fire supervisory system installed in an apartment building cannot be checked in real time, so it is difficult to identify the location of a fire accurately. Protected areas are also not assigned to each household, and residents cannot be clearly informed of the occurrence of a fire. As a consequence, safety evacuation cannot be secured. In addition, it is impossible to test the operation performance for water detectors in sprinkler fire extinguishing systems outside of the household. Therefore, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of a remote fire supervisory system. The results show that the system satisfies all performance requirements. Also, an household alarm system was installed in each household to alert of any occurrence of a fire accurately, and the performance of the alarm system was improved to ensure that residents were quickly evacuated.
Method for Preventing Asphyxiation Accidents by a CO
Extinguishing System on a Ship
Ha, Yeon-Chul ; Seo, Jung-Kwan ; Hwang, Jun-Ho ; Im, Kichang ; Ryu, Sang-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 57~64
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.057
Carbon dioxide extinguishing systems are broadly used for onshore and offshore fire accidents because of excellent performance and low cost. However, there is risk with carbon dioxide systems, which have caused many injuries and deaths by suffocation associated with industrial and marine fire protection applications. In this study, a numerical analysis was performed to predict the fire suppression characteristics of a carbon dioxide system in the compressor room of ships. A double protection safety system is suggested to prevent suffocation accidents from carbon dioxide extinguishing systems. Four scenarios were selected to study the variation of the heat release rate, maximum temperature, a
mole fraction, and fire suppression characteristics with the carbon dioxide system. The importance of proper design is suggested for a ventilation system in the compressor room of ships.
BTX Treatment of a Petrochemical Plant by Sliding Arc Plasma
Kwon, Woo-Taeg ; Kwon, Lee-Seung ; Lee, Woo-Sik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 65~70
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.065
This research examines the removal efficiency of benzene, toluene, xylene (BTX) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) by flowing VOCs, which are generated at a petrochemical complex in the Ulsan area, in a sliding arc plasma (SAP) reactor. The SAP reactor process is composed of 5 steps and the analysis was conducted using a BTX detector and TVOC measuring instrument. The removal efficiency of BTX was better at high concentration than at low concentration and the emitted TVOC concentration increased in later steps of the reactor. In addition, the removal efficiency improved, as the flow velocity increased. The maximum permissible concentration of TVOCs in the first step was about 481 ppm and showed over 94.83% efficiency when it was operated in the 2nd step at concentrations beyond 481 ppm. Therefore, there are many factors for improving the removal efficiency of SAP reactors at low concentration and measures should be prepared according to the application method for the various types of industrial reactors.
The Experimental Study on the Leakage of Automatic Pressure Differential · Overpressure Control Dampers
Shin, Pyung-Shik ; Kim, Hak-Joong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 71~75
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.071
Recently, Since buildings are bigger and higher, the damage of human life can be increased by fire flame and smoke in fire. Smoke control system is necessary to decrease this damage. Therefore, Air supply pressurization smoke control system is applied to vestibule of escape stairway. NFSC requires pressure differential of 40 Pa~60 Pa, but pressure differential is over 60 Pa in the field. It is known that the cause of this over pressure differential is much leakage of damper. Over pressure differential can bad effect to escaper by pressurizing the door. Analyze the real leakage of damper by testing for identifying this problems. The result of testing, leakage is
. It is necessary to limit the leakage of dampers for safe of escapers.
Fire Performance Testing Method for Fire Retardant EPS Sandwich Panel Using X-ray Analysis
Shim, Ji-Hun ; Cho, Nam-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 76~83
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.076
EPS sandwich panel contains flame retardants that slow down ignition during fires,reduce the amount of heat generated, and block the spread of combustion. However, if a sandwich panel does not satisfy standards for fire-retardant performance, it may increase damage to property and human life. It is difficult to test the fire-retardant performance of a finishing material with the naked eye, so it is necessary to develop convenient and fast evaluation methods that are convenient and fast. In this study, a fire safety evaluation method for EPS sandwich panel was analyzed using X-ray to detect specific components related to the fire-retardant performance X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) indicated that suitable panel products contained more aluminum in comparison to unsuitable products. Gibbsite was identified as the main crystalline material of flame retardant EPS through X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and was included in both suitable products and unsuitable products, but there was a difference in crystalline structure. This study was verifies the possibility of evaluating fire-retardant performance using ultimate analysis and crystal analysis through these X-ray methods.
A Study on Flame Spread Prevention of Sandwich Panel
Cho, Nam-Wook ; Kim, Do-Hyun ; Shim, Ji-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 84~90
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.084
Multi-layered material (sandwich panel) consists of double-sided steel plate which is incombustible material or similar material and core material which is not incombustible material. In case of sandwich panel which uses combustible material as insulation, flames spread inside the steel plate at the time of fire so that it is difficult to extinguish fire from the outside and flames spread rapidly and may cause the building to collapse. The current Building Act requires the sandwich panel to secure fire-retardant performance according to the purpose and size of building. In this study, the fire spreading prevention structure applied to partial exterior walls was applied to multi-layered material and its effect was measured through full scale fire test and the possibility to secure fire safety of buildings by applying the fire spreading prevention structure to multi-layered material in future was presented.
Effect of Harmonic Generation and Countermeasures
Baek, Dong-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 91~97
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.091
Skyscrapers, large business buildings, and IT consumers use many appliances, and the electrical power stems can cause fires by overheating. This can result in damaged capacitors, lost data, rising ground potential, and communication obstacles from linear or nonlinear high frequency. To make sure of that we investigated 7 spots of a building, among which 6-spots were fair but the other one needed high frequency control. Spots 3, 6, and 7 needed diagnostic workup, and spots 2, 3, and 5 considered 5 high frequency currents. A phase is all of good but the high frequency current is greater than the standard level except for spot 1. As a result, a zigzag transformer or active filter needs to be installed, and the efficiency needs to be upgraded by investigating load unbalance factors and power factors.
Integrated Command System for Firefight Satety in Special Disaster Area
Roh, Tae-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 98~108
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.098
An integrated command system is critical for the safety of firefighters and effective work in the headquarters of a special disaster areas such as natural disaster or large man-made hazard. The integrated command system requires environmental information such as temperature, humidity, and
levels, as well as personal physical information such as pulse and air respirator levels. An Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) chip converts sensed information into digital signals, and a Micro Controller Unit (MCU) transmits the digital signals to a transmission board using serial communication through a Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI). The digital signals are saved in a transmission board and transmitted to the integrated command system by a Radio Frequency (RF) unit. The location of fire-fighters in a building are determined using a gyro sensor and an inertial sensor. The collected information is applied to the integrated command system for firefighter safety and to ensure that they can effectively carry out their duties. Tthis study theoretically and experimentally investigated the technologies of RF transmission, indoor position, and an integrated command system that supports decision making using the transmitted information.
Performance Evaluation of Search Robot Prototypes for Special Disaster Areas
Kwark, Jihyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 109~118
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.109
Recently, three kinds of search robot prototypes were developed to assume the role of fire fighters for search and rescue missions in special disaster areas with high heat, smoke, toxic gases, or radioactivity. To accomplish search missions, these robots should be able to endure heat, overcome various obstacles, suppress fires, and see through dense smoke. This study investigated the heat resistance, practicality, and fire fighting capacity of these robots. The results show that the small and middle-sized robots were resistant to surrounding temperatures of
, and the fire-fighter-riding robot could endure up to
for half an hour. The fire-fighter-riding robot showed excellent extinguishing performance on an A-10 class fire model, which was extinguished within 3 min. The robots also showed various capacities for overcoming obstacles and are expected to play an active role in various special disaster areas.
A Case Study on Fire Investigation for a Wood-Burning Stove in an Idyllic House
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 119~128
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.119
A fire broke out in a working wood-burning stove and destroyed an idyllic house about two years after it was built. This study analyzed data provided through the court by the fire station, police station, fire insurance investigation agency, house construction company, and wood-burning stove maker Based on the fire pattern of low-temperature long-term ignition that remained in the studs, the fire was found to be caused by the conduction of heat in the fire box to the studs of the wall next to the wood-burning stove. A fire simulation showed that the low-temperature long-term ignition of the studs next to the wood-burning stove occurred because a hole was not made for ventilation in the chimney.
Influence of Leadership Styles on Organizational Commitment and Job Satisfaction
Son, HyoJong ; Lee, YoungMi ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 129~138
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.129
This study investigates the influence of transformational and transactional leadership styles of commanders in fire service organizations on organizational commitment and job satisfaction. A survey was conducted with the staffs of four fire stations in Gyeonggi Province. The results show that the charismatic characteristics of transformational leadership and the management by exception of transactional leadership positively influence both organizational commitment and job satisfaction. This indicates that the fire officers can be devoted to their organizations and be satisfied with their jobs when their supervisors give directions with charisma and vision and when they delegate authority to the fire officers except in particular situations.
How Empowerment and Social Support Affect Occupational Stress of Firefighters
Shin, Hyojin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 29, issue 6, 2015, Pages 139~146
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2015.29.6.139
This study surveyed 230 firefighters working in Dae Gu City and Kyung Sang Buk Do in order to analyze the influence of social support and empowerment on occupational stress and its sub-categories. The study results show that occupational stress is reduced for firefighters when there is more social support and empowerment. For subcategory variables of occupational stress, occupational autonomy stress was influenced only by empowerment. Stress related to lack of compensation and stress from the organization's culture were influenced the most greatly by social support. The weekly fre quency of emergency mobilization and years of working were also found to influence occupational stress and its subcategory variables. The group difference analysis revealed that the fire department had a significantly higher occupational stress than the first-aid department, and 4 to 7 weekly emergency mobilizations corresponded to significantly higher occupational stress than 8 or more weekly emergency mobilizations. Based on the study results, stress management programs focused on increasing social support and empowerment for firefighters are suggested.