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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Improvement on Pressure Drop Performance of Flow Control Disk in Portable Resuscitator
Kim, Young-Soo ; Kim, Min-Wook ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.001
Cases of cardiac arrests due to cardiovascular ailments have increased recently., portable Current portable resuscitators which can be automatically supply oxygen operated by the pressure of supplied oxygen without manual or electronic actuators are now widely used in emergency worldwide. However, reductions in Pressure drop characteristics through the extended use of this type of resuscitator, however, is are not well-known described. This paper describes the reduction in pressure loss drop performance of the various holes in within the flow control disc of with various hole size of the portable resuscitators using on breathing resistance through the CFD simulation, and suggests the an optimum optimal design of the hole shapes for the minimization of alteration in order to minimize this pressure drops.
Performance Evaluation of a Natural Smoke Ventilator in Jeju
Lim, Chae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 6~11
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.006
This study analyzed the performance of smoke exhaustion installed to secure the life safety from the smoke each opening modes, as performing the simulation on the Jeju regions generating to strong windy using CONTAM. We assessed the effectiveness of the system under conditions of high external winds as well as an ambient wind conditions. It also assessed the relative effectiveness of opening all vents versus opening only those vents which served rooms in which the fire was located. This study revealed external winds exerted a substantial impact on the performance of the smoke ventilation system. It was found that opening the ventilation system in the room containing the fire resulted in a greater performance than opening vents in both fire in all rooms. The reduced performance of the smoke ventilation system upon the opening of all vents is thought to be due to the intrusion of outside air, and the establishment of unfavorable air circulation, caused by the negative pressure generated in the building.
Simulation of Under-Ventilated Fires
Park, Woe-Chul ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 12~16
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.012
Propane fires of 1000 to 3000 kW in the ISO 9705 fire room were simulated using FDS to study the problem of decreasing temperature with increasing fire size. A criterion is proposed for under-ventilated fires. The computed temperature at 2000 kW and above was lower than that at 1500 kW. The heat release rate was limited by a lack of oxygen in the simulation. It was found that the heat release rate can therefore be a criterion for under-ventilated fires in simulations. Fires of 1700 kW and above in the ISO 9705 fire room are predicted to be under-ventilated.
Flame Resistance Performance of Glass Fiber and Polyester Fiber Architectural Membranes
Kim, JiHyeon ; Song, Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.017
Membrane structures can be used to create diverse lightweight structural forms using ductile membranes made of coated fabric. Using membrane structures, it is possible to construct large covered spaces relatively quickly and economically, and hence, they are being applied within various applications. The structures are light-weight, transparent, flexible in their application, economical and easy to maintain, and as such, their usage is being expanded. However, despite their prevalence, the standard for membrane material performance in terms of fire safety is still inadequate, and the development of membrane materials with excellent flame resistance performance is being demanded. This study determined flame resistance performance of architectural membranes, including PTFE, PVDF, PVF and ETFE film membranes, through flammability testing and incombustibility testing.
Characteristic of Auto Ignition Temperature due to the Mixture Ratio of Ethylene Glycol and Water
Kim, Jung-Hun ; Choi, Jae-Wook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 24~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.024
Autoignition characteristic is an important factor of all combustible substances, and a critical determinant in assessing the effectiveness of fire hazard prevention. This study investigated the autoignition characteristic of mixtures of Ethylene Glycol and water using an ASTM D2155 type ignition temperature measuring apparatus. It was possible to get the minimum temperature as
from 100% Ethylene Glycol within range of
. A volume of
of a mixed sample of Ethylene Glycol and water (80 : 20) was ignited at the same temperature (
). Also it was possible to get the auto ignition temperature as
from a mixed sample of Ethylene Glycol and water (60 : 40) within range of
. The instantaneous ignition temperatures determined for
of each of the three samples were
, respectively. Both auto ignition temperatures and instantaneous ignition temperatures were increased through the addition of water to the samples.
Experimental and Numerical Study of the Thermal Decomposition of an Epoxy-based Intumescent Coating
Kim, Yangkyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 31~36
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.031
This study investigates the characteristics of thermal decomposition of an epoxy-based intumescent paint using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and numerical simulation. A mathematical and numerical model is introduced to describe mass loss profiles of the epoxy-based intumescent coating induced by the thermal decomposition process. The decomposition scheme covers a range of complexity by employing simplified 4-step sequential reactions to describe the simultaneous thermal decomposition processes. The reaction rates are expressed by the Arrhenius law, and reaction parameters are optimized to fit the degradation behavior seen during thermogravimetric (TG) experiments. The experimental results show a major 2-step degradation under nitrogen and a 3-step degradation in an air environment. The experiment also shows that oxygen takes part in the stabilization of the intumescent coating between 200 and
. The simulation results show that the proposed model effectively predicts the experimental mass loss as a function of time except for temperatures above
, which were intentionally not included in the model. The maximum error in the simulation was less than 3%.
A Study of Optical Characteristics for Biodiesel and Diesel Smoke Particles and Measuring their Dimensionless Light Extinction Constants
Choi, Seuk-Cheun ; Jang, Yeong-Seok ; Park, Seul-Hyun ; Kim, Youn-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 37~42
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.037
The dimensionless extinction constants of smoke particles produced from burning of soy methyl ester (B100) biodiesel and ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels were measured. To this end, optical measurements of smoke volume fraction with the aid of a He-Ne laser at 633 nm were compared to the simultaneous gravimetric measurements. The average value of measured dimensionless extinction constants at 633 nm was 11.8 for biodiesel smoke particles and 11.1 for diesel smoke particles, respectively whose values are very comparable withing the range of measurement uncertainty (
). The analysis of Raman spectroscopy revealed that overall characteristics of light extinction between particles produced from each fuel may differ from each other.
A Study on the Risk of Particulate Materials Included in the Combustion Products of Building Materials
Kim, Nam-Kyun ; Cho, Nam-Wook ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.043
In this study, the experiment to confirm the risks of particulate material was carried out as a precedent study for developing the toxicity evaluation method of combustion products including the toxicity of particulate material. In the experiment, the test result of filtering and exposing particulate material among combustion products and that of exposing combustion products including particulate material were compared and analyzed by analyzing changes in average movement stop time according to the installation of Membrane filter between the stirring box and test box through the gas toxicity test of the same specimen to filter particulate material among combustion products. As the test result, in case of installing a filter, the average movement stop time of an experimental rat increased by up to 264% in case of lumber specimen and up to 179% in case of urethane specimen. Through such result, the necessity of identifying the toxicity of particulate material and carrying out quantitative toxicity test for particulate material was confirmed.
Comparison of the Effects of Straight and Twisted Heat Trace Installations Based on Three-dimensional Unsteady Heat Transfer
Choi, Myoung-Young ; Jeon, Byoung-Jin ; Choi, Hyoung-Gwon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 49~56
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.049
This paper numerically examines, straight and twisted electrical heat trace installations for their anti-freezing effects on water inside a pipe. The unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with an energy equation were solved to compare the two installation methods. The heat conduction of the pipe with a heat source interacts with the natural convection of the water, and the conjugate heat transfer was considered using a commercial code (ANSYS-FLUENT) based on a SIMPLE-type algorithm. Numerical experiments, were done to investigate the isotherms and the vector fields in the water region to extract the evolutions of the minimum and maximum temperatures of the water inside the pipe. There was no substantial difference in the anti-freezing effects between the straight and twisted. Therefore, the straight installation is recommended after considering the damage and short circuit behavior of the electrical heat trace.
The Vulnerability Assessment Forest Fire in Jeju to Climate Change using the VESTAP
Lim, Chae-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.057
This study evaluated the risk of forest fires due to climate change in Jeju using the VESTAP. The study primarily aimed at assessing the risks posed to Jeju city and Seogwipo city, and uses actual and projected date from the period of 2000's to 2040's based on RCP 8.5 scenario. Forest fire vulnerability throughout Jeju-do was determined through the standardization of vulnerability index. The highest vulnerability was determined for the towns of Chuja-myeon, Udo-myeon, two downtown areas in Jeju city, Daejeong-eup, and five downtown areas in Seogwipo city, respectively.
The Influence of Wind Conditions on the Performance of Smoke Ventilation in High-rise Building Fires
Kim, Beom-Gyu ; Yim, Chae-Hyun ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.063
This study examined the effects of the wind conditions, such as wind velocity and wind directions, on the performance of the mechanical smoke exhaust systems for high-rise building fires. A scaled model design and CFD simulations were used to verify the effects both quantitatively and qualitatively. The results showed that the smoke exhaust velocity of the mechanical exhaust system can be reduced by up to 17% at a wind velocity of 5 m/s (equivalent to an outdoor wind speed of 16 m/s) and a wind direction of
. In addition, the angle of the outdoor wind direction below
had a significantly influence on the smoke exhaust flow rate and reduced exhaust performance of the smoke exhaust system in a fire.
Development of U-Building Fire Safety Management System
Kim, Jong-Hoon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 74~80
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.074
Ubiquitous computer technology (U technology) is continually, and the trend is moving towards the miniaturization of devices, cost reduction, performance enhancement, and intelligence. It is important to improve fire safety system by the application of advanced IT technologies. In this study, a vulnerable point in fire safety was selected for improvement by U technology. The structure of the whole system and a unit system was were designed. This system is divided into 5 parts: the U-fire protection facility management system, the U-fire safety information system, the U-fire safety education system, the U-fire response system, and the U-wide area fire safety management system. The prototype system was constructed in a real building to confirm the applicability of the system.
Evaluation Index System for Disaster Prevention Signs in Urban Shelters in China
Song, Chen ; Zhang, Jingxing ; Kim, Tae-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 81~85
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.081
Reasonable disaster prevention signs play an important role in guiding evacuation. Through the field investigation on disaster prevention signs in shelters and surrounding areas in Beijing, some problems were found in the using of sign system. Based on the principle of integrated design, evacuation and rescue requirements, it is necesssary to make further study on aspects such as, design of function, systematic consideration, humanization design, as well as the internationalization using. This paper presents an evaluation index system for disaster prevention signs. Such a system is very important for strengthening the independent guiding function of sign systems and improving evacuation efficiency. An effective connection could be realized between the internal environment of buildings, evacuation routes, and emergencey shelters.
Study for the Method to Secure the Safety of Fire-fighters in the Building Damaged by a Fire by Using Fire-resistant Design Theories - Mainly about Suggesting the Process and the Method for a Real-time Safety Evaluation by a Fire-fighter -
Kwon, Yeongbae ; Kwon, In-Kyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 86~95
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.086
Weight-bearing building materials are substantially weakened under high temperatures, and this is evident through the collapse of structures once engulfed by fire. Currently, there is no scientific or technological process of evaluating the real-time structural stability of a building whcih is engulfed by flame. There are many building design specifications which aim to reduce the risk of fire, but little consideration given to fire officer safety while operating in a dangerous building. This paper aims to provide direction within building policy in order to ensure the safe evacuation of fire-fighters in case of an impending building collapse. This paper suggests evaluation criteria for buildings which are damaged due to fire, autilizing current information on fire-resistant building design and a fire-resistant capacity.
A Study on the Impacting Factors Influencing on the Volunteer Firefighter's Satisfaction in Sejong City Upon their Activities as a Volunteer Firefighter
Kim, Seon Woong ; Lee, Wonjoo ; Lee, Chang-Seop ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 96~103
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.096
The purpose of this paper is to study effects of participation motivations, relationships, and compensation on a satisfaction in activity of volunteer firefighter. For this purpose, we surveyed 106 volunteer firefighter worked in Sejong city. The survey data was analyzed the reliability in questionnaire design by SPSS 20.0 win program. Also, the interrelationship of each factors were confirmed by analysis of frequency, percentage and regression analysis. Furthermore, the regression analysis was performed in order to investigate effects of motivations, interpersonal relationships, and compensation on a satisfaction in activity of volunteer firefighter. A factor of motivations, interpersonal relationships, and compensation was found to be a positive influence on a satisfaction in activity of volunteer firefighter under significance probability of < 0.05. The overall satisfaction was influenced in order of motivations, compensation, interpersonal relationships. This paper is expected to serve as a basis for the efficient operation of the Korean Volunteer Fire Department.
Fire-fighting Pump Approval Standard for Fire-fighting Trucks with an Additional Positive Displacement Pump
Han, Yong-Taek ; Sung, Ki-Chan ; Min, Se-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 104~110
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.104
Positive displacement pumps with high pressure and water capacity are used large fires in various high-rise buildings. This study provides information for a performance approval standard of fire pumps for fire trucks based on centrifugal pump standards enacted in 2012. An experiment was conducted with a positive displacement pump for three levels of performance from the approval standard (V-1, 2, and 3). The efficiency of the pump was included in the reference, which requires the approval of 65% performance, the same as a centrifugal pump. The water pressure is between 1.5 and 2.5 MPa, and the required flow rate was established as at least
and up to
. A relief valve was added to adjust the shut-off pressure due to the structural characteristics of the positive displacement pump. A strainer was also installed to prevent damage to the inside of the pump due to foreign matter. However, the strainer includes a difference from the positive displacement pump to operate without a vacuum pump and the centrifugal pump. This is due to the additional approval standard portion of the positive displacement pump, which is expected to be selected for more variety of fire-fighting equipment and proactive responses to fire suppression in a high-rise buildings and large fires. In conclusion, this approval standard was enacted in January 2016.
Policy Direction for Fire Products Life Expectancy Legislation
Baek, Chang Sun ; Park, In-Seon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.111
This study is intended to provide legislative direction for fire products life expectancy. Domestic and international laws relating to fire products life expectancy have been reviewed, and the results of a Fire Safety Manager Consciousness (FSMC) survey were analyzed. The FSMC survey has been designed in order to assist with the establishment of appropriate fire safety policy. A questionnaire survey was conducted with 660 fire safety administrators from 17 municipal and provincial districts, with the intention of gaining expertise on the extension of life-span for 32 fire products. The survey also asked for candidates opinions on future policy direction. Based on the survey results and the review of policies within other nations, we have devised a set of policy issues with the intention of extending the life-span of fire-safety items. The survey result revealed that 79.3% of Fire Safety Managers (FSMs) concurred with the establishment of legislation regarding the maintenance and correct care of fire-safety products. Overall, over 30% of FSMs were in favor of regulations regarding Ddry chemical fire extinguishers (77.3%), fire detectors (44.6%), fire hoses (44.4%), gaseous agent fire extinguisher (40.6%), automatic descending life lines (36.2%), exit lights (35.9%), air respirators (35.9%), extinguishing systems for residential cooking facilities (33.9%), automatic spray-type extinguishing units (33.9%), emergency lights (31.2%), and gas leakage detectors (30.7%). Especially, among these, dry chemical fire extinguishers (60.0%), detectors (20.0%), and fire hose (18.8%) were identified as the fire products primarily in need of maintenance legislation. The general consensus is that fire products older than 10 years need to be replaced. Based on the survey results, there was general agreement that fire product life expectancy is in need of legislation. This study recommends the introduction of fire product life expectancy legislation in phases.
Design of Fire-fighting Ambulance Interior
Shin, Dong-Min ; Park, Min-Jung ; Han, Yong-Taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 121~129
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.121
Ambulances are an important element of pre-hospital emergency medical services, and also an important space for improving the work efficiency of paramedics. Paramedics use the interior environment to maximize the capabilities of the space, but ambulances need to be improved to help with the responsibilities of paramedics. A Seamless space was constructed in accordance with the placement of first-aid emergency medical equipment and drugs, and a patient room was loaded in the interior space of an ambulance. This study was to improve the treatment space of an ambulance to improve the efficiency of work by paramedics The new design provides safety and efficiency for emergency medical services through planning of interior storage suitable for the duties of paramedics and through identification and analysis of the problems in the environment.
Analysis of Ambulance Traffic Accident During Driving
Shin, Dong-min ; Yoon, Byung-gil ; Han, Yong-taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 130~137
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.130
The purpose of this study is to investigate the circumstances surrounding collisions involving ambulances with an aim to improving the safe operation of emergency services. Collisions are relatively common within paramedic emergency services. We analyzed the time, injury site, and any other specific factors of 908 collisions occurring within four cities. Within our study 29.6% of paramedics have been involved in accidents while responding to an emergency call, with the main cause of the accident being signal violation (35.7%), and is the other party's negligence (22.2%). 92.1% of these accidents occurred while the emergency lights were being operated. XX% of accidents took place in the afternoon, while xx% took place within the hours of xx:xx and xx:xx, during which time there is generally lower levels of traffic, which can cause severe brain and neck damage of 14.4% but the other part is 62.1%. (Ed note; this is not clear at all. 14.4% of collisions resulted in severe head and neck injuries, while 23.5% of collisions resulted in no injury. According to the respondents, defensive driving (xx%), observance of traffic laws (xx%), safe driving habits (xx%)to paramedics were the most critical factors in evading collision. Signal passes were identified as the most common cause of collision (70.1%). Although the majority of collisions occurred while the emergency lights were operational, the damage can cause severe damage at the time of accident occurred.
Development of Firefighting Performance Test Drills while Wearing Personal Protective Equipment
Kim, Siyeon ; Lee, Joo-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 1, 2016, Pages 138~148
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.1.138
A firefighting simulation was developed in order to assess the physical work capacity of firefighters. The simulation consisted of eight common firefighting tasks, including walking with radiant heat for 3 min while wearing full personal protective equipment (PPE). Nine professional firefighters performed the test a total of three times with a 5 min rest interval between each session. The entire series of tests took approximately 30 min to complete (
). Rectal temperatures were found to increase from
, while heart rates were found to increase from
during testing. Time to completion of the test drills and non-modified physical fitness values showed a significantly negative correlation (r = -0.728, p < 0.05). Firefighters who had longer periods of firefighting service had longer duration time and also recorded higher scores using an integrated scoring system of time to completion (TTC) and physiological strain index (PhSI). The results indicated that the determination of TTC alone can be a misrepresentation of capability, as it neglects to account for accumulated heat strain. The simulated firefighting test provided a useful insight into physical fitness level, but also the comprehensive work capacity of the firefighters when assessed based on TTC and PhSI.