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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
The Influence of the Presence of Balconies on Flame Acceleration in Multi-unit Dwellings
Kang, Youn-Gyu ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.001
We are living in the 21st century, a new era of high-technology. Due to movements in population towards certain preferred areas, caused by material and technological advancement, growth has occurredn beyond the metropolis, leading to the development of the so-calleda "megalopolis." This development has changed the culture of housing, notably the characteristics of high-rise buildings, and underground facilities (such as subways and shopping centers), and has generally enlarged the scale of the facilities. Due to the increase in the number of single-family households, - notably ones including only the nuclear family, there has been a growing overpopulation problem, with apartments and urban housing developments expanding at rates beyond institutional safety regulations. In this study, we analyze the phenomenon of fire spreading in apartment buildings through actual apartment fire case studies, including that of the MunjonPonpuri apartment building. It was found that the speed at which the fire spreads is lower in apartments without than in those with an extended balcony. Based on the findings from case studies and the test results, we propose a series of safety countermeasures and responses for apartment fires.
Toxicity Evaluation of the Combustion Products from Synthetic Wood as Internal Finish
Kim, Jong-Buk ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 7~18
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.007
This study evaluated the toxicity of the burning gas from the synthetic wood products used in housings or warehouses. The combustion products of five materials, viz. impregnated laminated board, MDF, Douglas fir plywood, core plywood, and Lauan retardant, were analyzed using SEM, FTIR and a Cone Calorimeter. For the Lauan retardant, 256,965 ppm of carbon dioxide (
) and 1,475 ppm of sulfur dioxide (
) were measured, which are 2.5 times and 3.6 times as high as their lethal concentrations of 100,000 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. For the impregnated laminated board, 1,569 ppm of nitrogen dioxide (
) was measured, which is 6 times as high as its lethal concentration of 250 ppm. For MDF, 795 ppm of ammonia (
) was measured, which is higher than its lethal concentration of 750 ppm. As a result, most internal-finishes generated toxic combustion products at levels higher than their lethal concentrations, which underlines the importance of the selection and manufacturing of internal-finish materials.
A Study on the Characteristics of an Optical Sensor Linear Fire Detection System with Miniature Model Fire Experiment
Kim, Dong-Eun ; Kim, Si-Kuk ; Lee, Young-Sin ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Lim, Woo-Sup ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 19~26
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.019
In this study, we conducted a low temperature operating test and miniature tunnel model test to study the fire detection capability and properties of an early fire detection system using an optical sensor linear detector that can be installed in harsh environments such as tunnel or utility-pipe conduits which are becoming the major and national infrastructure facilities. The test showed that the optical sensor linear detector was the only one functioned properly among five thermal detectors installed at a low temperature of
for 5 days. To study were analyzed adaptability of optical sensor linear detector in the windy tunnel, the operating properties of the optical sensor linear detector when the wind velocity was varied between 0 m/s and 1 m/s in a miniature tunnel model. The temperature change was high when the wind velocity was 0 m/s.
Fire Detection Signal Processing Method Using an Optical Fiber Linear Detector and the Development of an Optical Signal Processing Test Module
Kim, Si-Kuk ; Lee, Young-Sin ; Kim, Dong-Eun ; Lim, Woo-Sub ; Lee, Chun-Ha ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.027
This paper studies a fire detection system using an optical fiber linear detector which can minimize damage from a fire by the most adaptable even in poor environmental conditions such as a tunnel or utility-pipe conduit vulnerable to fire. Using a strand of optical fiber, temperature can be displayed in intervals of meters and a fire can be detected remotely from a distance of several kilometers. Thanks to its strengths such as high reliability and long life, it is widely applied in harsh environments in the overseas. Therefore demands are expected to grow greatly in Korea as well. However, all optical signal drive and analysis module except for the optical fiber linear detector, tend to rely on import. Firstly this study deduced the location and the method of processing signals measuring temperature by using the optical fiber linear detector in order to develop a technology for a domestic model of fire detection system. Secondly this study designed and manufactured the optical analysis test module, and then we checked its performance.
Flame Resistance Performance of Architectural Membranes Using Basalt Woven Fabric
Kim, JiHyeon ; Song, Hun ; Shin, HyeonUk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 35~42
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.035
The membrane structure provides high satisfaction with lightweight, improved workability, reduced cost, and a free shape. Thus, its applications expanding. On the other hand, in an architectural membrane that is vulnerable to fire, the development of various architectural membranes with flame resistance is in demand. Therefore, this study applied basalt woven fabric safety for flame resistance, excellent heat insulation and thermal properties on an architectural membrane. The PTFE- coated basalt woven fabric membrane was compared with a PTFE coated glass fiber membrane by DSC/TGA, strength properties, flammability, and incombustibility properties. In addition, this study confirmed the membrane applicability of basalt woven fabric and basalt-glass hybrid woven fabric through a comparison with existing architectural membranes.
A Study on the Development of a Fire Extinguishing Agent Leakage Monitoring Module and its Performance Assessment
Son, Bong-Sei ; Hong, Sung-Ho ; Go, A-Ra ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 43~48
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.043
One of the main problems with gaseous fire extinguishers is the decrease in fire suppression capability due to the leakage of the fire extinguishing agents, either naturally or caused by obsolete equipment. Therefore, in this study, a real-time detector module for monitoring pressure leakages was developed and an assessment on its performance was carried out. Currently, there are no domestic or global standards for testing pressure leakage detection systems. Therefore, similar global standards, such as ISO 7240 and FM 1421, and the domestic law on "Receiver type-approval and technical standards for product inspection" were used as a reference for assessing the performance of the newly developed module. Its basic performance was assessed by applying compressed air to the module, and, as a result, the minimum working pressure was identified as 0.3 bar. Its environmental qualification was carried out to confirm the proper functioning of the module in different climates and the module was confirmed to function properly at both high (
) and low (
Review on Fire Test Section of Fire Protection Coating for Steel Beam
Jeon, Soo-Min ; Kim, Jae-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 49~55
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.049
It is necessary to obtain a fire resistance certification in order to use Fire Protection Coating in Korea. According to the fire test standards, columns have four heating sides and beams have three. In comparison with columns which are heated four sides equally, beams have three exposed sides and one unexposed up side. So the question arises as to there were the differences between the temperature of up side and others of beams in fire test. The purpose of this study is to consider the positions of thermocouples for beams through a comparative analysis of the temperature data obtained from fire certification tests.
The Experimental Study on the Leakage of Automatic Pressure Differential·Overpressure Control Dampers by Increasing the Number of Damper Operation
Shin, Pyung-Shik ; Kim, Hak-Joong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 56~61
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.056
Recently, Since buildings are bigger and higher, the damage of human life can be increased by fire flame and smoke in fire. Smoke control system is necessary to decrease this damage. Therefore, Air supply pressurization smoke control system is applied to vestibule of escape stairway. NFSC requires pressure differential of above 40 Pa, but pressure differential is excessively overpressure in the field. It is known that the cause of this over pressure differential is much leakage of damper. Over pressure differential can bad effect to escaper by pressurizing the door. Analyze the real leakage of damper by increasing the number of dampers operation for identifying this problems. The result of testing, the leakage has difference between new dampers and increased the number of operation dampers. As the static preassure increase, the leakage difference increase. Comparison with preceding study, this result has similar linear tendency.
Analysis on the Relations of Droplet Size Distribution and Optical Depth in Water Curtain
You, Woo Jun ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 62~67
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.062
In this study, the optical depth is analyzed with the effects of droplet size distribution of the water curtain nozzle to attenuate the radiative heat transfer. The HELOS/VARIO equipment is used for the measurement of the droplet size distributions. The spray characteristics are quantified by the investigation of Deirmenjian's modified gamma distribution function. The distribution constant of the nozzle can be obtained as
. The generalized equation of the optical depth related with the droplet size distribution is introduced. These results will be applicable to the analysis of the design condition of the water curtain nozzle.
Numerical Study on the Supply and Exhaust Port Size and Fire Management Method in the Semi-transverse Ventilation System for Road Tunnel
Ryu, Ji-Oh ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Rie, Dong-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.068
In semi-transverse ventilation system applied for road tunnel, adjustment of the port opening ratio is an essential part for uniform airflow rate per unit length over the entire tunnel. However, it has not been considered decently throughout the design process and operating of the tunnel. Therefore, in this study, we developed a program for the calculation of the opening size ratio of supply or exhaust port in transverse ventilation system and carried out the research to present a management plan for the port. In supply duct system, the opening size of the port had a tendency to increase and then decrease later when it gradually becomes closer toward the bulkhead at the beginning of the duct the minimum opening degree is to appeared as 56%. In the exhaust system, port size is the smallest at the beginning of duct as 15%, has shown a tendency to increase towards the bulk head. As results of estimating the air flow rate for 300 m intervals, the exhaust flow rate in the center of tunnel appeared to be extremely low as 8.1% and 12.5% when port size is constant and is adjusted supply type. Thus, even if the normal ventilation efficiency is declines, yet it is highly recommend adjusting the port size in order to obtain a uniform flow rate at fire accidents.
Experimental Study on the Fire Behavior in Double Deck Tunnel
Park, Jin-Ouk ; Yoo, Yong-Ho ; Kim, Hwi-Seung ; Park, Byoung-Jik ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 75~80
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.075
In the wake of expanding and overpopulating urban areas, traffic congestion has been worsening increasingly, causing huge economic losses. In a bid to effectively use the space of metropolitan areas, the construction and operation of a double deck tunnel has been on the rise. On the other hand, a lower height of a double deck tunnel is expected to generate more smoke and soot in a fire than other usual tunnels. Therefore, it is undesirable to apply the standard for fire intensity or smoke generation, which were designed for existing road tunnels. A part of an effort to propose a design fire curve that is useful for double deck tunnel, is intended to obtain and analyze the fire characteristics in a double deck tunnel through a real scale fire test. The test was conducted according to the fire scenario with one passenger car and two passenger cars; the monitored fire intensity was a maximum of 2.4 MW and 3.5 MW, respectively.
A Study on the Inflow Velocity Reduction Measures in Case of Fire Great Depth Underground Double-Deck Tunnel
Yang, Yong-Won ; Moon, Jung-Joo ; Shin, Tae-Gyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 81~86
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.081
Recently, frequent traffic congestion has occurred in domestic urban roads. As a solution for downtown traffic congestion in domestic urban roads, plans for great depth underground double-deck tunnels have been made. Great depth underground double-deck tunnels that have been planned for passenger cars, has the structure of a network type; the entry of vehicles is carried out in the underground space. In these network great depth underground double-deck tunnels, the cross section and the height of the tunnel are smaller than the general road tunnel, and the smoke of a fire will propagate faster than the evacuation of tunnel passengers by the action of the traffic-ventilation and casualties are expected. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to prevent the delay system for fire smoke diffusion at the time of a fire in a domestic network great depth underground double-deck tunnel according to the area of the tunnel block during the operation of the delay system for fire smoke diffusion to analyze the effects of reducing the inflow velocity. When the area of the tunnel block was not less than 50%, the effect of reducing about 21% of the wind speed acting on the tunnel was significant. If the area is more than 50%, the diffusion rate of fire smoke was reduced by approximately 21%, which will be useful for a safe evacuation.
Performance Characteristics of Portable Resuscitator with the Change of supply Oxygen Pressure
Kim, Young-Soo ; Kim, Min-Wook ; Park, Yong-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 87~91
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.087
Recently, it has been increasing an incidence of heart diseases which is a causative factor in sudden death as Korean population structure has been changing to an aging society. There is growing needs for A portable ventilator which automatically be operated by the pressure of the supplied oxygen and has been spread worldwide. So, we would like to present test methods in accordance with the performance requirements which are important for components of a respirator and a portable ventilator itself. And also would like to find the most suitable condition of internal pressure reduction for the performance requirements according to the changing conditions of internal pressure reduction setting of a portable ventilator.
Estimation of Chemical Flame Height based on Fuel Consumption in a Fire Field Model
Kim, Sung-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 92~97
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.092
The present study has been conducted to estimate the chemical flame height based on fuel consumption in fire field model. The calculation algorithms based on cumulative fraction of HRRPUL and fuel concentration along the z axis were applied to the results predicted by Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) version 6.3.2 and the mean chemical flame height was obtained by time averaging of instantaneous flame height with the algorithms. The mean flame height calculated by fuel concentration was quite well matched with that of cumulative value of HRRPUL within 10% over-prediction. This study contribute to a more detailed understanding of fire behavior and quantitative evaluation of flame height in the computational fire model.
A Field Survey of Rack-Type Warehouse for Commodity Classification System in Korea
Kim, Woon-Hyung ; Lee, Young-Jae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 98~105
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.098
A fire risk assessment in rack-type warehouse is typically determined based on the following factors: 1. flammability and fire loads for storage of goods, packing materials, and pallet, 2. a ceiling height of warehouse indoor spaces, and 3. height, arrangement, and spacing for storage racks. For appropriately extinguishing and protecting the fire in warehouses, therefore, it is necessary to classify combustibles considering the previously mentioned factors and to develop design Standards for sprinkler system. As the first step to apply automatic sprinkler system to domestic warehouses, this study investigated characteristics for commodity distribution and warehouse configuration using 28 warehouses in five distribution complexes located in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. In addition, this study analyzed Standards for commodity distribution adopted in USA, Europe, and Japan. Using the field survey analysis, this study was aimed to provide baseline data to prepare for Commodity Classification Standard for warehouses in South Korea.
A Study on Development of Shutoff Operating System of Ultra-High Pressure Positive Displacement Pump
Min, Se-Hong ; Kim, Ho-Chul ; Sung, Gi-Chan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 106~113
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.106
Ultra-high pressure positive displacement pump can discharge high pressure water with mass volume, which depends on periodic changes in volume that made by rotation motor. Its high efficiency of discharge is one of the most strong point of positive displacement pump. Due to its simple system structure, it can be miniaturized and lightened. Positive displacement pump can discharge high pressure with stable flow rate, irrespective of pressure fluctuate. This is the reason that positive displacement pump was used instead of centrifugal pump. In this study, shutoff operating system was developed for positive displacement pump to secure safety of high pressure operate. This shutoff system contains controller system, electronic clutch, and relief valve, and each part is mutual supplementation. Speed test was carried out in order to check operation of controller program and electronic clutch and fluid flow, venting experiment of the relief valve. It was confirmed that segment system of ultra-high pressure positive displacement pump is operated.
Study on the Explosion and Fire Risks of Lithium Batteries Due to High Temperature and Short Circuit Current
Sim, Sang-Bo ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Kim, Si-Kuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 114~122
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.114
This study is to analyze the explosion and fire risks due to high temperature and short circuit current of Lithium batteries. This study selected the typical types of Li-polymer batteries and Li-ion batteries as the test samples. The result of explosion risk assessment due to the high temperature showed that, while a Li-polymer battery had
explosion on average, a Li-ion battery had
explosion. The measurement result of temperature increase due to short circuit current revealed that, in case that protection circuit module (PCM) was normally working, there was little of temperature increase due to over-current limitation. However, in case that PCM was out of order, the temperature of a Li-polymer battery increased up to an average of
and the temperature of a Li-ion battery increased up to an average of
, which showed the higher risks of fire and burn.
Validation of Inside Design Safety for the 119 Ambulance using a Structural Analysis
Shin, Dong-Min ; Kim, Hyung-Wook ; Han, Yong-Taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 123~132
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.123
This study is the result of performing structural analysis in accordance with the new ambulance design of inside space using the new vehicle's bodywork. 3D design works were performed based on international standards and designed ambulance. And then it was tested by a shock of 10G to the ambulance car inside with respect to the vehicle body after that we looked into the consequences. At this time, it was carried out in consideration of its own weight and the weight of components according to the EN regulation. From the result of structural analysis, the internal frame and configured handrail in a variety of pipe did not have a relatively large stress load, but internal panel and cabinets has been interpreted to receive a large stress load at least over 50 MPa. When carried out reinforcement design in accordance with this analysis, the modification of thickness and shape could be necessary. On the basis of these findings, it is also expected that there could be a useful information to produce a more secure vehicle for paramedics and patients using a ambulance inside the vehicle.
Survey of the Life Expectancy Management of Fire Products
Park, In-Seon ; Baek, Chang Sun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.133
Currently, the maintenance of fire products at the site of fire-fighting property are presumably carried out by a fireand/or self. On the other hand, of the special fire-fighting property, only 3.4% of them are the target for a comprehensive precision inspection, which is performed by fire protection management firms. Aging fire products for the rest of special fire-fighting property are absolutely beyond any inspection and reliability verification. This is also true with respect to general households. In this report, the current practice of fire products' useful life management at the site of fire-fighting property were studied. For this study, 32 items of fire products were identified. For the sample data, public institutions and 17 cities and provinces were classified into 18 groups, from which 30 sample targets for each group were determined. Of these targets 422 samples were recovered, based on which this study for establishing a useful 'Management Control System of the Fire Products and its Useful Life' was conducted.
A Survey Study on the Usage and Situation of Indoor Fire Hydrants
Lee, Wonjoo ; Lee, Chang-Seop ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 2, 2016, Pages 141~146
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.2.141
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the basic data (e.g. education experience and awareness of the installation situation, and usage of indoor fire hydrants) for the effective planning, progress and improvement of fire safety education. For this purpose, we surveyed 198 participants and an analysis of the frequency and descriptive statistics based on the survey data was carried out using SPSS 20.0 for Windows. The analysis results showed that 87.9% of the research participants live in accommodation with indoor fire hydrants installed and that, among them, 17.7%, did not know their location. 63.6% of the research participants, had received fire safety education but, among them, 31.0% had never been educated about the use of indoor fire hydrants. The main type of fire education was instructor-led training, which represented 50.0% of the participants. We believe that the results of this paper will serve as a basis for efficient adult fire safety education.