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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Fire Science and Engineering
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Fire Science and Engineering
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Numerical Study on Auto-ignition and Combustion Emissions Using Gasoline/Ethanol Surrogates
Lee, Eui Ju ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.001
More than five thousands transportation fires occurannually in Korea and the resulting destruction of property and loss of life is huge and results in traffic and environmental pollution. The recent development of automobile technology such as the hybrid concept and use of bio fuels makes fire protection even more difficult due to a lack of understanding of the new adapted system including vehicle engines. In this study, a numerical simulation was performed on a PSR (perfectly Stirred Reactor) to simulate an automobile engine and to clarify the effect of gasoline/ethanol surrogates as a fuel. The temperature, NOx and soot emissions were predicted to decrease with increasing ethanol content, but that of unburned hydrocarbons was found to increase dramatically. The result will provide not only the basic thermal characteristics for engines and their after-treatment systems, but also make it possible to assess the potential for fire events in these systems when an ethanol mixed fuel is used in gasoline vehicles.
Study of the Standard Testing Specifications for a Non-loading Performance Evaluation of Coating Material-sprayed Circular Steel Structures
Ok, Chi-Yeol ; Kim, Jae-Jun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 7~15
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.007
The cross-sectional shape factor is used worldwide to evaluate the scientific performance of fire-resistant structures. In South Korea, however, a system for applying a cross-sectional shape factor has not been arranged and circular or rectangular steel pipes are commonly used for large-scale steel frame buildings. On the other hand, coating material-spray steel beams and pillars that have received the certification of a fire-resistant structure from recognized organizations are mostly limited to a H-beam. A H-beam is granted a wide range of certifications without size limitations from a non-loading performance test with test standards based on the relevant provisions. Other types of steel pipe are to be certified for fireresistance according to shape. In this study, a cross-sectional shape factor was used to propose standard testing specifications for the application of coating material-sprayed circular and rectangular steel pipes, eventually to set the scope of certification for reasonable fire-resistant structures.
Inhibitory Effect of adding Phase Change Material (PCM) to Fire Fighter Protective Clothing on Burn Injuries
Lee, Jun Kyoung ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 16~22
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.016
Fire fighters rely on fire fighter protective clothing (FFPC) to provide adequate protection in the various hazardous environments. To enhance its protection performance, the FFPC material must be thick and thus it is difficult to achieve weight reduction. One of the methods of overcoming this problem, the addition of phase change material (PCM) to FFPC, is a new technology. In previous studies, the researches was mostly related to the temperature characteristics of the fibers incorporating PCM, but little information is available about its effect on burn injuries. Thus, in this study, the inhibitory effects of adding PCM to FFPC on second degree burns were investigated through numerical calculations. Thermal analyses of biological tissues and FFPC with embedded PCM exposed to several fire conditions causing severe tissue damage were studied by using a finite difference method based on the Pennes bio-heat equation. FFPC with embedded PCM was found to provide significantly greater protection than conventional fire fighting clothing, because the heat of absorption due to the phase change within the material is used to limit the heat conduction of the material.
A Study on the Fire Characteristics of Palletized Unit-Load Commodities on Racks
Cho, Gyu-Hwan ; Yeo, In-Hwan ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 23~30
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.023
A fire extinguishing system for a rack warehouse was recently designed, which only consider the gross area and number of stories. However, the design of such a system should take into account not only the planar structuree, but also the elevation perspectives due to its vertical structure. Moreover, the fire load of the commodities palletized on the racks should be considered, in order to design a performance-based fire safety system that is appropriate for these environmental conditions. For this reason, this study analyzed the fire characteristics of the commodities palletized on the racks (pallet + the commodities in a box unit + vinyl packing material), taking into consideration the results of a field investigation conducted in Korea, as well as the Hazard Classifications of Commodities used in other countries. Through this analysis, the heat release rate (HRR) and smoke production rate (SPR) were derived.
Fire Experiment for a Water Curtain Nozzle in a Double Glazed Curtain Wall System
Kim, Sung-Won ; Nam, Jiwoo ; Cho, Seongwook ; Ryou, Hong-Sun ; Nam, Jun-Seok ; Kim, Dong-Joon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 31~40
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.031
Recently, a curtain wall system was applied to skyscrapers to prevent fire spreading along the vertical direction due to stack effect and outside air flow when a fire breaks out in skyscraper. Conventional sprinklers cannot prevent the spread of fire to the upstairs areas, which increases the loss of life and property. In this study, a water curtain nozzle that creates wider water coverage on the surface of glass and can prevent the spread of fire to the upstairs areas was developed. The spray pattern of the water curtain nozzle was compared with that of a sprinkler to determine performance of the water curtain nozzle. A fire experiment was constructed on the second floor to verify performance of the water curtain nozzle in preventing the spread of fire to the upstairs areas. The fire and watering experiment proved that the water curtain nozzle prevented more effectively the spread of fire than the conventional sprinkler. The position of first crack and critical temperature of fracture were also analyzed using numerical analysis.
An Experimental Study on the Response Characteristics of Fire Detector for Early Stage Fire Detection in Warehouse
Hong, Sung-Ho ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 41~47
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.041
This paper presents experimental study analyzing the response characteristics for fire detector used in warehouse. In order to analyze response characteristics of fire detector fire experiment is conducted to use fire source defined by ISO. The fire experiment is carried out in fire test room of
, and fire detectors used to experiment are fixed temperature type, rate of rise type and photoelectric type detector. The fire sources are n-heptane fire for heat detector and cotton wicks for smoke detector. The fire detectors are installed by regular spacing on the ceiling and response time is measured by heat and smoke produced by burning n-heptane and cotton wicks. The result show that response characteristics of fixed temperature type and rate of rise type detector depend on the distance, and response characteristics of photoelectric detector is irregular. Considering the response time fixed temperature type detector is not adequate for early fire detection in warehouse.
A Study on Fire Risk of Apartment House with Pilotis Structure - Focused on the Fire case of Uijeongbu-si Urban Livig Homes -
Choi, Seung-Bok ; Choi, Don-Mook ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 48~54
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.048
Pilotis are support columns that lift a building above the ground. Thus, they can elevate the lowest floor to the secondfloor level and, in Korea, are used to leav a parking area below multifamily housing. However, if there is a fire in the piloti area, the cars and main entrance door are wrapped in flames. Due to the inflammability of the materials, the combustion of the cars and insulation at the ceiling of the pilotis, having a high heat release rate, can quickly destroy the front entrance of the building and spread heat, flames and a poisonous gas to the stairs and elevator pit. Therefore, the fire can quickly spread to the whole building, putting the lives of the residents in danger. This study was an in-depth accidental case study of the "Uijeongbu Fire Accident" that killed 5 residents and injured 139 others. The study identified the relationships between the fire at the piloti structure of multifamily housing and the vulnerability of this structure and its inherent weaknesses.
An Experimental Study on Piping Feasibility of PE Compound Pipe for Fire Protection Service
Park, Jeong-Hwa ; Oh, Cheon-Young ; Kwark, Ji-Heon ; Son, Bong-Sei ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.055
In this study, to determine whether it is possible to apply Polyethylene (PE) compound pipe, which was developed to solve the problem caused by the corrosion of the fire protection piping currently in usein water based fire extinguishing systems, we performed an actual mockup fire test. Since no test standard was available related to the developed compound pipe, we compared and analyzed domestic and international technical materials and test standards and selected suitable fire test standards to evaluate the performance of the PE compound pipe. we applied two fire test standards to the PE compound pipe, viz. those for CPVC and metallic pipes, and conducted a total of 6 experiments to evaluate its performance. According to the results of the first and second fire tests based on the test standard for the CPVC pipe, neither the fitting nor the piping was damaged or deformed and no leakage was observed in the pressure test, which was performed for 5 minutes. For the fire test based on the metallic pipe test standard, a total of 4 experiments were conducted. The first two experiments were conducted to simulate the wet piping system. In the results of this fire test, neither leakage nor rupture was observed from the PE compound pipe and no damage was caused, such as the secession of the PE material. However, in the next two experiments, which simulated the dry system, the PE compound pipe suffered damage and rupture, including deformation before the fire fighting water was discharged. Therefore, we found that the piping performance of the PE compound pipe did not undergo any deterioration, including fusion, deformation, or damage, in the wet piping system simulated fire test.
A Study on Contents for Safety Training of the Thermal Power Plant to be Applied by Story Viewing
Kim, Yoo-sik ; Min, Seol-hui ; Seong, Yun-hak ; Park, Yeong-jae ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 62~66
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.062
There have been happening small and big fires due to the various causes in the thermal power plants which are the high risk buildings with the high possibility of big sizes of accidents, so the people in the power plants distribute the workers "the site action manuals in thermal power plants" and try to minimize the rate of disasters like fires through the regular education and training. However, in the Five Thermal Power Plants in Korea, there are no the standard of "the site action manuals" and Furthermore, the present educational manuals are mostly the hard copies with poor readability. So the standardization of the manuals are definitely needed. Therefore, in this research, we proceed the standardization of the manuals for the five areas of the site action manual s in the thermal power plants which are oil fires, electric fires, building fires, facility fires and gas leaking reaction SOP to improve the reaction power on the disasters in the power plants which are the national significant infrastructures, thus by using the manual, we propose the safety education contents for the thermal power plants based on the visualization technology using story-viewing method to complement the hard copy type disaster manuals.
Study on the Excellent Heat Resistance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Flame Retardant
Cho, Kyeong-Rae ; Lee, Sung-Eun ; Lee, Chun-Ha ; Kim, Si-Kuk ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 67~72
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.067
The development of flame retardants aims to prevent the spread of fire and reduce the casualties caused by flammable and toxic gases generated during the combustion of building materials used in the interiors of multi-use facilities. Flame material application provides flame resistance to a silica sol in an organic-inorganic hybrid material by flame retardant adhesive or coating by producing a sol-gel method. The conventional flame retardant materials, non-flame retardant material is applied with Halogen freeway. In particular, the basic physical properties of conventional adhesive coating improves the heat resistance, enhances the durability fire and heat, and expands the halogen free flame retardant of building materials.
A Study on Required Safe Egress Time (RSET) Comparison and Error Calculation in Relation to Fire Room Range Set Conditions of Performance Based Fire Safety Designers
Baek, Sona ; Choi, Jun-Ho ; Hong, Won-Hwa ; Jung, Jong-Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 73~78
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.073
The Installation, Maintence, and Safety Control of Fire-fighting Systems Act of South Korea regulates that over 30-storey high-rise buildings including underground spaces should vitally perform the Performance-based Design to minimize property damage and personal injury as a fire risk assessment in advance. Therefore a PBD designer such as a fire safety professional engineer evaluate occupant's life safety by a scientific methodology. In order to evaluate the life safety, fire safety designers calculate the Required Safety Egress Time (RSET) which does not have the legal criteria regarding the standard method of calculation yet. So this way has been showing different results depending upon the designer's choice, knowledges and experiences. In this study, RSET calculation methods by six designers respectively were analysed from the thirteen reports of real performance based design projects conducted in Busan for a last five years. In particular, the Response Time calculation methods which have the most powerful effect for figuring the RSET are compared with the other designer's to deduce an error value.
Cable Functional Failure Time Evaluation for a Main Control Room Fire using Fire Dynamic Simulator
Lim, Heok-Soon ; Kim, In-Hwan ; Kim, Myung-Su ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 79~85
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.079
Serious electrical problems, such as shorts, ground faults, or circuits, often cause fire events in the fire proof zone of nuclear power plants. These would be directed to the loss of safe shutdown capabilities performed by safety-related systems and equipment. The fire event can be treated with the basic design principle that safety systems should maintain their functions with redundancy and independency. In the case of a cable fire in the main control room, operators cannot perform their mission properly and can misjudge the situation because of spurious operation, incorrect indication or instrument. These would deteriorate the plant capabilities of safety shutdown and result in disastrous conditions. Therefore, during a main control room fire, 5 minutes of operator action time is very important to operate the safety shutdown components. This paper describes the cable functional failure temperature criteria and conducted a cable functional failure time evaluation using Fire Dynamic Simulator to obtain the operator action time for a main control room fire.
An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Shape of a Drencher Head on the Characteristics of a Water Curtain
Lee, Seung-Chul ; Kim, Bong-Jun ; Lee, Jae-Ou ; Park, Chung-Hwa ; Hwang, Cheol-Hong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 86~93
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.086
The effects of the shape of a drencher head on the flow characteristics and radiation attenuation of a water curtain, in order to prevent a fire spread, were experimentally studied. The distance (h) between the orifice exit and deflector and the diameter of deflector (D) were varied as the shape factors of the head, with the same orifice diameter (d). It was found that an increase in h leads to an increase in the water flow rate and spray angle. However, the change in the spray angle decreases with increasing D. Increasing D brings about a subtle increase in the water flow rate and a significant decrease in the spray angle. A larger value of D makes it possible to produce a flatter pattern of the water curtain, but reduces the uniformity of the droplets inside the spray angle. The mean droplet diameter decreases significantly as the operating pressure increases. However, the variation in the shape of the drencher head does not significantly affect the change in the mean diameter at the same operating pressure. Finally, it was found that the radiation attenuation afforded by the water curtain at the same operating pressure was affected by water flow rate and droplet uniformity, which were determined by h and D, respectively.
Analysis of a Car Fire Case Deciding at Courts that a Fire Broke Out due to Manufacture Defect
Lee, Eui-Pyeong ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 94~103
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.094
This study analyzed the cause and liability of a car fire. The car was purchased 1 year ago and had traveled 8,500 km. When the car stopped at a red right and was about to start when the light turned green, the car next to it sounded itsa horn. As a result, the driver stopped the car and found that there was a fire in the engine compartment, which the fire brigade subsequently extinguished. This car fire may have been caused by an electrical spark from a screw hook inserted into the battery + terminal. Therefore, the courts decided that the car owner or driver was not responsible for the fire, because the electrical spark from the hook that caused it resulted from the automaker's manufacturing defect.
Cause Analysis in Candle Fire Investigation
Han, Dong-Hun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 104~109
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.104
Candle fires do not occur frequently, but can easily result in death. In this study, the thermal characteristics of candles and conditions and debris of candle fires were investigated to determine the causes of candle fires. The rates of decrease in weight of 10 candles were measured and found to be between 2.6 g/h and 6.7 g/h. Most candle fires are caused by the ignitiong of combustible materials close to them. The temperature near a candle ranges from about
at a distance of 1 cm and low ignition temperature materials such as papers can easily catch fire. The melting temperature of candles ranges between
and their major chemical components are fatty acids and normal hydrocarbons (over C20). Using pretreatment conditions involving the use of activated charcoal strips at
for 16 hours, the fire debris including candle residues were analyzed using a Gas-chromatograph/Mass-spectrometer (GC/MS).
Study fo the Characteristics Analysis of Laboratory Chemical Accidents
Lee, Tae-Hyung ; Lee, Deok-Jae ; Park, Joong-Don ; Shin, Chang-Hyun ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 110~116
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.110
The major aim of this study was to provide information on the chemical accidents that occurred in laboratories over the last 3 years. The total incidence of laboratory chemical accidents was 30 cases; 25 cases occurred at educational institutions. Most accidents (19 cases) occurred due to spills and leaks. The main cause of the accidents analyzed was worker carelessness (21 cases). Twenty-two accidents were related to hazardous chemical substances. In addition, general chemical substances as well as waste liquid contributed 26% to the incidents related to the laboratory. Among the 22 hazardous chemical substances involved in laboratory chemical accident, 67% of accident substances were accident preparedness substances.
Analysis of Factors Affecting Transfer Effect of Education and Training of Disaster Management - Focused on the Perceptions of Fire Officials -
Chae, Jin ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 117~123
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.117
To accomplish the purpose, the current study drew factors affecting the transfer of education and training through a review of domestic and overseas literature, and aimed to empirically investigate whether these factors actually affect the transfer of education and training of fire officers. The results showed that significant variables affecting the degree of perception on the transfer of education and training were in the order of work relationship, learning culture, peer support, self-efficacy, learning motivation, learning ability, and teaching method.
Utilization of Medical Oversight and Related Factors among Some 119 Rescue Workers
Joo, Mi Hyun ; Han, Mi Ah ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 124~132
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.124
Medical oversight (MO) means the advice and direction provided by a physician to rescue workers who provide medical care or carry patients at the scene of an emergency. The purpose of this study was to investigate the utilization of MO and related factors among some 119 rescue workers in Gwangju. A self-reported questionnaire was completed by 153 rescue workers in these 119 safety centers. The data were analyzed by SAS version 9.3. Overall 82.4% of the subjects utilized MO during the past month. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the married subjects (OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.22~12.27), level 1 emergency medical technicians (OR = 2.87, 95% CI = 1.02~8.09), and subjects who treated cardiovascular emergency patients (OR = 9.19, 95% CI = 1.87~45.08) had significantly higher odds ratios for the utilization of MO. The experience of MO accounted for 82%. The development of strategies and education plans taking these results into consideration will help to improve the utilization of MO.
Muscuoloskeletal Disorders of Korean Fire Fighters: Applicants for Public Worker's Compensation from 2011 to 2013
Yoon, Jangwhon ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 133~137
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.133
The aims of this study were to analyze the Korean fire fighters' applications for the public worker's compensation between 2011 and 2013 and to suggest a feasible solution for prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The Korean Ministry of Public Safety and Security provided the complete list of fire fighters' application from January 2011 to December 2013. 510 applicants with chief complaint of musculoskeletal disorders were screened out of all 1596 applicants. Male applicants were 92%. Fire fighters in their early 40's applied most frequently, followed by those in early 30's. Musculoskeletal disorders of fire fighters were reported most frequently in May and June. Regionally, Seoul had most applicants and Jeonbuk showed the highest prevalence. Low back was the most frequently reported body part followed by the knee. Ligament was insured most frequently followed by vertebral disc and bone. The fire fighter's injury occurred while fire extinguish (38.3%), emergency medical service (37.7%), rescue (12.4%), and other duties. Result of this study suggests further investigation on the large variation in regional prevalence and on the injury mechanism of musculoskeletal disorders especially during the fire extinguish and emergency medical service.
A Research on the Korean Ambulance Color Design and Trend Analysis
Park, Min-Jung ; Kim, Hyung-wook ; Jung, Jae-Han ; Han, Yong-Taek ;
Fire Science and Engineering, volume 30, issue 3, 2016, Pages 138~147
DOI : 10.7731/KIFSE.2016.30.3.138
As services for citizens' security and protection offered at the national and social levels become more widely recognized across society, the more frequent use of ambulances by patients with both minor and major injuries is being observed. However, the number of safety accidents during transport by ambulances, which are responsible for the prompt transport of patients, has been rising in tandem with the increase in their use. This is due not only to their inconspicuousness both on the road and in other environments where these vehicles are exposed, but also to the high chance of secondary accidents, putting the lives of both patients and emergency responders at risk. It is important to study and develop designs that guarantee protection against safety accidents, noting that ambulances are completely exposed and unprotected on the road on cloudy days and at night-time. In addition, by identifying colors and design motives that enhance the conspicuity of ambulances from a distance and increase their security, emergency responders and patients can be safely protected, the identity of the ambulances can be reinforced and modernized, and the sense oppression which can be visually imposed on patients in a psychologically unstable condition can be eased. Against this backdrop, this study presents the process involved in deriving the exteriors of ambulances in Korea, including their colors and patterns, by examining the established global best practices and identifying the need for more studies into colors, even unconventional ones, that improve their safety.