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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
Selecting the target year
An Optimal Framework of Video Adaptation and Its Application to Rate Adaptation Transcoding
Kim, Jae-Gon ; Wang, Yong ; Chang, Shih-Fu ; Kim, Hyung-Myung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 341~341
The adaptation of video according to the heterogeneous and dynamic resource constraints on networks and devices, as well as on user preferences, is a promising approach for universal access and consumption of video content. For optimal adaptation that satisfies the constraints while maximizing the utility that results from the adapted video, it is necessary to devise a systematic way of selecting an appropriate adaptation operation among multiple feasible choices. This paper presents a general conceptual framework that allows the formulation of various adaptations as constrained optimization problems by modeling the relations among feasible adaptation operations, constraints, and utilities. In particular, we present the feasibility of the framework by applying it to a use case of rate adaptation of MPEG-4 video with an explicit modeling of adaptation employing a combination of frame dropping and discrete cosine transform coefficient dropping, constraint, utility, and their mapping relations. Furthermore, we provide a description tool that describes the adaptation-constraint-utility relations as a functional form referred to as a utility function, which has been accepted as a part of the terminal and network quality of service tool in MPEG-21 Digital Item Adaptation (DIA).
Physical Topology Discovery for Metro Ethernet Networks
Son, Myung-Hee ; Joo, Bheom-Soon ; Kim, Byung-Chul ; Lee, Jae-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 355~355
Automatic discovery of physical topology plays a crucial role in enhancing the manageability of modern metro Ethernet networks. Despite the importance of the problem, earlier research and commercial network management tools have typically concentrated on either discovering logical topology, or proprietary solutions targeting specific product families. Recent works have demonstrated that network topology can be determined using the standard simple network management protocol (SNMP) management information base (MIB), but these algorithms depend on address forwarding table (AFT) entries and can find only spanning tree paths in an Ethernet mesh network. A previous work by Breibart et al. requires that AFT entries be complete; however, that can be a risky assumption in a realistic Ethernet mesh network. In this paper, we have proposed a new physical topology discovery algorithm which works without complete knowledge of AFT entries. Our algorithm can discover a complete physical topology including inactive interfaces eliminated by the spanning tree protocol in metro Ethernet networks. The effectiveness of the algorithm is demonstrated by implementation.
Quantitative Evaluations on the Query Modeling and System Integrating Cost of SQL/MDR
Jeong, Dong-Won ; Kim, Young-Gab ; In, Hoh-Peter ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 367~367
SQL/MDR is a metadata registry query language used to consistently exchange and share the data between distributed metadata registries. It is an extension of the international SQL and is familiar to most database builders and administrators. It provides many advantages such as simplicity of query language, ease of use, an independent description for distributed querying, low cost for adding new systems, simplicity of exchanging mechanism, and so on. The goal of this paper is to evaluate and show its merits quantitatively. To achieve this goal, we define simulation models to compare with an existing approach and then describe the evaluation results. In the quantitative evaluation results, the good points of SQL/MDR can be identified and known.
Near-Infrared Light Propagation in an Adult Head Model with Refractive Index Mismatch
Kim, Seung-Hwan ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 377~377
We investigate near-infrared light (NIR) propagation in a model of an adult head using an extensive Monte Carlo (MC) simulation. The adult head model is a four-layered slab which consists of a surface layer, a cerebrospinal fluid layer, a gray-matter layer, and a white-matter layer. We study the effects of a refractive index mismatch on the model, calculating the intensity of detected light, mean flight time, and partial mean flight time of each layer for various refractive indices of the cerebrospinal fluid layer as functions of source-detector spacing. The Monte Carlo simulation shows that the refractive index mismatch presents very rich results including rapidly decaying intensity of detected light and a peak and cross-over in the partial mean flight time with source-detector spacing. We also investigate spatial sensitivity profiles at various source-detector spacings, discussing the index mismatch effect on the model.
2D Image Construction from Low Resolution Response of a New Non-invasive Measurement for Medical Application
Hieda, Ichiro ; Nam, Ki-Chang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 385~385
This paper presents an application of digital signal processing to data acquired by the radio imaging method (RIM) that was adopted to measure moisture distribution inside the human body. RIM was originally developed for the mining industry; we are applying the method to a biomedical measurement because of its simplicity, economy, and safety. When a two-dimensional image was constructed from the measured data, the method provided insufficient resolution because the wavelength of the measurement medium, a weak electromagnetic wave in a VHF band, was longer than human tissues. We built and measured a phantom, a model simulating the human body, consisting of two water tanks representing large internal organs. A digital equalizer was applied to the measured values as a weight function, and images were reconstructed that corresponded to the original shape of the two water tanks. As a result, a two-dimensional image containing two individual peaks corresponding to the original two small water tanks was constructed. The result suggests the method was applicable to biomedical measurement by the assistance of digital signal processing. This technique may be applicable to home-based medical care and other situations in which safety, simplicity, and economy are important.
Efficiency Tests Results and New Perspectives for Secure Telecommand Authentication in Space Missions: Case-Study of the European Space Agency
Chiaraluce, Franco ; Gambi, Ennio ; Spinsante, Susanna ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 394~394
We discuss some typical procedures to measure the efficiency of telecommand authentication systems in space missions. As a case-study, the Packet Telecommand Standard used by the European Space Agency is considered. It is shown that, although acceptable under well consolidated evaluation suites, the standard presents some flaws particularly in regard to the randomness level of the pre-signature. For this reason, some possible changes are proposed and evaluated that should be able to improve performance, even reducing the on-board elaboration time.
Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films Grown on Polyethersulphone (PES) Substrates by Pulsed-Laser Deposition for Use in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Kim, Kyung-Hyun ; Park, Nae-Man ; Kim, Tae-Youb ; Cho, Kwan-Sik ; Sung, Gun-Yong ; Lee, Jeong-Ik ; Chu, Hye-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 405~405
High quality indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were grown by pulse laser deposition (PLD) on flexible polyethersulphone (PES) substrates. The electrical, optical, and surface morphological properties of these films were examined as a function of substrate temperature and oxygen pressure. ITO thin films, deposited by PLD on a PES substrate at room temperature and an oxygen pressure of 15 mTorr, have a low electrical resistivity of
and a high optical transmittance of 84 % in the visible range. They were used as the anode in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). The maximum electro luminescence (EL) and current density at 100
, respectively, and the external quantum efficiency of the OLEDs was found to be 2.0 %.
Selenide Glass Optical Fiber Doped with
for U-Band Optical Amplifier
Chung, Woon-Jin ; Seo, Hong-Seok ; Park, Bong-Je ; Ahn, Joon-Tae ; Choi, Yong-Gyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 411~411
selenide glass optical fiber, which guarantees single-mode propagation of above at least 1310 nm, has been successfully fabricated using a Ge-Ga-Sb-Se glass system. Thermal properties such as glass transition temperature and viscosity of the glasses have been analyzed to find optimum conditions for fiber drawing. Attenuation loss incorporating the effects of an electronic band gap transition, Rayleigh scattering, and multiphonon absorption has also been theoretically estimated for the Ge-Ga-Sb-Se fiber. A conventional double crucible technique has been applied to fabricate the selenide fiber. The background loss of the fiber was estimated to be approximately 0.64 dB/m at 1650 nm, which can be considered fairly good. When excited at approximately 1470 nm,
selenide fiber resulted in amplified spontaneous emission and saturation behavior with increasing pump power in a U-band wavelength range of 1625 to 1675 nm.
A Calibration Technique for a Redundant IMU Containing Low-Grade Inertial Sensors
Cho, Seong-Yun ; Park, Chan-Gook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 418~418
A calibration technique for a redundant inertial measurement unit (IMU) containing low-grade inertial sensors is proposed. In order to calibrate a redundant IMU that can detect and isolate faulty sensors, the fundamental coordinate frames in the IMU are defined and the IMU error is modeled based on the frames. Equations to estimate the error coefficients of the redundant IMU are formulated, and a test sequence using a 2-axis turntable is also presented. Finally, a redundant IMU with cone configuration is implemented using low-grade inertial sensors, and the performance of the proposed technique is verified experimentally.
A Novel Grounded Inductor Realization Using a Minimum Number of Active and Passive Components
Yuce, Erkan ; Minaei, shahram ; Cicekoglu, Oguzhan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 427~427
In this study, we present a new topology for realizing a grounded inductor employing only a single current conveyor, called a negative-type modified inverting second-generation current conveyor (MICCII-), and a minimum number of passive components, two resistors, and one capacitor. The non-ideality effects of the MICCII- on a simulated inductor are investigated. To demonstrate the performance of the presented inductance simulator, we use it to construct a third order Butterworth high-pass filter and a parallel resonant circuit. Simulation results are given to confirm the theoretical analysis.
Silicon Micro-probe Card Using Porous Silicon Micromachining Technology
Kim, Young-Min ; Yoon, Ho-Cheol ; Lee, Jong-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 433~433
We present a new type of silicon micro-probe card using a three-dimensional probe beam of the cantilever type. It was fabricated using KOH and dry etching, a porous silicon micromachining technique, and an Au electroplating process. The cantilever-type probe beam had a thickness of
, and a width of
and a length of
. The probe beam for pad contact was formed by the thermal expansion coefficient difference between the films. The maximum height of the curled probe beam was
, and an annealing process was performed for 20 min at
. The contact resistance of the newly fabricated probe card was less than
, and its lifetime was more than 20,000 turns.
Strained-SiGe Complementary MOSFETs Adopting Different Thicknesses of Silicon Cap Layers for Low Power and High Performance Applications
Mheen, Bong-Ki ; Song, Young-Joo ; Kang, Jin-Young ; Hong, Song-Cheol ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 439~439
We introduce a strained-SiGe technology adopting different thicknesses of Si cap layers towards low power and high performance CMOS applications. By simply adopting 3 and 7 nm thick Si-cap layers in n-channel and p-channel MOSFETs, respectively, the transconductances and driving currents of both devices were enhanced by 7 to 37% and 6 to 72%. These improvements seemed responsible for the formation of a lightly doped retrograde high-electron-mobility Si surface channel in nMOSFETs and a compressively strained high-hole-mobility
buried channel in pMOSFETs. In addition, the nMOSFET exhibited greatly reduced subthreshold swing values (that is, reduced standby power consumption), and the pMOSFET revealed greatly suppressed 1/f noise and gate-leakage levels. Unlike the conventional strained-Si CMOS employing a relatively thick (typically > 2
relaxed buffer layer, the strained-SiGe CMOS with a very thin (20 nm)
layer in this study showed a negligible self-heating problem. Consequently, the proposed strained-SiGe CMOS design structure should be a good candidate for low power and high performance digital/analog applications.
Femtosecond Laser Application to PLC Optical Devices and Packaging
Sohn, Ik-Bu ; Lee, Man-Seop ; Lee, Sang-Man ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 446~446
Using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses, we produce an optical waveguide and devices in transparent materials. This technique has the potential to generate not only channel waveguides, but also three-dimensional optical devices. In this paper, an optical splitter and U-grooves, which are used for fiber alignment, are simultaneously fabricated in a fused silica glass using near-IR femtosecond laser pulses. The fiber- aligned optical splitter has a low insertion loss, less than 4 dB, including an intrinsic splitting loss of 3 dB and excess loss due to the passive alignment of a single-mode fiber. Finally, we present an output field pattern, demonstrating that the splitting ratio of the optical splitter becomes approximately 1:1.
Radiation Effects on the Power MOSFET for Space Applications
Lho, Young-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Yup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 449~449
The electrical characteristics of solid state devices such as the bipolar junction transistor (BJT), metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET), and other active devices are altered by impinging photon radiation and temperature in the space environment. In this paper, the threshold voltage, the breakdown voltage, and the on-resistance for two kinds of MOSFETs (200 V and 100 V of
) are tested for
and compared with the electrical specifications under the pre- and post-irradiation low dose rates of 4.97 and 9.55 rad/s as well as at a maximum total dose of 30 krad. In our experiment, the
facility using a low dose, available at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), has been applied on two commercially available International Rectifier (IR) products, IRFP250 and IRF540.
On the Degradation of a UWB System Due to a Realistic TX-RX Antenna System
Jun, Min-Sik ; Oh, Tae-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 453~453
The ultra-wideband (UWB) signal radiation process in an antenna is different from that of a narrowband signal. In this paper, we study the degradation of the desired signal component according to the antenna structure and location of a receiver in a bipolar time-hopping UWB system. And we propose a receiver structure with an adaptive template waveform generator to compensate for the degradation caused by a realistic TX-RX antenna system.
An Enhanced Location-Based Location Update Scheme in Mobile Cellular Networks
Baek, Jang-Hyun ; Seo, Jae-Young ; Lim, Seog-Ku ; Sicker, Douglas C. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 457~457
In this study, we consider a location-based location update (LU) scheme. We propose an enhanced LU (ELU) scheme that can store more cells to reduce the location update cost of the LU scheme and show that the ELU scheme always outperforms the LU scheme. Our scheme can be easily implemented in actual cellular systems.
Utterance Verification Using Search Confusion Rate and Its N-Best Approach
Kim, Kyu-Hong ; Kim, Hoi-Rin ; Hahn, Min-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 461~461
Recently, a variety of confidence measures for utterance verification has been studied to improve speech recognition performance by rejecting out-of-vocabulary inputs. Most of the conventional confidence measures for utterance verification are based primarily on hypothesis testing or an approximated posterior probability, and their performances depend on the robustness of an alternative hypothesis or the prior probability. We introduce a novel confidence measure called a search confusion rate (SCR), which does not require an alternative hypothesis or the approximation of posterior probability. Our confusion-based approach shows better performance in additive noise-corrupted speech as well as in clean speech.
Cluster-Based Trust Evaluation Scheme in an Ad Hoc Network
Jin, Seung-Hun ; Park, Chan-Il ; Choi, Dae-Seon ; Chung, Kyo-Il ; Yoon, Hyun-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 465~465
This paper presents a new trust evaluation scheme in an ad hoc network. To overcome the limited information about unfamiliar nodes and to reduce the required memory space, we propose a cluster-based trust evaluation scheme, in which neighboring nodes form a cluster and select one node as a cluster head. The head issues a trust value certificate that can be referred to by its non-neighbor nodes. In this way, an evaluation of an unfamiliar node's trust can be done very efficiently and precisely. In this paper, we present a trust evaluation metric using this scheme and some operations for forming and managing a cluster. An analysis of the proposed scheme over some security problems is also presented.
A Novel Algorithm for Maintaining Packet Order in Two-Stage Switches
Zhang, Xiao Ning ; Xu, Du ; Li, Le Min ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 4, 2005, Pages 469~469
To enhance the scalability of high performance packet switches, a two-stage load-balanced switch has recently been introduced, in which each stage uses a deterministic sequence of configurations. The switch is simple to make scalable and has been proven to provide 100% throughput. However, the load-balanced switch may mis-sequence the packets. In this paper, we propose an algorithm called full frame stuff (FFS), which maintains packet order in the two-stage load-balanced switch and has excellent switching performance. This algorithm is distributed and each port can operate independently.