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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 6 - Dec 2005
Volume 27, Issue 5 - Oct 2005
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Aug 2005
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Jun 2005
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Apr 2005
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Feb 2005
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Multidomain Network Based on Programmable Networks: Security Architecture
Alarco, Bernardo ; Sedano, Marifeli ; Calderon, Maria ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 651~651
This paper proposes a generic security architecture designed for a multidomain and multiservice network based on programmable networks. The multiservice network allows users of an IP network to run programmable services using programmable nodes located in the architecture of the network. The programmable nodes execute codes to process active packets, which can carry user data and control information. The multiservice network model defined here considers the more pragmatic trends in programmable networks. In this scenario, new security risks that do not appear in traditional IP networks become visible. These new risks are as a result of the execution of code in the programmable nodes and the processing of the active packets. The proposed security architecture is based on symmetric cryptography in the critical process, combined with an efficient manner of distributing the symmetric keys. Another important contribution has been to scale the security architecture to a multidomain scenario in a single and efficient way.
Towards a Ubiquitous Robotic Companion: Design and Implementation of Ubiquitous Robotic Service Framework
Ha, Young-Guk ; Sohn, Joo-Chan ; Cho, Young-Jo ; Yoon, Hyun-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 666~666
In recent years, motivated by the emergence of ubiquitous computing technologies, a new class of networked robots, ubiquitous robots, has been introduced. The Ubiquitous Robotic Companion (URC) is our conceptual vision of ubiquitous service robots that provide users with the services they need, anytime and anywhere in ubiquitous computing environments. To realize the vision of URC, one of the essential requirements for robotic systems is to support ubiquity of services: that is, a robot service must be always available even though there are changes in the service environments. Specifically robotic systems need to be automatically interoperable with sensors and devices in current service environments, rather than statically preprogrammed for them. In this paper, the design and implementation of a semantic-based ubiquitous robotic space (SemanticURS) is presented. SemanticURS enables automated integration of networked robots into ubiquitous computing environments exploiting Semantic Web Services and AI-based planning technologies.
X-Band Phased Array Antenna Using Ferroelectric
Coplanar Waveguide Phase Shifter
Moon, Seung-Eon ; Ryu, Han-Cheol ; Kwak, Min-Hwan ; Kim, Young-Tae ; Lee, Su-Jae ; Kang, Kwang-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 677~677
A phased array antenna was fabricated using four-element ferroelectric phase shifters with a coplanar waveguide (CPW) transmission line structure based on a
structure. Epitaxial BST films were deposited on MgO (001) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. To attain the large differential phase shift and small losses for a ferroelectric CPW phase shifter, an impedance-matching-part adding technique between the effective transmission line and connecting cable was used. The return loss and insertion loss for this techniqueadapted BST CPW device were improved with respect to those for a normal BST CPW device. For an X-band phased array antenna system consisting of ferroelectric BST CPW phase shifters, power divider, dc block, patch antenna, and programmed dc power, the steering beam could be tilted by
in either direction.
DC and RF Characteristics of
Power Metamorphic HEMTs
Shim, Jae-Yeob ; Yoon, Hyung-Sup ; Kang, Dong-Min ; Hong, Ju-Yeon ; Lee, Kyung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 685~685
DC and RF characteristics of
GaAs power metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMT) have been investigated. The
MHEMT device shows a drain saturation current of 480 mA/mm, an extrinsic transconductance of 830 mS/mm, and a threshold voltage of -0.65 V. Uniformities of the threshold voltage and the maximum extrinsic transconductance across a 4-inch wafer were 8.3% and 5.1%, respectively. The obtained cut-off frequency and maximum frequency of oscillation are 141 GHz and 243 GHz, respectively. The
MHEMT device shows 33.2% power-added efficiency, an 18.1 dB power gain, and a 28.2 mW output power. A very low minimum noise figure of 0.79 dB and an associated gain of 10.56 dB at 26 GHz are obtained for the power MHEMT with an indium content of 53% in the InGaAs channel. This excellent noise characteristic is attributed to the drastic reduction of gate resistance by the T-shaped gate with a wide head and improved device performance. This power MHEMT technology can be used toward 77 GHz band applications.
VLSI Implementation of Forward Error Control Technique for ATM Networks
Padmavathi, G. ; Amutha, R. ; Srivatsa, S.K. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 691~691
In asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) networks, fixed length cells of 53 bytes are transmitted. A cell may be discarded during transmission due to buffer overflow or a detection of errors. Cell discarding seriously degrades transmission quality. The quality degradation can be reduced by employing efficient forward error control (FEC) to recover discarded cells. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of decoding equipment for FEC in ATM networks based on a single parity check (SPC) product code using very-large-scale integration (VLSI) technology. FEC allows the destination to reconstruct missing data cells by using redundant parity cells that the source adds to each block of data cells. The functionality of the design has been tested using the Model Sim 5.7cXE Simulation Package. The design has been implemented for a
matrix of data cells in a Virtex-E XCV 3200E FG1156 device. The simulation and synthesis results show that the decoding function can be completed in 81 clock cycles with an optimum clock of 56.8 MHz. A test bench was written to study the performance of the decoder, and the results are presented.
A New Directional Coupler Design with High Directivity for PCS and IMT-2000
Ji, Il-Gu ; Chong, Jong-Wha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 697~697
This paper proposes a new design of directional couplers with high directivity for personal communication services (PCS) and International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000). The directional coupler is used to check and verify the power, frequency, and antenna reflection of a signal at transmission stations for mobile communications. The performance requirements of directional couplers are a strong coupling to reduce the effect on the transmitted power and high directivity to suppress the interference of the reflected signals and reduce the errors in communication. So far, various architectures have been proposed to gain high directivity, and there have been many studies used to obtain a strong coupling. However, conventional architectures for high directivity and strong coupling have a directivity of only about 20 dB, and there have been difficulties to achieve the higher directivity of 30 dB suitable for PCS and IMT-2000. This paper proposes a new architecture of directional couplers based on a grounding composed of strip lines, and compares the test results of this directional coupler with conventional ones. The results show that the proposed directional coupler has a directivity of more than 30 dB and is adequate for PCS and IMT-2000.
Computational Technique of Volumetric Object Reconstruction in Integral Imaging by Use of Real and Virtual Image Fields
Shin, Dong-Hak ; Cho, Myung-Jin ; Park, Kyu-Chil ; Kim, Eun-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 708~708
We propose a computational reconstruction technique in large-depth integral imaging where the elemental images have information of three-dimensional objects through real and virtual image fields. In the proposed technique, we reconstruct full volume information from the elemental images through both real and virtual image fields. Here, we use uniform mappings of elemental images with the size of the lenslet regardless of the distance between the lenslet array and reconstruction image plane. To show the feasibility of the proposed reconstruction technique, we perform preliminary experiments and present experimental results.
Presentation-Oriented Key-Frames Coding Based on Fractals
Atzori, Luigi ; Giusto, Daniele D. ; Murroni, Maurizio ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 713~713
This paper focuses on the problem of key-frames coding and proposes a new promising approach based on the use of fractals. The summary, made of a set of key-frames selected from a full-length video sequence, is coded by using a 3D fractal scheme. This allows the video presentation tool to expand the video sequence in a "natural" way by using the property of the fractals to reproduce the signal at several resolutions. This feature represents an important novelty of this work with respect to the alternative approaches, which mainly focus on the compression ratio without taking into account the presentation aspect of the video summary. In devising the coding scheme, we have taken care of the computational complexity inherent in fractal coding. Accordingly, the key-frames are first wavelet transformed, and the fractal coding is then applied to each subband to reduce the search range. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
A Shared Buffer-Constrained Topology Reconfiguration Scheme in Wavelength Routed Networks
Youn, Chan-Hyun ; Song, Hye-Won ; Keum, Ji-Eun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 725~725
The reconfiguration management scheme changes a logical topology in response to changing traffic patterns in the higher layer of a network or the congestion level on the logical topology. In this paper, we formulate a reconfiguration scheme with a shared buffer-constrained cost model based on required quality-of-service (QoS) constraints, reconfiguration penalty cost, and buffer gain cost through traffic aggregation. The proposed scheme maximizes the derived expected reward-cost function as well as guarantees the required flow's QoS. Simulation results show that our reconfiguration scheme significantly outperforms the conventional one, while the required physical resources are limited.
M_CSPF: A Scalable CSPF Routing Scheme with Multiple QoS Constraints for MPLS Traffic Engineering
Hong, Daniel W. ; Hong, Choong-Seon ; Lee, Gil-Haeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 733~733
In the context of multi-protocol label switching (MPLS) traffic engineering, this paper proposes a scalable constraintbased shortest path first (CSPF) routing algorithm with multiple QoS metrics. This algorithm, called the multiple constraint-based shortest path first (M_CSPF) algorithm, provides an optimal route for setting up a label switched path (LSP) that meets bandwidth and end-to-end delay constraints. In order to maximize the LSP accommodation probability, we propose a link weight computation algorithm to assign the link weight while taking into account the future traffic load and link interference and adopting the concept of a critical link from the minimum interference routing algorithm. In addition, we propose a bounded order assignment algorithm (BOAA) that assigns the appropriate order to the node and link, taking into account the delay constraint and hop count. In particular, BOAA is designed to achieve fast LSP route computation by pruning any portion of the network topology that exceeds the end-to-end delay constraint in the process of traversing the network topology. To clarify the M_CSPF and the existing CSPF routing algorithms, this paper evaluates them from the perspectives of network resource utilization efficiency, end-to-end quality, LSP rejection probability, and LSP route computation performance under various network topologies and conditions.
Minimum Message Length and Classical Methods for Model Selection in Univariate Polynomial Regression
Viswanathan, Murlikrishna ; Yang, Young-Kyu ; WhangBo, Taeg-Keun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 747~747
The problem of selection among competing models has been a fundamental issue in statistical data analysis. Good fits to data can be misleading since they can result from properties of the model that have nothing to do with it being a close approximation to the source distribution of interest (for example, overfitting). In this study we focus on the preference among models from a family of polynomial regressors. Three decades of research has spawned a number of plausible techniques for the selection of models, namely, Akaike's Finite Prediction Error (FPE) and Information Criterion (AIC), Schwartz's criterion (SCH), Generalized Cross Validation (GCV), Wallace's Minimum Message Length (MML), Minimum Description Length (MDL), and Vapnik's Structural Risk Minimization (SRM). The fundamental similarity between all these principles is their attempt to define an appropriate balance between the complexity of models and their ability to explain the data. This paper presents an empirical study of the above principles in the context of model selection, where the models under consideration are univariate polynomials. The paper includes a detailed empirical evaluation of the model selection methods on six target functions, with varying sample sizes and added Gaussian noise. The results from the study appear to provide strong evidence in support of the MML- and SRM- based methods over the other standard approaches (FPE, AIC, SCH and GCV).
The Economic Value of Next-Generation Converged Communications and Broadcasting Services
Kang, Shin-Won ; Cho, Sang-Sup ; Lie, Han-Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 759~759
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.05.0105.0135
This research is to substantially analyze the economic value of portable Internet (WiBro), WCDMA High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), WiBro+VoIP, and WiBro+DMB regarded as the next generation of broadcasting. Based on the empirical analysis of economic values, we provide the optimal paths of converged communications and broadcasting services related to WiBro. 1,000 Internet users in the Seoul and Gyeonggi areas were surveyed in their homes. The collected survey was calculated as an accurate economic value distribution for relevant services, and the average and mean were taken using a parametric logit model, semi-parametric Spike model, and nonparametric Turnbull and Kernel estimations in order to analyze the contingent economic value of the amount offered to the subjects of the analysis. The contingent value analysis results varied slightly according to the different methodologies; however, all showed the following common features. The economic value of WiBro, Internet-based WCDMA, VoIP, and DMB with WiBro appeared to be similar. Therefore, if WiBro and WCDMA (HSDPA) form a competitive relationship, the types of bundled services offered as portable Internet service and the supply point of such bundled services are expected to emerge in a strategic plan for stimulating service markets and the prior occupation of the market.
Unified Optimal Power Allocation Strategy for MIMO Candidates in 3GPP HSDPA
Kim, Sung-Jin James ; Kim, Ho-Jin ; Lee, Kwang-Bok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 768~768
We compare the achievable throughput of time division multiple access (TDMA) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) schemes illustrated in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) MIMO technical report, versus the sum-rate capacity of space-time multiple access (STMA). These schemes have been proposed to improve the 3GPP high speed downlink packet access (HSDPA) channel by employing multiple antennas at both the base station and mobile stations. Our comparisons are performed in multi-user environments and are conducted using TDMA such as Qualcomm's High Data Rate and HSDPA, which is a simpler technique than STMA. Furthermore, we present the unified optimal power allocation strategy for HSDPA MIMO schemes by exploiting the similarity of multiple antenna systems and multi-user channel problems.
Wireless Packet Scheduling Algorithm for OFDMA System Based on Time-Utility and Channel State
Ryu, Seung-Wan ; Ryu, Byung-Han ; Seo, Hyun-Hwa ; Shin, Mu-Yong ; Park, Sei-Kwon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 777~777
In this paper, we propose an urgency- and efficiency-based wireless packet scheduling (UEPS) algorithm that is able to schedule real-time (RT) and non-real-time (NRT) traffics at the same time while supporting multiple users simultaneously at any given scheduling time instant. The UEPS algorithm is designed to support wireless downlink packet scheduling in an orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) system, which is a strong candidate as a wireless access method for the next generation of wireless communications. The UEPS algorithm uses the time-utility function as a scheduling urgency factor and the relative status of the current channel to the average channel status as an efficiency indicator of radio resource usage. The design goal of the UEPS algorithm is to maximize throughput of NRT traffics while satisfying quality-of-service (QoS) requirements of RT traffics. The simulation study shows that the UEPS algorithm is able to give better throughput performance than existing wireless packet scheduling algorithms such as proportional fair (PF) and modified-largest weighted delay first (M-LWDF), while satisfying the QoS requirements of RT traffics such as average delay and packet loss rate under various traffic loads.
Microstrip EHF Butler Matrix Design and Realization
Neron, Jean-Sebastien ; Delisle, Gilles-Y. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 788~788
This paper describes the design and realization of an extra high frequency band
microstrip Butler matrix. Operation at 36 GHz is achieved with a frequency bandwidth exceeding 400 MHz. The circuit is implemented on a bi-layer microstrip structure using conventional manufacturing processes. This planar implementation of a Butler matrix is a key component of a switched beam smart antenna with printed antenna elements integrated on-board. Conception details, simulation results, and measurements are also given for the components (hybrid couplers, cross-couplers, and vertical inter-connections) used to implement the matrix.
A Scheme for Supporting Fast Handover in Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 Networks
Jung, Hee-Young ; Kim, Eun-Ah ; Yi, Jong-Wha ; Lee, Hyeong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 798~798
This Letter proposes a scheme that supports a fast handover effectively in hierarchical mobile IPv6 networks (F-HMIPv6) by optimizing the associated data and control flows during the handover. By NS-2 simulation, we show that the proposed scheme can give better handover performance than a simple combination of existing schemes.
Inter-ONU Bandwidth Scheduling by Using Threshold Reporting and Adaptive Polling for QoS in EPONs
Yang, Yeon-Mo ; Lee, Sang-Ook ; Jung, Hae-Won ; Kim, Ki-Seon ; Ahn, Byung-Ha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 802~802
A dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) scheme, an inter -optical network unit (ONU) bandwidth scheduling, is presented to provide quality of service (QoS) to different classes of packets in Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs). This scheme, referred to as TADBA, is based on efficient threshold reporting from, and adaptive polling order rearranging of, ONUs. It has been shown that the network resources are efficiently allocated among the three traffic classes by guaranteeing the requested QoS, adaptively rearranging the polling orders, and avoiding nearly all fragmentation losses. Simulation results using an OPNET network simulator show that TADBA performs well in comparison to the available allocation scheme for the given parameters, such as packet delay and channel utilization.
Automatic Video Management System Using Face Recognition and MPEG-7 Visual Descriptors
Lee, Jae-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 806~806
The main goal of this research is automatic video analysis using a face recognition technique. In this paper, an automatic video management system is introduced with a variety of functions enabled, such as index, edit, summarize, and retrieve multimedia data. The automatic management tool utilizes MPEG-7 visual descriptors to generate a video index for creating a summary. The resulting index generates a preview of a movie, and allows non-linear access with thumbnails. In addition, the index supports the searching of shots similar to a desired one within saved video sequences. Moreover, a face recognition technique is utilized to personalbased video summarization and indexing in stored video data.
An Analytical Framework for Imperfect DS-CDMA Closed-Loop Power Control over Flat Fading
Choe, Sang-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 810~810
This letter presents an analytical framework for a performance analysis of the imperfect direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) closed-loop power control (CLPC) loop with loop delay, channel estimation error, and power control command bit error as the parameters under a Rayleigh flat fading environment. The proposed model is verified through a comparison between analytical results and simulation ones.
Fast Algorithms for Binary Dilation and Erosion Using Run-Length Encoding
Kim, Wook-Joong ; Kim, Seong-Dae ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 814~814
Fast binary dilation and erosion algorithms using run-length encoding (RLE) are proposed. RLE is an alternative way of representing a binary image using a run, which is a sequence of '1' pixels. First, we derive the run-based representation of dilation and erosion and then present the full steps of the proposed algorithms in detail.
An Efficient Type Codec for Point Data in Lightweight Applications Scene Representation (LASeR)
Joung, Ye-Sun ; Cha, Ji-Hun ; Cheong, Won-Sik ; Lim, Young-Kwon ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 27, issue 6, 2005, Pages 818~818
Recently, MPEG has opened activity to standardize scene representation for lightweight applications such as in mobile phones. The standard is named lightweight applications scene representation (LASeR) and can be applied to improve and make efficient rich media applications and services on mobile devices. In this standard, we proposed an efficient type codec for point data to maximize the bit efficiency of LASeR. In this paper, we describe the new method and the test results of the proposed scheme.