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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 28, Issue 6 - Dec 2006
Volume 28, Issue 5 - Oct 2006
Volume 28, Issue 4 - Aug 2006
Volume 28, Issue 3 - Jun 2006
Volume 28, Issue 2 - Apr 2006
Volume 28, Issue 1 - Feb 2006
Selecting the target year
An MPEG-4 Compliant Interactive Multimedia Streaming Platform Using Overlay Networks
Kim, Hyun-Cheol ; Patrikakis, Charalampos Z. ; Minogiannis, Nikos ; Karamolegkos, Pantelis N. ; Lambiris, Alex ; Kim, Kyu-Heon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 411~424
This paper presents a multimedia streaming platform for efficiently transmitting MPEG-4 content over IP networks. The platform includes an MPEG-4 compliant streaming server and client, supporting object-based representation of multimedia scenes, interactivity, and advanced encoding profiles defined by the ISO standard. For scalability purposes, we employ an application-layer multicast scheme for media transmission using overlay networks. The overlay network, governed by the central entity of the network distribution manager, is dynamically deployed according to a set of pre-defined criteria. The overlay network supports both broadcast delivery and video-on-demand content. The multimedia streaming platform is standards-compliant and utilizes widespread multimedia protocols such as MPEG-4, real-time transport protocol, real-time transport control protocol, and real-time streaming protocol. The design of the overlay network was architected with the goal of transparency to both the streaming server and the client. As a result, many commercial implementations that use industry-standard protocols can be plugged into the architecture relatively painlessly and can enjoy the benefits of the platform.
Enhanced Inter Mode Decision Based on Contextual Prediction for P-Slices in H.264/AVC Video Coding
Kim, Byung-Gyu ; Song, Suk-Kyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 425~434
We propose a fast macroblock mode prediction and decision algorithm based on contextual information for Pslices in the H.264/AVC video standard, in which the mode prediction part is composed of intra and inter modes. There are nine
modes in the intra mode prediction, and seven block types exist for the best coding gain based on rate-distortion optimization. This scheme gives rise to exhaustive computations (search) in the coding procedure. To overcome this problem, a fast inter mode prediction scheme is applied that uses contextual mode information for P-slices. We verify the performance of the proposed scheme through a comparative analysis of experimental results. The suggested mode search procedure increased more than 57% in speed compared to a full mode search and more than 20% compared to the other methods.
Piecewise Phase Recovery Algorithm Using Block Turbo Codes for Next Generation Mobile Communications
Ryoo, Sun-Heui ; Kim, Soo-Young ; Ahn, Do-Seob ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 435~443
This paper presents an efficient carrier recovery algorithm combined with a turbo-coding technique in a mobile communication system. By using a block turbo code made up of independently decodable block codes, we can efficiently recover the fast time-varying carrier phase as well as correct channel errors. Our simulation results reveal that the proposed scheme can accommodate mobiles with high speed, and at the same time can reduce the number of iterations to lock the phase.
An Efficient Selective Encryption of Fingerprint Images for Embedded Processors
Moon, Dae-Sung ; Chung, Yong-Wha ; Pan, Sung-Bum ; Moon, Ki-Young ; Chung, Kyo-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 444~452
Biometric-based authentication can provide a strong security guarantee of the identity of users. However, the security of biometric data is particularly important as any compromise of the biometric data will be permanent. In this paper, we propose a secure and efficient protocol to transmit fingerprint images from a fingerprint sensor to a client by exploiting the characteristics of the fingerprint images. Because the fingerprint sensor is computationally limited, a standard encryption algorithm may not be applied to the full fingerprint images in real-time to guarantee the integrity and confidentiality of the fingerprint images transmitted. To reduce the computational workload on the resource-constrained sensor, we apply the encryption algorithm to a nonce for integrity and to a specific bitplane of each pixel of the fingerprint image for confidentiality. Experimental results show that the integrity and confidentiality of the fingerprint images can be guaranteed without any leakage of the fingerprint ridge information and can be completed in real-time on embedded processors.
Turbo Product Codes Based on Convolutional Codes
Gazi, Orhan ; Yilmaz, Ali Ozgur ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 453~460
In this article, we introduce a new class of product codes based on convolutional codes, called convolutional product codes. The structure of product codes enables parallel decoding, which can significantly increase decoder speed in practice. The use of convolutional codes in a product code setting makes it possible to use the vast knowledge base for convolutional codes as well as their flexibility in fast parallel decoders. Just as in turbo codes, interleaving turns out to be critical for the performance of convolutional product codes. The practical decoding advantages over serially-concatenated convolutional codes are emphasized.
Collaborative Learning Agent for Promoting Group Interaction
Suh, Hee-Jeon ; Lee, Seung-Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 461~474
This project aims to design and develop a prototype for an agent that support online collaborative learning. Online collaborative learning, which has emerged as a new form of education in the knowledge-based society, is regarded as an effective method for improving practical and highly advanced problem-solving abilities. Collaborative learning involves complicated processes, such as organizing teams, setting common goals, performing tasks, and evaluating the outcome of team activities. Thus, a teacher may have difficulty promoting and evaluating the entire process of collaborative learning, and a system may need to be developed to support it. Therefore, to promote interaction among learners in the process of collaborative learning, this study designed an extensible collaborative learning agent (ECOLA) for an online learning environment.
Test Scheduling of NoC-Based SoCs Using Multiple Test Clocks
Ahn, Jin-Ho ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 475~485
Network-on-chip (NoC) is an emerging design paradigm intended to cope with future systems-on-chips (SoCs) containing numerous built-in cores. Since NoCs have some outstanding features regarding design complexity, timing, scalability, power dissipation and so on, widespread interest in this novel paradigm is likely to grow. The test strategy is a significant factor in the practicality and feasibility of NoC-based SoCs. Among the existing test issues for NoC-based SoCs, test access mechanism architecture and test scheduling particularly dominate the overall test performance. In this paper, we propose an efficient NoC-based SoC test scheduling algorithm based on a rectangle packing approach used for current SoC tests. In order to adopt the rectangle packing solution, we designed specific methods and configurations for testing NoC-based SoCs, such as test packet routing, test pattern generation, and absorption. Furthermore, we extended and improved the proposed algorithm using multiple test clocks. Experimental results using some ITC'02 benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm can reduce the overall test time by up to 55%, and 20% on average compared with previous works. In addition, the computation time of the algorithm is less than one second in most cases. Consequently, we expect the proposed scheduling algorithm to be a promising and competitive method for testing NoC-based SoCs.
Quadrature Oscillators with Grounded Capacitors and Resistors Using FDCCIIs
Horng, Jiun-Wei ; Hou, Chun-Li ; Chang, Chun-Ming ; Chou, Hung-Pin ; Lin, Chun-Ta ; Wen, Yao-Hsin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 486~494
Two current-mode and/or voltage-mode quadrature oscillator circuits each using one fully-differential second-generation current conveyor (FDCCII), two grounded capacitors, and two (or three) grounded resistors are presented. In the proposed circuits, the current-mode quadrature signals have the advantage of high-output impedance. The oscillation conditions and oscillation frequencies are orthogonally (or independently) controllable. The current-mode and voltage-mode quadrature signals can be simultaneously obtained from the second proposed circuit. The use of only grounded capacitors and resistors makes the proposed circuits ideal for integrated circuit implementation. Simulation results are also included.
New Fully-Differential CMOS Second-Generation Current Conveyer
Mahmoud, Soliman A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 495~501
This paper presents a new CMOS fully-differential second-generation current conveyor (FDCCII). The proposed FDCCII is based on a fully-differential difference transconductor as an input stage and two class AB output stages. Besides the proposed FDCCII circuit operating at a supply voltage of
, it has a total standby current of
. The applications of the FDCCII to realize a variable gain amplifier, fully-differential integrator, and fully-differential second-order bandpass filter are given. The proposed FDCII and its applications are simulated using CMOS
Class-Based Histogram Equalization for Robust Speech Recognition
Suh, Young-Joo ; Kim, Hoi-Rin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 502~505
A new class-based histogram equalization method is proposed for robust speech recognition. The proposed method aims at not only compensating the acoustic mismatch between training and test environments, but also at reducing the discrepancy between the phonetic distributions of training and test speech data. The algorithm utilizes multiple class-specific reference and test cumulative distribution functions, classifies the noisy test features into their corresponding classes, and equalizes the features by using their corresponding class-specific reference and test distributions. Experiments on the Aurora 2 database proved the effectiveness of the proposed method by reducing relative errors by 18.74%, 17.52%, and 23.45% over the conventional histogram equalization method and by 59.43%, 66.00%, and 50.50% over mel-cepstral-based features for test sets A, B, and C, respectively.
Design of a Multiband Frequency Selective Surface
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Choi, Jae-Ick ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 506~508
A frequency selective surface (FSS), whose unit cell consists of a ternary tree loop loaded with a modified tripole, is proposed to block multiple frequency bands. Target frequency bands correspond to Korean personal communication services, cellular mobile communication, and 2.4 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical bands. Through the adjustment of inter-element and inter-unit cell gaps, and adjustment of the length of elements, we present an FSS design method that makes the precise tuning of multiple resonance frequencies possible. Additionally, to verify the validity of our approach, simulation results obtained from a commercial software tool and experimental data are also presented.
Frequency-Temporal Filtering for a Robust Audio Fingerprinting Scheme in Real-Noise Environments
Park, Man-Soo ; Kim, Hoi-Rin ; Yang, Seung-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 509~512
In a real environment, sound recordings are commonly distorted by channel and background noise, and the performance of audio identification is mainly degraded by them. Recently, Philips introduced a robust and efficient audio fingerprinting scheme applying a differential (high-pass filtering) to the frequency-time sequence of the perceptual filter-bank energies. In practice, however, the robustness of the audio fingerprinting scheme is still important in a real environment. In this letter, we introduce alternatives to the frequency-temporal filtering combination for an extension method of Philips' audio fingerprinting scheme to achieve robustness to channel and background noise under the conditions of a real situation. Our experimental results show that the proposed filtering combination improves noise robustness in audio identification.
Performance of Bipolar Optical Spectral Encoding CDMA with Modified PN Codes
Chang, Sun-Hyok ; Kim, Bong-Kyu ; Park, Heuk ; Lee, Won-Kyoung ; Kim, Kwang-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 513~516
Experimental demonstration of bipolar spectral encoding code-division multiple-access with modified pseudorandom noise codes is presented. Bipolar spectral encoding is achieved with an erbium-doped fiber amplifier amplified spontaneous emission source and arrayed waveguide gratings. The bit-error rate performance of 1.25 Gbps signal transmission over 80 km single mode fiber is measured in a multiple-user environment.
On Finding the Multicast Protection Tree Considering SRLG in WDM Optical Networks
Li, Yonggang ; Jin, Yaohui ; Li, Lemin ; Li, Longjiang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 517~520
In this letter, a new sharing mechanism, SRLG sharing, is proposed, which allows the links of the same shared risk link group (SRLG) in a primary light tree to share protections in WDM optical networks. In previous studies, how to share spare resources with SRLG constraints has not been studied in multicast optical networks. In this letter, considering SRLG sharing, we propose a novel algorithm -multicast with SRLG sharing (MSS)- to establish a protection light tree. Finally, the algorithm MSS and the algorithm multicast with no SRLG sharing (MNSS) are compared through a simulation to show that our new sharing scheme of SRLG sharing is more efficient than that of no SRLG sharing in terms of spare resource utilization and blocking probability.
Improved Viewing Quality of 3-D Images in Computational Integral Imaging Reconstruction Based on Lenslet Array Model
Shin, Dong-Hak ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Eun-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 521~524
In this letter, we propose a novel computational integral imaging reconstruction technique based on a lenslet array model. The proposed technique provides improvement of viewing images by extracting multiple pixels from elemental images according to ray tracing based on the lenslet array model. To show the feasibility of the proposed technique, we analyze it according to ray optics and present the experimental results.
VLSI Implementation of H.264 Video Decoder for Mobile Multimedia Application
Park, Seong-Mo ; Lee, Mi-Young ; Kim, Seung-Chul ; Shin, Kyoung-Seon ; Kim, Ig-Kyun ; Cho, Han-Jin ; Jung, Hee-Bum ; Lee, Duk-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 525~528
In this letter, we present a design of a single chip video decoder called advanced mobile video ASIC (A-MoVa) for mobile multimedia applications. This chip uses a mixed hardware/software architecture to improve both its performance and its flexibility. We designed the chip using a partition between the hardware and software blocks, and developed the architecture of an H.264 decoder based on the system-on-a-chip (SoC) platform. This chip contains 290,000 logic gates, 670,000 memory gates, and its size is
(using 0.25 micron 4-layers metal CMOS technology).
Novel Phase Noise Reduction Method for CPW-Based Microwave Oscillator Circuit Utilizing a Compact Planar Helical Resonator
Hwang, Cheol-Gyu ; Myung, Noh-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 529~532
This letter describes a compact printed helical resonator and its application to a microwave oscillator circuit implemented in coplanar waveguide (CPW) technology. The high quality (Q)-factor and spurious-free characteristic of the resonator contribute to the phase noise reduction and the harmonic suppression of the resulting oscillator circuit, respectively. The designed resonator showed a loaded Q-factor of 180 in a chip area of only 40% of the corresponding miniaturized hairpin resonator without any spurious resonances. The fully planar oscillator incorporated with this resonator showed an additional phase noise reduction of 10.5 dB at a 1 MHz offset and a second harmonic suppression enhancement of 6 dB when compared to those of a conventional CPW oscillator without the planar helical resonator structure.
A Four-Channel Laser Array with Four 10 Gbps Monolithic EAMs Each Integrated with a DBR Laser
Sim, Jae-Sik ; Kim, Sung-Bock ; Kwon, Yong-Hwan ; Baek, Yong-Soon ; Ryu, Sang-Wan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 533~536
A distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser and a high speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM) are integrated on the basis of the selective area growth technique. The typical threshold current is 4 to 6 mA, and the side mode suppression ratio is over 40 dB with single mode operation at 1550 nm. The DBR laser exhibits 2.5 to 3.3 mW fiber output power at a laser gain current of 100 mA, and a modulator bias voltage of 0 V. The 3 dB bandwidth is 13 GHz. A 10 Gbps non-return to zero operation with 12 dB extinction ratio is obtained. A four-channel laser array with 100 GHz wavelength spacing was fabricated and its operation at the designed wavelength was confirmed.
Performance Study on ZigBee-Based Wireless Personal Area Networks for Real-Time Health Monitoring
Koh, Bernard Kai-Ping ; Kong, Peng-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 537~540
When multiple ZigBee wireless personal area networks (WPANs) are in close proximity to each other, contentions and collisions in transmissions will lead to increased packet delays. However, there is no existing study on how delay performance would be affected in a crowded real-life environment where each person walking down a busy street would be wearing a ZigBee WPAN. This letter studies the use of ZigBee WPANs in such a real-life environment for real-time heart beat monitoring. To be pragmatic, we derived a mobility pattern from the analysis of a real-life video trace. Then, we estimated the delay performance from the video trace by combining data collected from ZigBee experiments. The results show that the 300 ms packet delay requirement will not be met for only 11% of the time. When failure occurs, it will last for an average duration of 1.4 s.
An Analysis of Citation Counts of ETRI-Invented US Patents
Lee, Yong-Gil ; Lee, Jeong-Dong ; Song, Yong-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 28, issue 4, 2006, Pages 541~544
From its foundation until 2004, ETRI has registered over 1,000 US patents. This letter analyzes the characteristics of these patents and addresses the explanatory factors affecting their citation counts. For explanatory variables, research team related variables, invention specific variables, and geographical domain related variables are suggested. Zero-altered count data models are used to test the impact of independent variables. A key finding is that technological cumulativeness, the scale of invention, outputs in the electronic field, and the degree of dependence on the US technology domain positively affect the citation counts of ETRI-invented US patents. The magnitude of international presence appears to negatively affect the citation counts of ETRI-invented US patents.