Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
Algorithms for Multi-sensor and Multi-primitive Photogrammetric Triangulation
Shin, Sung-Woong ; Habib, Ayman F. ; Ghanma, Mwafag ; Kim, Chang-Jae ; Kim, Eui-Myoung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 411~420
The steady evolution of mapping technology is leading to an increasing availability of multi-sensory geo-spatial datasets, such as data acquired by single-head frame cameras, multi-head frame cameras, line cameras, and light detection and ranging systems, at a reasonable cost. The complementary nature of the data collected by these systems makes their integration to obtain a complete description of the object space. However, such integration is only possible after accurate co-registration of the collected data to a common reference frame. The registration can be carried out reliably through a triangulation procedure which considers the characteristics of the involved data. This paper introduces algorithms for a multi-primitive and multi-sensory triangulation environment, which is geared towards taking advantage of the complementary characteristics of spatial data available from the above mentioned sensors. The triangulation procedure ensures the alignment of involved data to a common reference frame. The devised methodologies are tested and proven efficient through experiments using real multi-sensory data.
A 3.1 to 5 GHz CMOS Transceiver for DS-UWB Systems
Park, Bong-Hyuk ; Lee, Kyung-Ai ; Hong, Song-Cheol ; Choi, Sang-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 421~429
This paper presents a direct-conversion CMOS transceiver for fully digital DS-UWB systems. The transceiver includes all of the radio building blocks, such as a T/R switch, a low noise amplifier, an I/Q demodulator, a low pass filter, a variable gain amplifier as a receiver, the same receiver blocks as a transmitter including a phase-locked loop (PLL), and a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). A single-ended-to-differential converter is implemented in the down-conversion mixer and a differential-to-single-ended converter is implemented in the driver amplifier stage. The chip is fabricated on a 9.0
die using standard 0.18
CMOS technology and a 64-pin MicroLead Frame package. Experimental results show the total current consumption is 143 mA including the PLL and VCO. The chip has a 3.5 dB receiver gain flatness at the 660 MHz bandwidth. These results indicate that the architecture and circuits are adaptable to the implementation of a wideband, low-power, and high-speed wireless personal area network.
A Novel Channel Estimation Scheme for OFDM/OQAM-IOTA System
Kang, Seung-Won ; Chang, Kyung-Hi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 430~436
An OFDM/offset QAM (OQAM)-IOTA system uses the isotropic orthogonal transform algorithm (IOTA) function, which has good localization properties in the time and frequency domains. This is employed instead of the guard interval used in a conventional OFDM/QAM system in order to be robust for multi-path channels. However, the conventional channel estimation scheme is not valid for an OFDM/OQAM-IOTA system due to the intrinsic inter-symbol interference of the IOTA function. In this paper, a condition is derived to reduce the intrinsic interference of the IOTA function. This condition is obtained with the proposed pilot structure used for perfect channel estimation. We also derive the preamble structure appropriate for practical channel estimation of the OFDM/OQAM-IOTA system. Simulation results show that the OFDM/OQAM-IOTA system with the proposed preamble structure performs better than the conventional OFDM system, and it has the additional advantage of an increased data transmission rate which corresponds to the guard interval retrieval.
A CMOS Frequency Synthesizer Block for MB-OFDM UWB Systems
Kim, Chang-Wan ; Choi, Sang-Sung ; Lee, Sang-Gug ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 437~444
A CMOS frequency synthesizer block for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing ultra-wideband systems is proposed. The proposed frequency synthesizer adopts a double-conversion architecture for simplicity and to mitigate spur suppression requirements for out-of-band interferers in 2.4 and 5 GHz bands. Moreover, the frequency synthesizer can consist of the fewest nonlinear components, such as divide-by-Ns and a mixer with the proposed frequency plan, leading to the generation of less spurs. To evaluate the feasibility of the proposed idea, the frequency synthesizer block is implemented in 0.18-
CMOS technology. The measured sideband suppression ratio is about 32 dBc, and the phase noise is -105 dBc/Hz at an offset of 1 MHz. The fabricated chip consumes 17.6 mA from a 1.8 V supply, and the die-area including pads is
An Efficient Adaptive Modulation Scheme for Wireless OFDM Systems
Lee, Chang-Wook ; Jeon, Gi-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 445~451
An adaptive modulation scheme is presented for multiuser orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing systems. The aim of the scheme is to minimize the total transmit power with a constraint on the transmission rate for users, assuming knowledge of the instantaneous channel gains for all users using a combined bit-loading and subcarrier allocation algorithm. The subcarrier allocation algorithm identifies the appropriate assignment of subcarriers to the users, while the bit-loading algorithm determines the number of bits given to each subcarrier. The proposed bit-loading algorithm is derived from the geometric progression of the additional transmission power required by the subcarriers and the arithmetic-geometric means inequality. This algorithm has a simple procedure and low computational complexity. A heuristic approach is also used for the subcarrier allocation algorithm, providing a trade-off between complexity and performance. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms provide comparable performance with existing algorithms with low computational cost.
External Cavity Lasers Composed of Higher Order Gratings and SLDs Integrated on PLC Platform
Shin, Jang-Uk ; Oh, Su-Hwan ; Park, Yoon-Jung ; Park, Sang-Ho ; Han, Young-Tak ; Sung, Hee-Kyung ; Oh, Kwang-Ryong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 452~456
Very compact 4-channel 200-GHz-spacing external cavity lasers (ECLs) were fabricated by hybrid integration of reflection gratings and superluminescent laser diodes on a planar lightwave circuit chip. The fifth-order gratings as reflection gratings were formed using a conventional contact-mask photo-lithography process to achieve low-cost fabrication. The lasing wavelength of the fabricated ECLs matched the ITU grid with an accuracy of
nm, and optical powers were more than 0.4 mW at the injection current of 80 mA for all channels. The ECLs showed single mode operations with more than 30 dB side lobe suppression.
An Experimental 0.8 V 256-kbit SRAM Macro with Boosted Cell Array Scheme
Chung, Yeon-Bae ; Shim, Sang-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 457~462
This work presents a low-voltage static random access memory (SRAM) technique based on a dual-boosted cell array. For each read/write cycle, the wordline and cell power node of selected SRAM cells are boosted into two different voltage levels. This technique enhances the read static noise margin to a sufficient level without an increase in cell size. It also improves the SRAM circuit speed due to an increase in the cell read-out current. A 0.18
CMOS 256-kbit SRAM macro is fabricated with the proposed technique, which demonstrates 0.8 V operation with 50 MHz while consuming 65
/MHz. It also demonstrates an 87% bit error rate reduction while operating with a 43% higher clock frequency compared with that of conventional SRAM.
A Phase-Locked Loop with Embedded Analog-to-Digital Converter for Digital Control
Cha, Soo-Ho ; Jeong, Chun-Seok ; Yoo, Chang-Sik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 463~469
A phase-locked loop (PLL) is described which is operable from 0.4 GHz to 1.2 GHz. The PLL has basically the same architecture as the conventional analog PLL except the locking information is stored as digital code. An analog-to-digital converter is embedded in the PLL, converting the analog loop filter output to digital code. Because the locking information is stored as digital code, the PLL can be turned off during power-down mode while avoiding long wake-up time. The PLL implemented in a 0.18
CMOS process occupies 0.35
active area. From a 1.8 V supply, it consumes 59 mW and 984
during the normal and power-down modes, respectively. The measured rms jitter of the output clock is 16.8 ps at 1.2 GHz.
A Versatile Universal Capacitor-Grounded Voltage-Mode Filter Using DVCCs
Chen, Hua-Pin ; Shen, Sung-Shiou ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 470~476
In this paper, a versatile three-input five-output universal capacitor-grounded voltage-mode filter is proposed. The circuit employs two differential voltage current conveyors as active elements together with two grounded capacitors and four resistors as passive elements. The proposed configuration can be used as either a single-input five-output or three-input two-output. Unlike the previously reported works, it can simultaneously realize five different generic filtering signals: lowpass, bandpass, highpass, bandreject, and allpass. It still maintains the following advantages: (i) the employment of all grounded capacitors, (ii) no need to employ inverting-type input signals, (iii) no need to impose component choice, (iv) orthogonal control of the resonance angular frequency
and the quality factor Q, and (v) low active and passive sensitivity performances.
Knowledge-Based AOP Framework for Business Rule Aspects in Business Process
Park, Chan-Kyu ; Choi, Ho-Jin ; Lee, Dan-Hyung ; Kang, Sung-Won ; Cho, Hyun-Kyu ; Sohn, Joo-Chan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 477~488
In recent years, numerous studies have identified and explored issues related to web-service-oriented business process specifications, such as business process execution language (BPEL). In particular, business rules are an important cross-cutting concern that should be distinguished from business process instances. In this paper, we present a rule-based aspect oriented programming (AOP) framework where business rule aspects contained in business processes can be effectively separated and executed. This is achieved by using a mechanism of the business rule itself at the business rule engine instead of using existing programming language-based AOP technologies. Through some illustrative examples, this work also introduces a method by which business rule aspects, separated through an external rule engine, can be represented and evaluated. We also demonstrate how they can be dynamically woven and executed by providing an implementation example which uses two open-source-based products, the Mandarax rules engine and Bexee BPEL engine.
A Time-Constrained Information Processing Model in Ubiquitous Environments
Hur, Sun ; Lee, Hyun ; Shin, Dong-Min ; Lee, Won-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 489~496
As pervasive computing is widely adopted and reliable networks are becoming more easily accessible, there is a rapidly growing need to develop a mechanism to analyze and evaluate the performance of ubiquitous environments. This paper presents an information processing model which characterizes a ubiquitous environment where a variety of pieces of information need to be exchanged among devices within a system. The proposed model not only provides analytical tools to evaluate the performance of devices, but also makes it possible to identify key factors in designing a ubiquitous environment. For illustrative purposes, a test bed is constructed and the performance of the system is assessed based on the proposed model.
Factors Influencing Strategic Use of Information Technology and Its Impact on Business Performance of SMEs
Kim, Moon-Koo ; Jee, Kyoung-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 497~506
In this paper, we study the relationship between factors influencing the strategic use of IT and business performance by conducting a survey of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs). From the results of our survey we came to several conclusions which are presented here. First, IT investment has a significant impact on the strategic use of IT, and the strategic use of IT has a significant impact on business performance. Second, SME investment in IT and strategic use of IT are influenced by both the intensity of competition in the market environment and partnership with other organizations. Third, the support from the management group in SMEs is a core factor for IT investment and strategic use of IT. Finally, for SMEs to use IT strategically and successfully, it is necessary to combine members' participation with a flexible organizational structure and culture.
Shock Graph for Representation and Modeling of Posture
Tahir, Nooritawati Md. ; Hussain, Aini ; Abdul Samad, Salina ; Husain, Hafizah ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 507~515
Skeleton transform of which the medial axis transform is the most popular has been proposed as a useful shape abstraction tool for the representation and modeling of human posture. This paper explains this proposition with a description of the areas in which skeletons could serve to enable the representation of shapes. We present algorithms for two-dimensional posture modeling using the developed simplified shock graph (SSG). The efficacy of SSG extracted feature vectors as shape descriptors are also evaluated using three different classifiers, namely, decision tree, multilayer perceptron, and support vector machine. The paper concludes with a discussion of the issues involved in using shock graphs to model and classify human postures.
A Generic Craig Form for the Two-Dimensional Gaussian Q-Function
Park, Seung-Keun ; Choi, U-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 516~517
In this letter we present a generic Craig form for the two-dimensional (2-D) Gaussian Q-function. The presented Craig form provides an alternative solution to the problems of computing probabilities involving a form of the 2-D Gaussian Q-function.
Impulse Series for UWB-Based Cognitive Radio System
Zhang, Weihua ; Shen, Hanbing ; Bai, Zhiquan ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 518~520
In this letter, we propose an impulse series for an ultra-wideband-based cognitive radio system which can utilize the spectrum dynamically by controlling the impulse positions and thus reduce the system complexity.
Non-linear Chirp UWB Ranging System with Narrowband Interference Suppression Abilities
Shen, Hanbing ; Zhang, Weihua ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 521~523
In this letter, we analyze an ultra-wideband ranging system based on non-linear chirp waveforms with the ability of narrowband interference suppression. A number of non-linear chirp waveforms are proposed and evaluated by simulation. The results verify that the proposed schemes can suppress the Narrowband interference to a certain degree.
Protecting Multicast Sessions in WDM Networks with Sparse-Splitting Constraints
Wang, Xiong ; Wang, Sheng ; Li, Lemin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 524~526
In this letter, we study the multicast protection problem in sparse-splitting wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) optical network, and propose a novel multicast protection algorithm called the shared source-leaf path-based protection (SLPP) algorithm. Unlike the proposals in previous studies, the backup paths derived by SLPP can share wavelength with the primary tree in sparse-splitting WDM networks. Simulations are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the SLPP algorithm.
Decision-Tree-Based Markov Model for Phrase Break Prediction
Kim, Sang-Hun ; Oh, Seung-Shin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 527~529
In this paper, a decision-tree-based Markov model for phrase break prediction is proposed. The model takes advantage of the non-homogeneous-features-based classification ability of decision tree and temporal break sequence modeling based on the Markov process. For this experiment, a text corpus tagged with parts-of-speech and three break strength levels is prepared and evaluated. The complex feature set, textual conditions, and prior knowledge are utilized; and chunking rules are applied to the search results. The proposed model shows an error reduction rate of about 11.6% compared to the conventional classification model.
Optimal Selection of Wavelet Coefficients for Electrocardiograph Compression
Del Mar Elena, Maria ; Quero, Jose Manuel ; Borrego, Inmaculada ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 530~532
This paper presents a simple method to implement a complete on-line portable wireless holter including an electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring, processing, and communication protocol. The proposed algorithm significantly reduces the hardware resources of threshold estimation for ECG compression, using the standard deviation updated with each new input signal sample. The new method achieves superior performance in terms of hardware complexity, channel occupation and memory requirements, while keeping the ECG quality at a clinically acceptable level.
Multi-harmonic Suppression Band-Pass Filter for Communication System
Zhang, Wenmei ; Han, Liping ; Ma, Runbo ; Mao, Junfa ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 533~535
For the purpose of decreasing intermodulation distortion, a new multi-harmonic suppression band-pass filter based on a microstrip radial stub is studied. Compared with traditional resonator filters, the new filter can suppress the second, third, and even fourth harmonics directly. The dimension of the filter is about
is the guiding wavelength at the resonant frequency). Only one gap was introduced, so lower insertion loss can be obtained. Basic agreement between the measured and simulated results has been achieved.
A Linear Power Amplifier Design Using an Analog Feedforward Method
Park, Ung-Hee ; Noh, Haeng-Sook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 536~538
We propose and describe the fabrication of a linear power amplifier (LPA) using a new analog feedforward method for the IMT-2000 frequency band (2,110-2,170 MHz). The proposed analog feedforward circuit, which operates without a pilot tone or a microprocessor, is a small and simple structure. When the output power of the fabricated LPA is about 44 dBm for a two-tone input signal in the IMT-2000 frequency band, the magnitude of the intermodulation signals is below -60 dBc and the power efficiency is about 7%. In comparison to the fabricated main amplifier, the magnitude of the third intermodulation signal decreases over 24 dB in the IMT-2000 frequency band.
A Tool Pack Mechanism for DRM Interoperability
Choi, Bum-Suk ; Byun, Young-Bae ; Nam, Je-Ho ; Hong, Jin-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 539~541
As the number of digital content service providers increases, a variety of digital rights management (DRM) systems appear without supporting interoperability. The lack of interoperability in DRM systems causes inconvenience to customers, especially when they want to play content through multiple devices manufactured by different vendors. In this letter, we propose a novel method to support interoperability between different DRM systems. The proposed technique aims to build an open framework structure which satisfies DRM vendors' requirements by enhancing the security of intellectual property management and the protection tools.
Conversion of 60-, 30-, 10-, and 5-Minute Rain Rates to 1-Minute Rates in Tropical Rain Rate Measurement
Singh, Mandeep Singh Jit ; Tanaka, Kenji ; Iida, Mitsuyoshi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 4, 2007, Pages 542~544
In this study, several methods to convert rain rate data for various time intervals to one-minute rates are compared. High-resolution tipping bucket precipitation records for seven locations in a tropical region are analyzed and compared using these conversion models. The Segal, Chebil, and Burgueno methods give the smallest average errors below 10% at different integration times.