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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 6 - Dec 2007
Volume 29, Issue 5 - Oct 2007
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Aug 2007
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Jun 2007
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Apr 2007
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Feb 2007
Selecting the target year
New BER Expression of Hierarchical M-ary Phase Shift Keying
Lee, Jae-Yoon ; Cho, Kyong-Kuk ; Yoon, Dong-Weon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 707~715
In-phase/quadrature (I/Q) imbalances, which are generated by non-ideal transceiver components, are inevitable physical phenomena that cause the performance of practical communication systems to be degraded. In this paper, we provide a new closed-form expression for the bit error rate of hierarchical M-ary phase shift keying with I/Q phase and amplitude imbalances and analyze the effect of I/Q imbalances on BER performance over an additive white Gaussian noise channel.
Improved Delay-Locked Loop in a UWB Impulse Radio Time-Hopping Spread-Spectrum System
Zhang, Weihua ; Shen, Hanbing ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 716~724
As ultra-wideband impulse radio (UWB-IR) uses short-duration impulse signals of nanoseconds, even a small number of timing errors can cause a detrimental effect on system performance. A delay-locked loop (DLL) is proposed to synchronize and reduce timing errors. The design of the DLL is vital for UWB systems. In this paper, an improved DLL is introduced to a UWB-IR time-hopping spread-spectrum system. Instead of using only two central correlator branches as in a conventional DLL, the proposed system uses two additional correlator branches with different delay parameters and different weight parameters. The performance of the proposed schemes with the optimal parameters is compared with that of traditional schemes through simulation: the proposed four-branch DLLs achieves less tracking jitter or a longer mean time to lose lock (MTLL) than the conventional two-branch DLLs if proper parameters are chosen.
Broadbanding of a Planar Antenna with Three Frequency Bands and Its Application
Matsui, Hiroyasu ; Wakabayashi, Toshio ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 725~735
This paper describes a line element planar antenna with three frequency bands. To obtain broadband characteristics, a modified planar antenna that has semi-elliptical elements based on the characteristics of a line element planar antenna is proposed and analyzed by the finite difference time domain method. Return loss characteristics are discussed as functions of the eccentricity values of semi-ellipse at each element. The broadbanding of the modified planar antenna is implemented based on the results. The planar antenna with three systems (an 800 MHz band cellular phone, a third-generation cellular phone, and a 2.4 GHz band wireless LAN system) is considered as an application example.
Fast Inter Mode Decision Algorithm Based on Macroblock Tracking in H.264/AVC Video
Kim, Byung-Gyu ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Cho, Chang-Sik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 736~744
We propose a fast macroblock (MB) mode prediction and decision algorithm based on temporal correlation for P-slices in the H.264/AVC video standard. There are eight block types for temporal decorrelation, including SKIP mode based on rate-distortion (RD) optimization. This scheme gives rise to exhaustive computations (search) in the coding procedure. To overcome this problem, a thresholding method for fast inter mode decision using a MB tracking scheme to find the most correlated block and RD cost of the correlated block is suggested for early stop of the inter mode determination. We propose a two-step inter mode candidate selection method using statistical analysis. In the first step, a mode is selected based on the mode information of the co-located MB from the previous frame. Then, an adaptive thresholding scheme is applied using the RD cost of the most correlated MB. Secondly, additional candidate modes are considered to determine the best mode of the initial candidate modes that does not satisfy the designed thresholding rule. Comparative analysis shows that a speed-up factor of up to 70.59% is obtained when compared with the full mode search method with a negligible bit increment and a minimal loss of image quality.
Realization of a Scalable and Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol for Many-to-Many Sessions
Lee, Seung-Ik ; Ko, Yang-Woo ; Lee, Dong-Man ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 745~754
In this paper, we present the Enhanced Communication Transport Protocol-Part 5 (ECTP-5), which provides scalable and reliable multicast communication service for many-to-many applications by constructing high quality recovery trees from two-layer logical trees and repairing the losses via unicast automatic repeat request-based error control. In order to realize the protocol, we developed feasible protocol architectures and building blocks including additional functions which deal with engineering details, such as membership dynamics and sender coordination. Experimental results show that ECTP-5 scales well with various session sizes and packet loss rates in terms of control overhead and recovery latency.
Design and Performance Analysis of Electronic Seal Protection Systems Based on AES
Kim, Dong-Kyue ; Lee, Mun-Kyu ; Kang, You-Sung ; Chung, Sang-Hwa ; Yoon, Won-Ju ; Min, Jung-Ki ; Kim, Ho-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 755~768
A very promising application of active RFID systems is the electronic seal, an electronic device to guarantee the authenticity and integrity of freight containers. To provide freight containers with a high level of tamper resistance, the security of electronic seals must be ensured. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of an electronic seal protection system. First, we propose the eSeal Protection Protocol (ePP). Next, we implement and evaluate various cryptographic primitives as building blocks for our protocol. Our experimental results show that AES-CBC-MAC achieves the best performance among various schemes for message authentication and session key derivation. Finally, we implement a new electronic seal system equipped with ePP, and evaluate its performance using a real-world platform. Our evaluation shows that ePP guarantees a sufficient performance over an ARM9-based interrogator.
Cyclic Vector Multiplication Algorithm Based on a Special Class of Gauss Period Normal Basis
Kato, Hidehiro ; Nogami, Yasuyuki ; Yoshida, Tomoki ; Morikawa, Yoshitaka ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 769~778
This paper proposes a multiplication algorithm for
, which can be efficiently applied to many pairs of characteristic p and extension degree m except for the case that 8p divides m(p-1). It uses a special class of type-
Gauss period normal bases. This algorithm has several advantages: it is easily parallelized; Frobenius mapping is easily carried out since its basis is a normal basis; its calculation cost is clearly given; and it is sufficiently practical and useful when parameters k and m are small.
Wideband Hybrid Fiber Amplifier Using Er-Doped Fiber and Raman Medium
Seo, Hong-Seok ; Ahn, Joon-Tae ; Park, Bong-Je ; Chung, Woon-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 779~784
In this paper, we report the experimental results of a hybrid wideband fiber amplifier. The amplifying medium is a concatenated hybrid fiber consisting of Er-doped fiber (EDF) and dispersion compensating fiber (DCF). The gain mechanisms are based on stimulated emission in the EDF and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in the DCF. Since we simultaneously use optical amplification by the two processes, the gain bandwidth is easily expanded over 105 nm by a two-tone pumping scheme. Using an experimental setup constructed with a hybrid structure of EDF-DCF-EDF, we analyzed the spectral behavior of amplified spontaneous emission for pumping powers. We achieved an optical gain of over 20 dB in the wavelength range from 1,500 to 1,600 nm under optimized pumping conditions to make the spectral gain shape flat.
Integrated Rail-to-Rail Low-Voltage Low-Power Enhanced DC-Gain Fully Differential Operational Transconductance Amplifier
Ferri, Giuseppe ; Stornelli, Vincenzo ; Celeste, Angelo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 785~793
In this paper, we present an integrated rail-to-rail fully differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) working at low-supply voltages (1.5 V) with reduced power consumption and showing high DC gain. An embedded adaptive biasing circuit makes it possible to obtain low stand-by power dissipation (lower than 0.17 mW in the rail-to-rail version), while the high DC gain (over 78 dB) is ensured by positive feedback. The circuit, fabricated in a standard CMOS integrated technology (AMS 0.35
), presents a 37 V/
slew-rate for a capacitive load of 15 pF. Experimental results and high values of two quality factors, or figures of merit, show the validity of the proposed OTA, when compared with other OTA configurations.
A Unit of Information-Based Content Adaptation Method for Improving Web Content Accessibility in the Mobile Internet
Yang, Stephen J.H. ; Zhang, Jia ; Chen, Rick C.S. ; Shao, Norman W.Y. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 794~807
In the mobile Internet, users generally work with handheld devices with limited computing power and small screens. Their access conditions also change frequently. In this paper, we present a novel method supporting intelligent content adaptation to better suit handheld devices. The underpinning is a unit of information (UOI)-based content adaptation method, which automatically detects semantic relationships among the components of Web contents and then reorganizes page layout to fit handheld devices based on identified UOIs. Experimental results demonstrate that our method enables more sensitive content adaptation.
10 Gbps Optical Signal Transmission via Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polariton Waveguide
Ju, Jung-Jin ; Kim, Min-Su ; Park, Sun-Tak ; Kim, Jin-Tae ; Park, Seung-Koo ; Lee, Myung-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 808~810
We demonstrate 10 Gbps optical signal transmission via long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) in a very thin metal strip-guided geometry. The LR-SPP waveguide was fabricated as a 14 nm thick, 2.5
wide, and 4 cm long gold strip embedded in a polymer and pigtailed with single-mode fibers. The total insertion loss of 16 dB was achieved at a wavelength of 1.55
as a carrier wave. In a 10 Gbps optical signal transmission experiment, the LR-SPP waveguide exhibits an excellent eye opening and a 2.2 dB power penalty at
bit error rate. We confirm, for the first time, that LR-SPPs can efficiently transfer data signals as well as the carrier light.
Operational Properties of Ridge Waveguide Lasers with Laterally Tapered Waveguides for Monolithic Integration
Kwon, Oh-Kee ; Kim, Ki-Soo ; Sim, Jae-Sik ; Baek, Yong-Soon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 811~813
We report on a ridge waveguide laser diode with laterally tapered waveguides fabricated in a single growing step using a double patterning method. In this structure, nearly constant output power is obtained with the change of the lower tapered waveguide width, and the facet power ratio of 1.4 to 1.5 is observed over the current range. The asymmetric facet power property is also investigated.
Novel Patterning of Gold Using Spin-Coatable Gold Electron-Beam Resist
Kim, Ki-Chul ; Lee, Im-Bok ; Kang, Dae-Joon ; Maeng, Sung-Lyul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 814~816
Conventional lithography methods of gold patterning are based on deposition and lift-off or deposition and etching. In this letter, we demonstrate a novel method of gold patterning using spin-coatable gold electron-beam resist which is functionalized gold nanocrystals with amine ligands. Amine-stabilized gold electron beam resist exhibits good sensitivity, 3.0 mC/
, compared to that of thiol-stabilized gold electron beam resists. The proposed method reduces the number of processing steps and provides greater freedom in the patterning of complex nanostructures.
Polymer Deformable Mirror for Optical Auto Focusing
Wang, Jen-Liang ; Chen, Tyng-Yow ; Liu, Chingwei ; Chiu, Chen-Wei Edward ; Su, Guo-Dung John ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 817~819
A low-stress organic polymer membrane is proposed as a deformable mirror that can be incorporated into a cellular phone camera to achieve auto focusing without motor-type moving parts. It is demonstrated that our fabricated device has an optical power of 20 diopters and can switch focus in 14 ms. The surface roughness of the organic membrane is measured around 15 nm, less than
/20 of the visible light. With curve fitting, we found that the actuated membrane is almost parabolic in shape, which leads to less aberration than spherical surfaces. It is suitable for reflective-optics systems.
Design and Implementation of Unified Hardware for 128-Bit Block Ciphers ARIA and AES
Koo, Bon-Seok ; Ryu, Gwon-Ho ; Chang, Tae-Joo ; Lee, Sang-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 820~822
ARIA and the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) are next generation standard block cipher algorithms of Korea and the US, respectively. This letter presents an area-efficient unified hardware architecture of ARIA and AES. Both algorithms have 128-bit substitution permutation network (SPN) structures, and their substitution and permutation layers could be efficiently merged. Therefore, we propose a 128-bit processor architecture with resource sharing, which is capable of processing ARIA and AES. This is the first architecture which supports both algorithms. Furthermore, it requires only 19,056 logic gates and encrypts data at 720 Mbps and 1,047 Mbps for ARIA and AES, respectively.
Accurate Prediction of Real-Time MPEG-4 Variable Bit Rate Video Traffic
Lee, Kang-Yong ; Kim, Moon-Seong ; Jang, Hee-Seon ; Cho, Kee-Seong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 823~825
In this letter, we propose a novel algorithm to predict MPEG-coded real-time variable bit rate (VBR) video traffic. From the frame size measurement, the algorithm extracts the statistical property of video traffic and utilizes it for the prediction of the next frame for I-, P-, and B- frames. The simulation results conducted with real-world MPEG-4 VBR video traces show that the proposed algorithm is capable of providing more accurate prediction than those in the research literature.
Efficient MPEG-4 to H.264/AVC Transcoding with Spatial Downscaling
Nguyen, Toan Dinh ; Lee, Guee-Sang ; Chang, June-Young ; Cho, Han-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 826~828
Efficient downscaling in a transcoder is important when the output should be converted to a lower resolution video. In this letter, we suggest an efficient algorithm for transcoding from MPEG-4 SP (with simple profile) to H.264/AVC with spatial downscaling. First, target image blocks are classified into monotonous, complex, and very complex regions for fast mode decision. Second, adaptive search ranges are applied to these image classes for fast motion estimation in an H.264/AVC encoder with predicted motion vectors. Simulation results show that our transcoder considerably reduces transcoding time while video quality is kept almost optimal.
Utilization Model for HCCA EDCA Mixed Mode in IEEE 802.11e
Kuan, Cheng ; Dimyati, Kaharudin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 829~831
This letter proposes an analytical model to characterize medium utilization in IEEE 802.11e operating in HCCA-EDCA mixed mode (HEMM). In contrast to existing works which model the backoff process in individual stations, we consider the channel occupancy pattern. Additionally, our work considers the operation of HEMM, which is not widely documented. We show that the proposed model accurately characterizes medium utilization with no more than 5% error.
Reconfigurable Ground-Slotted Patch Antenna Using PIN Diode Switching
Byun, Seung-Bok ; Lee, Jeong-An ; Lim, Jong-Hyuk ; Yun, Tae-Yeoul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 832~834
This letter presents a reconfigurable ground-slotted patch antenna using a PIN diode connection in slots to achieve dual-frequency operation. Slots in the ground plane increase the electrical length and thereby reduce antenna size by 53%. By controlling PIN diode conduction, we achieved band hopping while still satisfying the bandwidth requirements for K-PCS and WiBro bands.
Multi-bit Sigma-Delta Modulator for Low Distortion and High-Speed Operation
Kim, Yi-Gyeong ; Kwon, Jong-Kee ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 835~837
A multi-bit sigma-delta modulator architecture is described for low-distortion performance and a high-speed operation. The proposed architecture uses both a delayed code and a delayed differential code of analog-to-digital converter in the feedback path, thereby suppressing signal components in the integrators and relaxing the timing requirement of the analog-to-digital converter and the scrambler logic. Implemented by a 0.13
CMOS process, the sigma-delta modulator achieves high linearity. The measured spurious-free dynamic range is 89.1 dB for -6 dBFS input signal.
Polarization Scattering Property of Cascaded Polarization Controllers
Muga, Nelson J. ; Ferreira, Mario F. ; Pinto, Armando Nolasco ;
ETRI Journal, volume 29, issue 6, 2007, Pages 838~840
The relation between the allowed range of variation of polarization controller wave-plates angles and the respective polarization scattering properties is investigated. It is demonstrated that a nearly uniform polarization scattering over the Poincare sphere is obtained using a concatenation of three polarization controllers with angles randomly changed between
/4. It is also shown that an improvement of the scattering properties is obtained if the configuration angles are allowed to change between