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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Task Scheduling Algorithm for the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite
Lee, Soo-Jeon ; Jung, Won-Chan ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~12
In this paper, we propose an efficient single-resource task scheduling algorithm for the Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite. Among general satellite planning functions such as constraint check, priority check, and task scheduling, this paper focuses on the task scheduling algorithm, which resolves conflict among tasks which have an exclusion relation and the same priority. The goal of the proposed task scheduling algorithm is to maximize the number of tasks that can be scheduled. The rationale of the algorithm is that a discarded task can be scheduled instead of a previously selected one depending on the expected benefit acquired by doing so. The evaluation results show that the proposed algorithm enhances the number of tasks that can be scheduled considerably.
Interference and Sink Capacity of Wireless CDMA Sensor Networks with Layered Architecture
Kang, Hyun-Duk ; Hong, Heon-Jin ; Sung, Seok-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Seon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 13~20
We evaluate the sink capacity of wireless code division multiple access (CDMA) sensor networks with layered architecture. We introduce a model of interference at a sink considering two kinds of interference: multiple access interference (MAI) and node interference (NI). We also investigate the activity of sensor nodes around the sink in relation to gathering data under a layered architecture. Based on the interference model and the activity of sensor nodes around the sink, we derive the failure probability of the transmission from a source node located one hop away from the sink using Gaussian approximation. Under the requirement of 1% failure probability of transmission, we determine the sink capacity, which is defined as the maximum number of concurrent sensor nodes located one hop away from the sink. We demonstrate that as the node activity of the MAI decreases, the variation of the sink capacity due to the node activity of the NI becomes more significant. The analysis results are verified through computer simulations.
Robust Cognitive-Radio-Based OFDM Architecture with Adaptive Traffic Allocation in Time and Frequency
Kim, Nak-Myeong ; Kim, Mee-Ran ; Kim, Eun-Ju ; Shin, Su-Jung ; Yu, Hye-In ; Yun, Sang-Boh ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 21~32
Cognitive radio (CR) has been proposed as an effective technology for flexible use of the radio spectrum. The interference between primary users and CR users, however, becomes a critical problem when they are using adjacent frequency channels with different transmission power levels. In this paper, a robust CR orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) architecture, which can effectively suppress interference to nearby primary users and overcome adjacent channel interference (ACI) to the CR user, is proposed. This new approach is characterized by adaptive data repetition for subcarriers under heavy ACI, and adaptive time spreading for subcarriers near the borders of the CR user's spectrum. The data repetition scheme provides extra power gain against the ACI coming from primary users. Time spreading guarantees an acceptable interference level to nearby primary users. By computer simulation, we demonstrate that, under a CR environment, the proposed CR OFDM architecture outperforms conventional OFDM systems in terms of throughput and BER performance.
Low-Power Direct Conversion Transceiver for 915 MHz Band IEEE 802.15.4b Standard Based on 0.18
Nguyen, Trung-Kien ; Le, Viet-Hoang ; Duong, Quoc-Hoang ; Han, Seok-Kyun ; Lee, Sang-Gug ; Seong, Nak-Seon ; Kim, Nae-Soo ; Pyo, Cheol-Sig ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 33~46
This paper presents the experimental results of a low-power low-cost RF transceiver for the 915 MHz band IEEE 802.15.4b standard. Low power and low cost are achieved by optimizing the transceiver architecture and circuit design techniques. The proposed transceiver shares the analog baseband section for both receive and transmit modes to reduce the silicon area. The RF transceiver consumes 11.2 mA in receive mode and 22.5 mA in transmit mode under a supply voltage of 1.8 V, in which 5 mA of quadrature voltage controlled oscillator is included. The proposed transceiver is implemented in a 0.18
CMOS process and occupies 10
of silicon area.
Instruction-Level Power Estimator for Sensor Networks
Joe, Hyun-Woo ; Park, Jae-Bok ; Lim, Chae-Deok ; Woo, Duk-Kyun ; Kim, Hyung-Shin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 47~58
In sensor networks, analyzing power consumption before actual deployment is crucial for maximizing service lifetime. This paper proposes an instruction-level power estimator (IPEN) for sensor networks. IPEN is an accurate and fine grain power estimation tool, using an instruction-level simulator. It is independent of the operating system, so many different kinds of sensor node software can be simulated for estimation. We have developed the power model of a Micaz-compatible mote. The power consumption of the ATmega128L microcontroller is modeled with the base energy cost and the instruction overheads. The CC2420 communication component and other peripherals are modeled according to their operation states. The energy consumption estimation module profiles peripheral accesses and function calls while an application is running. IPEN has shown excellent power estimation accuracy, with less than 5% estimation error compared to real sensor network implementation. With IPEN's high precision instruction-level energy prediction, users can accurately estimate a sensor network's energy consumption and achieve fine-grained optimization of their software.
Time Synchronization Error and Calibration in Integrated GPS/INS Systems
Ding, Weidong ; Wang, Jinling ; Li, Yong ; Mumford, Peter ; Rizos, Chris ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 59~67
The necessity for the precise time synchronization of measurement data from multiple sensors is widely recognized in the field of global positioning system/inertial navigation system (GPS/INS) integration. Having precise time synchronization is critical for achieving high data fusion performance. The limitations and advantages of various time synchronization scenarios and existing solutions are investigated in this paper. A criterion for evaluating synchronization accuracy requirements is derived on the basis of a comparison of the Kalman filter innovation series and the platform dynamics. An innovative time synchronization solution using a counter and two latching registers is proposed. The proposed solution has been implemented with off-the-shelf components and tested. The resolution and accuracy analysis shows that the proposed solution can achieve a time synchronization accuracy of 0.1 ms if INS can provide a hard-wired timing signal. A synchronization accuracy of 2 ms was achieved when the test system was used to synchronize a low-grade micro-electromechanical inertial measurement unit (IMU), which has only an RS-232 data output interface.
Power Analysis Attacks and Countermeasures on
Pairing over Binary Fields
Kim, Tae-Hyun ; Takagi, Tsuyoshi ; Han, Dong-Guk ; Kim, Ho-Won ; Lim, Jong-In ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~80
Since many efficient algorithms for implementing pairings have been proposed such as
pairing and the Ate pairing, pairings could be used in constraint devices such as smart cards. However, the secure implementation of pairings has not been thoroughly investigated. In this paper, we investigate the security of
pairing over binary fields in the context of side-channel attacks. We propose efficient and secure
pairing algorithms using randomized projective coordinate systems for computing the pairing.
Optimal Internet Worm Treatment Strategy Based on the Two-Factor Model
Yan, Xiefei ; Zou, Yun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 81~88
The security threat posed by worms has steadily increased in recent years. This paper discusses the application of the optimal and sub-optimal Internet worm control via Pontryagin's maximum principle. To this end, a control variable representing the optimal treatment strategy for infectious hosts is introduced into the two-factor worm model. The numerical optimal control laws are implemented by the multiple shooting method and the sub-optimal solution is computed using genetic algorithms. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed optimal and sub-optimal strategies. It also provides a theoretical interpretation of the practical experience that the maximum implementation of treatment in the early stage is critically important in controlling outbreaks of Internet worms. Furthermore, our results show that the proposed sub-optimal control can lead to performance close to the optimal control, but with much simpler strategies for long periods of time in practical use.
Noise-Robust Speaker Recognition Using Subband Likelihoods and Reliable-Feature Selection
Kim, Sung-Tak ; Ji, Mi-Kyong ; Kim, Hoi-Rin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 89~100
We consider the feature recombination technique in a multiband approach to speaker identification and verification. To overcome the ineffectiveness of conventional feature recombination in broadband noisy environments, we propose a new subband feature recombination which uses subband likelihoods and a subband reliable-feature selection technique with an adaptive noise model. In the decision step of speaker recognition, a few very low unreliable feature likelihood scores can cause a speaker recognition system to make an incorrect decision. To overcome this problem, reliable-feature selection adjusts the likelihood scores of an unreliable feature by comparison with those of an adaptive noise model, which is estimated by the maximum a posteriori adaptation technique using noise features directly obtained from noisy test speech. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methods in noisy environments, we use the TIMIT database and the NTIMIT database, which is the corresponding telephone version of TIMIT database. The proposed subband feature recombination with subband reliable-feature selection achieves better performance than the conventional feature recombination system with reliable-feature selection.
Customizing Ground Color to Deliver Better Viewing Experience of Soccer Video
Ahn, Il-Koo ; Kim, Young-Woo ; Kim, Chang-Ick ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 101~112
In this paper, we present a method to customize the ground color in outdoor sports video to provide TV viewers with a better viewing experience or subjective satisfaction. This issue, related to content personalization, is becoming critical with the advent of mobile TV and interactive TV. In outdoor sports video, such as soccer video, it is sometimes observed that the ground color is not satisfactory to viewers. In this work, the proposed algorithm is focused on customizing the ground color to deliver a better viewing experience for viewers. The algorithm comprises three modules: ground detection, shot classification, and ground color customization. We customize the ground color by considering the difference between ground colors from both input video and the target ground patch. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme offers useful tools to provide a more comfortable viewing experience and that it is amenable to real-time performance, even in a software-based implementation.
Further Specialization of Clustered VLIW Processors: A MAP Decoder for Software Defined Radio
Ituero, Pablo ; Lopez-Vallejo, Marisa ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 113~128
Turbo codes are extensively used in current communications standards and have a promising outlook for future generations. The advantages of software defined radio, especially dynamic reconfiguration, make it very attractive in this multi-standard scenario. However, the complex and power consuming implementation of the maximum a posteriori (MAP) algorithm, employed by turbo decoders, sets hurdles to this goal. This work introduces an ASIP architecture for the MAP algorithm, based on a dual-clustered VLIW processor. It displays the good performance of application specific designs along with the versatility of processors, which makes it compliant with leading edge standards. The machine deals with multi-operand instructions in an innovative way, the fetching and assertion of data is serialized and the addressing is automatized and transparent for the programmer. The performance-area trade-off of the proposed architecture achieves a throughput of 8 cycles per symbol with very low power dissipation.
NoC-Based SoC Test Scheduling Using Ant Colony Optimization
Ahn, Jin-Ho ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 129~140
In this paper, we propose a novel ant colony optimization (ACO)-based test scheduling method for testing network-on-chip (NoC)-based systems-on-chip (SoCs), on the assumption that the test platform, including specific methods and configurations such as test packet routing, generation, and absorption, is installed. The ACO metaheuristic model, inspired by the ant's foraging behavior, can autonomously find better results by exploring more solution space. The proposed method efficiently combines the rectangle packing method with ACO and improves the scheduling results by dynamically choosing the test-access-mechanism widths for cores and changing the testing orders. The power dissipation and variable test clock mode are also considered. Experimental results using ITC'02 benchmark circuits show that the proposed algorithm can efficiently reduce overall test time. Moreover, the computation time of the algorithm is less than a few seconds in most cases.
Verification Platform with ARM- and DSP-Based Multiprocessor Architecture for DVB-T Baseband Receivers
Cho, Koon-Shik ; Chang, June-Young ; Cho, Han-Jin ; Cho, Jun-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 141~151
In this paper, we introduce a new verification platform with ARM- and DSP-based multiprocessor architecture. Its simple communication interface with a crossbar switch architecture is suitable for a heterogeneous multiprocessor platform. The platform is used to verify the function and performance of a DVB-T baseband receiver using hardware and software partitioning techniques with a seamless hardware/software co-verification tool. We present a dual-processor platform with an ARM926 and a Teak DSP, but it cannot satisfy the standard specification of EN 300 744 of DVB-T ETSI. Therefore, we propose a new multiprocessor strategy with an ARM926 and three Teak DSPs synchronized at 166 MHz to satisfy the required specification of DVB-T.
Sweep-Based Plausible Elastic Deformations
Yoon, Seung-Hyun ; Lim, Choong-Gyoo ; Kim, Myung-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 152~154
We present a simple and efficient technique for a plausible elastic deformation of three-dimensional objects. An elastic sweep surface is constructed by interpolating key cross sections with positions, orientations, and boundary shapes determined by physical simulation of simple mass-spring systems. The deformable parts of an object are approximated by the elastic sweep surfaces, and the vertices of the deformable parts are bound to nearby sweep surfaces. As an external force is applied, the corresponding parts of an object change their shapes elastically. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our technique and show its real-time performance on mesh objects.
Automatic Acquisition of Paraphrases Using Bilingual Dependency Relations
Hwang, Young-Sook ; Kim, Young-Kil ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 155~157
This letter introduces a new method to automatically acquire paraphrases using bilingual corpora. It utilizes the bilingual dependency relations obtained by projecting a monolingual dependency parse onto the other language's sentence based on statistical alignment techniques. Since the proposed paraphrasing method can clearly disambiguate the sense of the original phrases using the bilingual context of dependency relations, it would be possible to obtain interchangeable paraphrases under a given context. Through experiments with parallel corpora of Korean and English language pairs, we demonstrate that our method effectively extracts paraphrases with high precision, achieving success rates of 94.3% and 84.6%, respectively, for Korean and English.
Highly Linear and Efficient Microwave GaN HEMT Doherty Amplifier for WCDMA
Lee, Yong-Sub ; Lee, Mun-Woo ; Jeong, Yoon-Ha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 158~160
A highly linear and efficient GaN HEMT Doherty amplifier for wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) repeaters is presented. For better performance, the adaptive gate bias control of the peaking amplifier using the power tracking circuit and the shunt capacitors is employed. The measured one-carrier WCDMA results show an adjacent channel leakage ratio of -43.2 dBc at
-MHz offset with a power added efficiency of 40.1% at an average output power of 37 dBm, which is a 7.5 dB back-off power from the saturated output power.
M-ary Bi-orthogonal Modulation UWB with Narrowband Interference Suppression Capability
Zhang, Wei-Hua ; Shen, Han-Bing ; Joo, Jong-Ok ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 161~163
An M-ary bi-orthogonal modulation scheme for ultra-wideband (UWB) systems capable of narrowband interference (NBI) suppression is proposed in this letter. We utilize a set of bi-orthogonal pulse series to achieve NBI suppression. Through analysis and simulation, we verify that the proposed scheme can suppress NBIs effectively.
Priority-Based Duplicate Burst Transmission Mechanism in Optical Burst Switching Networks
Um, Tai-Won ; Vu, Hai-L. ; Choi, Jun-Kyun ; Ryu, Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 164~166
This paper proposes a priority-based duplicate burst transmission mechanism in an optical burst switching network to enhance the probability of successful reception of bursts. The performance of the proposed mechanism is evaluated by NS2 simulations. Our results show that the burst loss rate is improved especially under light traffic loads.
Design of High-Speed CAVLC Decoder Architecture for H.264/AVC
Oh, Myung-Seok ; Lee, Won-Jae ; Jung, Yun-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 167~169
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.08.0207.0208
In this paper, we propose hardware architecture for a high-speed context-adaptive variable length coding (CAVLC) decoder in H.264. In the CAVLC decoder, the codeword length of the current decoding block is used to determine the next input bitstreams (valid bits). Since the computation of valid bits increases the total processing time of CAVLC, we propose two techniques to reduce processing time: one is to reduce the number of decoding steps by introducing a lookup table, and the other is to reduce cycles for calculating the valid bits. The proposed CAVLC decoder can decode
30 fps video in real time at a 30.8 MHz clock.
Efficient and Simple Method for Designing Chaotic S-Boxes
Asim, Muhammad ; Jeoti, Varun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 1, 2008, Pages 170~172
A substitution box (S-box) plays a central role in cryptographic algorithms. In this paper, an efficient method for designing S-boxes based on chaotic maps is proposed. The proposed method is based on the mixing property of piecewise linear chaotic maps. The S-box so constructed has very low differential and linear approximation probabilities. The proposed S-box is more secure against differential and linear cryptanalysis compared to recently proposed chaotic S-boxes.