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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Quality-of-Service Mechanisms for Flow-Based Routers
Ko, Nam-Seok ; Hong, Sung-Back ; Lee, Kyung-Ho ; Park, Hong-Shik ; Kim, Nam ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 183~193
In this paper, we propose quality of service mechanisms for flow-based routers which have to handle several million flows at wire speed in high-speed networks. Traffic management mechanisms are proposed for guaranteed traffic and non-guaranteed traffic separately, and then the effective harmonization of the two mechanisms is introduced for real networks in which both traffic types are mixed together. A simple non-work-conserving fair queuing algorithm is proposed for guaranteed traffic, and an adaptive flow-based random early drop algorithm is proposed for non-guaranteed traffic. Based on that basic architecture, we propose a dynamic traffic identification method to dynamically prioritize traffic according to the traffic characteristics of applications. In a high-speed router system, the dynamic traffic identification method could be a good alternative to deep packet inspection, which requires handling of the IP packet header and payload. Through numerical analysis, simulation, and a real system experiment, we demonstrate the performance of the proposed mechanisms.
Technique for Estimating the Number of Active Flows in High-Speed Networks
Yi, Sung-Won ; Deng, Xidong ; Kesidis, George ; Das, Chita R. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 194~204
The online collection of coarse-grained traffic information, such as the total number of flows, is gaining in importance due to a wide range of applications, such as congestion control and network security. In this paper, we focus on an active queue management scheme called SRED since it estimates the number of active flows and uses the quantity to indicate the level of congestion. However, SRED has several limitations, such as instability in estimating the number of active flows and underestimation of active flows in the presence of non-responsive traffic. We present a Markov model to examine the capability of SRED in estimating the number of flows. We show how the SRED cache hit rate can be used to quantify the number of active flows. We then propose a modified SRED scheme, called hash-based two-level caching (HaTCh), which uses hashing and a two-level caching mechanism to accurately estimate the number of active flows under various workloads. Simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme provides a more accurate estimation of the number of active flows than SRED, stabilizes the estimation with respect to workload fluctuations, and prevents performance degradation by efficiently isolating non-responsive flows.
Scalable Network Architecture for Flow-Based Traffic Control
Song, Jong-Tae ; Lee, Soon-Seok ; Kang, Kug-Chang ; Park, No-Ik ; Park, Heuk ; Yoon, Sung-Hyun ; Chun, Kyung-Gyu ; Chang, Mi-Young ; Joung, Jin-Oo ; Kim, Young-Sun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 205~215
Many control schemes have been proposed for flow-level traffic control. However, flow-level traffic control is implemented only in limited areas such as traffic monitoring and traffic control at edge nodes. No clear solution for end-to-end architecture has been proposed. Scalability and the lack of a business model are major problems for deploying end-to-end flow-level control architecture. This paper introduces an end-to-end transport architecture and a scalable control mechanism to support the various flow-level QoS requests from applications.
Soft-State Bandwidth Reservation Mechanism for Slotted Optical Burst Switching Networks
Um, Tai-Won ; Choi, Jun-Kyun ; Guo, Jun ; Ryu, Won ; Lee, Byung-Sun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 216~226
This paper proposes a novel transport network architecture for the next generation network (NGN) based on the optical burst switching technology. The proposed architecture aims to provide efficient delivery of various types of network traffic by satisfying their quality-of-service constraints. To this end, we have developed a soft-state bandwidth reservation mechanism, which enables NGN transport nodes to dynamically reserve bandwidth needed for active data burst flows. The performance of the proposed mechanism is evaluated by means of numerical analysis and NS2 simulation. Our results show that the packet delay is kept within the constraint for each traffic flow and the burst loss rate is remarkably improved.
Adaptive Input Traffic Prediction Scheme for Absolute and Proportional Delay Differentiated Services in Broadband Convergence Network
Paik, Jung-Hoon ; Ryoo, Jeong-Dong ; Joo, Bheom-Soon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 227~237
In this paper, an algorithm that provides absolute and proportional differentiation of packet delays is proposed with the objective of enhancing quality of service in future packet networks. It features an adaptive scheme that adjusts the target delay for every time slot to compensate the deviation from the target delay, which is caused by prediction error on the traffic to arrive at the next time slot. It predicts the traffic to arrive at the beginning of a time slot and measures the actual arrived traffic at the end of the time slot. The difference between them is utilized by the delay control operation for the next time slot to offset it. Because the proposed algorithm compensates the prediction error continuously, it shows superior adaptability to bursty traffic and exponential traffic. Through simulations we demonstrate that the algorithm meets the quantitative delay bounds and is robust to traffic fluctuation in comparison with the conventional non-adaptive mechanism. The algorithm is implemented with VHDL on a Xilinx Spartan XC3S1500 FPGA, and the performance is verified under the test board based on the XPC860P CPU.
Flow-Based QoS Management Architectures for the Next Generation Network
Joung, Jin-Oo ; Song, Jong-Tae ; Lee, Soon-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 238~248
At the extremes of the complexity-performance plane, there are two exemplary QoS management architectures: Integrated Services (IntServ) and Differentiated Services (DiffServ). IntServ performs ideally but is not scalable. DiffServ is simple enough to be adopted in today' core networks, but without any performance guarantee. Many compromise solutions have been proposed. These schemes, called quasi-stateful IntServ or stateful DiffServ, however, have not attracted much attention due to their inherently compromising natures. Two disruptive flow-based architectures have been recently introduced: the flow-aware network (FAN) and the flow-state-aware network (FSA). FAN's control is implicit without any signaling. FSA's control is even more sophisticated than that of IntServ. In this paper, we survey established QoS architectures, review disruptive architectures, discuss their rationales, and points out their disadvantages. A new QoS management architecture, flow-aggregate-based services (FAbS), is then proposed. The FAbS architecture has two novel building blocks: inter-domain flow aggregation and endpoint implicit admission control.
Demonstration of CSRZ Signal Generator Using Single-Stage Mach-Zehnder Modulator and Wideband CMOS Signal Mixer
Kang, Sae-Kyoung ; Lee, Dong-Soo ; Cho, Hyun-Woo ; Ko, Je-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 249~254
In this paper, we demonstrate an electrically band-limited carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (EB-CSRZ) signal generator operating up to a 10 Gbps data rate comprising a single-stage Mach-Zehnder modulator and a wideband signal mixer. The wideband signal mixer comprises inverter stages, a mixing stage, and a gain amplifier. It is implemented by using a 0.13
CMOS technology. Its transmission response shows a frequency range from DC to 6.4 GHz, and the isolation response between data and clock signals is about 21 dB at 6.4 GHz. Experimental results show optical spectral narrowing due to incorporating an electrical band-limiting filter and some waveform distortion due to bandwidth limitation by the filter. At 10 Gbps transmission, the chromatic dispersion tolerance of the EB-CSRZ signal is better than that of NRZ-modulated signal in single-mode fiber.
Effects of Upstream Bit Rate on a Wavelength-Remodulated WDM-PON Based on Manchester or Inverse-Return-to-Zero Coding
Chung, Hwan-Seok ; Kim, Bong-Kyu ; Kim, Kwang-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 255~260
We compare the performance of a wavelength remodulated wavelength-division-multiplexed passive optical network implemented using Manchester-coded or inverse-return-to-zero (IRZ)-coded signal downstream and non-return-to-zero remodulated signal upstream. We investigate the effects of varying differences between downstream and upstream bit rates on the two coding schemes. When the bit rate ratio of upstream to downstream is less than or equal to 50%, the performance of Manchester coding is better than that of IRZ coding. However, when the bit rate ratio of upstream to downstream is higher than 50%, Manchester code requires appropriate time delay between upstream and downstream signals, whereas IRZ code needs reduced extinction ratio in the downstream signal.
Cost-Effective Transition to 40 Gb/s Line Rate Using the Existing 10 Gb/s-Based DWDM Infrastructure
Lee, Sang-Soo ; Cho, Hyun-Woo ; Lim, Sang-Kyu ; Lee, Dong-Soo ; Yoon, Kyeong-Mo ; Lee, Yong-Gi ; Kim, Kwang-Joon ; Ko, Je-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 261~267
In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a cost-effective technique to upgrade the capacity of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) networks to a 40 Gb/s line rate using the existing 10 Gb/s-based infrastructure. To accommodate 40 Gb/s over the link optimized for 10 Gb/s, we propose applying a combination of super-FEC, carrier-suppressed return-to-zero, and pre-emphasis to the 40 Gb/s transponder. The transmission of 40 Gb/s DWDM channels over existing 10 Gb/s line-rate long-haul DWDM links, including
Gb/s transmission over KT's standard single-mode fiber optimized for 10 Gb/s achieves successful results. The proposed upgrading technique allows the Q-value margin for a 40 Gb/s line rate to be compatible with that of 10 Gb/s.
Design and Implementation of Open-Loop Clock Recovery Circuit for 39.8 Gb/s and 42.8 Gb/s Dual-Mode Operation
Lim, Sang-Kyu ; Cho, Hyun-Woo ; Shin, Jong-Yoon ; Ko, Je-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 268~274
This paper proposes an open-loop clock recovery circuit (CRC) using two high-Q dielectric resonator (DR) filters for 39.8 Gb/s and 42.8 Gb/s dual-mode operation. The DR filters are fabricated to obtain high Q-values of approximately 950 at the 40 GHz band and to suppress spurious resonant modes up to 45 GHz. The CRC is implemented in a compact module by integrating the DR filters with other circuits in the CRC. The peak-to-peak and RMS jitter values of the clock signals recovered from 39.8 Gb/s and 42.8 Gb/s pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) data with a word length of
are less than 2.0 ps and 0.3 ps, respectively. The peak-to-peak amplitudes of the recovered clocks are quite stable and within the range of 2.5 V to 2.7 V, even when the input data signals vary from 150 mV to 500 mV. Error-free operation of the 40 Gb/s-class optical receiver with the dual-mode CRC is confirmed at both 39.8 Gb/s and 42.8 Gb/s data rates.
A 40 Gb/s Clock and Data Recovery Module with Improved Phase-Locked Loop Circuits
Park, Hyun ; Kim, Kang-Wook ; Lim, Sang-Kyu ; Ko, Je-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 275~281
A 40 Gb/s clock and data recovery (CDR) module for a fiber-optic receiver with improved phase-locked loop (PLL) circuits has been successfully implemented. The PLL of the CDR module employs an improved D-type flip-flop frequency acquisition circuit, which helps to stabilize the CDR performance, to obtain faster frequency acquisition, and to reduce the time of recovering the lock state in the event of losing the lock state. The measured RMS jitter of the clock signal recovered from 40 Gb/s pseudo-random binary sequence (
) data by the improved PLL clock recovery module is 210 fs. The CDR module also integrates a 40 Gb/s D-FF decision circuit, demonstrating that it can produce clean retimed data using the recovered clock.
Mini-Slot-Based Transmission Scheme for Local Customer Internetworking in PONs
Kim, Jae-Gwan ; Chae, Chang-Joon ; Kang, Min-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 282~289
We propose a new mini-slot transmission scheme for a passive optical network (PON) in which each customer can be switched either to access mode or to internetworking mode dynamically. In this paper, we present the system implementation (called LAN-PON) as well as the performance of the proposed transmission scheme to illustrate its feasibility and benefits. A mini-slot scheme can rapidly reduce the queuing delay, which increases due to the flooding of the deflected packets in a deflection scheme. We evaluate the impact of mode switching time on the bandwidth gain (throughput) and delay of local area network (LAN) traffic in the LAN-PON with a mini-slot scheme. We also analyze a theoretical delay model of the proposed scheme. The simulation results demonstrate that switching time has an impact on LAN performance, and the average packet delay of the proposed scheme is significantly improved compared to that of the deflection scheme.
Performance Evaluation of Ethernet Frame Burst Mode in EPON Downstream Link
Jia, Wen-Kang ; Chen, Yaw-Chung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 290~300
We apply IEEE 802.3 frame burst mode (FBM) to the Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) downstream link and compare its performance with non-frame burst mode for various traffic patterns. Although in light traffic loads (p<0.5) the efficiency of the FBM mechanism is not significant, it does feature high throughput, small jitter, low queue occupancy, and short queuing delay in optical line terminals under various traffic loads with various numbers of optical network units (ONUs). The FBM performance always approaches that of full-duplex mode, especially under heavy traffic loads (p>0.5). Moreover, an increase in number of ONUs will decrease the burst performance. Our work shows that FBM scheme is very useful for EPON transmission and has low design complexity.
Enhanced Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm in Ethernet Passive Optical Networks
Park, Byung-Joo ; Hwang, An-Kyu ; Yoo, Jae-Hyoung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 301~307
As broadband access is evolving from digital subscriber lines to optical access networks, Ethernet passive optical networks (EPONs) are considered a promising solution for next generation broadband access. The point-to-multipoint topology of EPONs requires a time-division multiple access MAC protocol for upstream transmission. In this paper, we propose a new enhanced dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm with fairness called EFDBA for multiple services over EPONs. The proposed algorithm is composed of a fairness counter controller and a fairness system buffer in the optical line terminal. The EFDBA algorithm with fairness can provide increased capability and efficient resource allocation in an EPON system. In the proposed EFDBA algorithm, the optical line termination allocates bandwidth to the optical network units in proportion to the fairness weighting counter number associated with their class and queue length. The proposed algorithm provides efficient resource utilization by reducing the unused remaining bandwidth made by idle state optical network units.
3.5-Inch QCIF AMOLED Panels with Ultra-low-Temperature Polycrystalline Silicon Thin Film Transistor on Plastic Substrate
Kim, Yong-Hae ; Chung, Choong-Heui ; Moon, Jae-Hyun ; Lee, Su-Jae ; Kim, Gi-Heon ; Song, Yoon-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 308~314
In this paper, we describe the fabrication of 3.5-inch QCIF active matrix organic light emitting display (AMOLED) panels driven by thin film transistors, which are produced by an ultra-low-temperature polycrystalline silicon process on plastic substrates. The over all processing scheme and technical details are discussed from the viewpoint of mechanical stability and display performance. New ideas, such as a new triple-layered metal gate structure to lower leakage current and organic layers for electrical passivation and stress reduction are highlighted. The operation of a 3.5-inch QCIF AMOLED is also demonstrated.
Differential Side Channel Analysis Attacks on FPGA Implementations of ARIA
Kim, Chang-Kyun ; Schlaffer, Martin ; Moon, Sang-Jae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 315~325
In this paper, we first investigate the side channel analysis attack resistance of various FPGA hardware implementations of the ARIA block cipher. The analysis is performed on an FPGA test board dedicated to side channel attacks. Our results show that an unprotected implementation of ARIA allows one to recover the secret key with a low number of power or electromagnetic measurements. We also present a masking countermeasure and analyze its second-order side channel resistance by using various suitable preprocessing functions. Our experimental results clearly confirm that second-order differential side channel analysis attacks also remain a practical threat for masked hardware implementations of ARIA.
Basis Translation Matrix between Two Isomorphic Extension Fields via Optimal Normal Basis
Nogami, Yasuyuki ; Namba, Ryo ; Morikawa, Yoshitaka ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 326~334
This paper proposes a method for generating a basis translation matrix between isomorphic extension fields. To generate a basis translation matrix, we need the equality correspondence of a basis between the isomorphic extension fields. Consider an extension field
where p is characteristic. As a brute force method, when
is small, we can check the equality correspondence by using the minimal polynomial of a basis element; however, when
is large, it becomes too difficult. The proposed methods are based on the fact that Type I and Type II optimal normal bases (ONBs) can be easily identified in each isomorphic extension field. The proposed methods efficiently use Type I and Type II ONBs and can generate a pair of basis translation matrices within 15 ms on Pentium 4 (3.6 GHz) when
Eye Detection in Facial Images Using Zernike Moments with SVM
Kim, Hyoung-Joon ; Kim, Whoi-Yul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 335~337
An eye detection method for facial images using Zernike moments with a support vector machine (SVM) is proposed. Eye/non-eye patterns are represented in terms of the magnitude of Zernike moments and then classified by the SVM. Due to the rotation-invariant characteristics of the magnitude of Zernike moments, the method is robust against rotation, which is demonstrated using rotated images from the ORL database. Experiments with TV drama videos showed that the proposed method achieved a 94.6% detection rate, which is a higher performance level than that achievable by the method that uses gray values with an SVM.
Real-Time Apartment Building Detection and Tracking with AdaBoost Procedure and Motion-Adjusted Tracker
Hu, Yi ; Jang, Dae-Sik ; Park, Jeong-Ho ; Cho, Seong-Ik ; Lee, Chang-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 338~340
In this letter, we propose a novel approach to detecting and tracking apartment buildings for the development of a video-based navigation system that provides augmented reality representation of guidance information on live video sequences. For this, we propose a building detector and tracker. The detector is based on the AdaBoost classifier followed by hierarchical clustering. The classifier uses modified Haar-like features as the primitives. The tracker is a motion-adjusted tracker based on pyramid implementation of the Lukas-Kanade tracker, which periodically confirms and consistently adjusts the tracking region. Experiments show that the proposed approach yields robust and reliable results and is far superior to conventional approaches.
Angular MST-Based Topology Control for Multi-hop Wireless Ad Hoc Networks
Kim, Hwang-Nam ; Park, Eun-Chan ; Noh, Sung-Kee ; Hong, Sung-Back ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 341~343
This letter presents an angular minimum spanning tree (AMST) algorithm for topology control in multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks. The AMST algorithm builds up an MST for every angular sector of a given degree around each node to determine optimal transmission power for connecting to its neighbors. We demonstrate that AMST preserves both local and network-wide connectivity. It also improves robustness to link failure and mitigates transmission power waste.
A Co-design Study of Filters and Oscillator for Low Phase Noise and High Harmonic Rejection
Zhang, Bing ; Zhang, Wenmei ; Ma, Runbo ; Zhang, Xiaowei ; Mao, Junfa ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 2, 2008, Pages 344~346
In this paper, we present a novel oscillator (OSC) design. Bandpass filters, which can suppress harmonics, are incorporated into a co-design with an OSC to improve the OSC phase noise and harmonic rejection. The proposed OSC/bandpass filter co-design achieves a phase noise of -130.1 dBc/Hz/600 kHz and harmonic rejection of 37.94 dB and 40.85 dB for the second and third harmonics, respectively, as compared to results achieved by the OSC before co-design of -101.6 dBc/Hz/600 kHz and 21.28 dB and 19.68 dB. Good agreement between the measured and simulated results is achieved.