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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
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Low-Power 512-Bit EEPROM Designed for UHF RFID Tag Chip
Lee, Jae-Hyung ; Kim, Ji-Hong ; Lim, Gyu-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Hoon ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Park, Kyung-Hwan ; Park, Mu-Hun ; Ha, Pan-Bong ; Kim, Young-Hee ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 347~354
In this paper, the design of a low-power 512-bit synchronous EEPROM for a passive UHF RFID tag chip is presented. We apply low-power schemes, such as dual power supply voltage (VDD=1.5 V and VDDP=2.5 V), clocked inverter sensing, voltage-up converter, I/O interface, and Dickson charge pump using Schottky diode. An EEPROM is fabricated with the 0.25
EEPROM process. Power dissipation is 32.78
in the read cycle and 78.05
in the write cycle. The layout size is 449.3
Characteristic-Function-Based Analysis of MIMO Systems Applying Macroscopic Selection Diversity in Mobile Communications
Jeong, Wun-Cheol ; Chung, Jong-Moon ; Liu, Dongfang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 355~364
Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can provide significant increments in capacity; however, the capacity of MIMO systems degrades severely when spatial correlation among multipath channels is present. This paper demonstrates that the influence of shadowing on the channel capacity is more substantial than that of multipath fading; therefore, the shadowing effect is actually the dominant impairment. To overcome the composite fading effects, we propose combining macroscopic selection diversity (MSD) schemes with MIMO technology. To analyze the system performance, the capacity outage expression of MIMO-based MSD (MSD-MIMO) systems using a characteristic function is applied. The analytic results show that there are significant improvements when MSD schemes are applied, even for the two-base-station diversity case. It is also observed that the effect of spatial correlation due to multipath fading is almost negligible when multiple base stations cooperatively participate in the mobile communication topology.
Hyperelliptic Curve Crypto-Coprocessor over Affine and Projective Coordinates
Kim, Ho-Won ; Wollinger, Thomas ; Choi, Doo-Ho ; Han, Dong-Guk ; Lee, Mun-Kyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 365~376
This paper presents the design and implementation of a hyperelliptic curve cryptography (HECC) coprocessor over affine and projective coordinates, along with measurements of its performance, hardware complexity, and power consumption. We applied several design techniques, including parallelism, pipelining, and loop unrolling, in designing field arithmetic units, group operation units, and scalar multiplication units to improve the performance and power consumption. Our affine and projective coordinate-based HECC processors execute in 0.436 ms and 0.531 ms, respectively, based on the underlying field GF(
). These results are about five times faster than those for previous hardware implementations and at least 13 times better in terms of area-time products. Further results suggest that neither case is superior to the other when considering the hardware complexity and performance. The characteristics of our proposed HECC coprocessor show that it is applicable to high-speed network applications as well as resource-constrained environments, such as PDAs, smart cards, and so on.
Binary Power Amplifier with 2-Bit Sigma-Delta Modulation Method for EER Transmitter
Lim, Ji-Youn ; Cheon, Sang-Hoon ; Kim, Kyeong-Hak ; Hong, Song-Cheol ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 377~382
A novel power amplifier for a polar transmitter is proposed to achieve better spectral performance for a wideband envelope signal. In the proposed scheme, 2-bit sigma-delta (
) modulation of the envelope signal is introduced, and the power amplifier configuration is modified in a binary form to accommodate the 2-bit digitized envelope signals. The 2-bit
modulator lowers the noise of the envelope signal by fine quantization and thus enhances the spectral property of the RF signal. The Ptolemy simulation results of the proposed structure show that the spectral noise is reduced by 10 dB in a full transmit band of the EDGE system. The dynamic range is also enhanced. Since the performance is improved without increasing the over-sampling ratio, this technique is best suited for wireless communication with high data rates.
Model-Based Analysis of the
Etching Mechanism in Inductively Coupled
Kim, Man-Su ; Min, Nam-Ki ; Yun, Sun-Jin ; Lee, Hyun-Woo ; Efremov, Alexander M. ; Kwon, Kwang-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 383~393
The etching mechanism of
thin films and etch selectivity over some materials in both
/Ar plasmas are investigated using a combination of experimental and modeling methods. To obtain the data on plasma composition and fluxes of active species, global (0-dimensional) plasma models are developed with Langmuir probe diagnostics data. In
/Ar plasma, changes in gas mixing ratio result in non-linear changes of both densities and fluxes for Cl,
. In this work, it is shown that the non-monotonic behavior of the
etch rate as a function of the
/Ar mixing ratio could be related to the ion-assisted etch mechanism and the ion-flux-limited etch regime. The addition of up to 33%
Ar plasma does not influence the
etch rate, but it non-monotonically changes the etch rates of both Si and
. The last effect can probably be associated with the corresponding behavior of the F atom density.
Domain Analysis of Device Drivers Using Code Clone Detection Method
Ma, Yu-Seung ; Woo, Duk-Kyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 394~402
Domain analysis is the process of analyzing related software systems in a domain to find their common and variable parts. In the case of device drivers, they are highly suitable for domain analysis because device drivers of the same domain are implemented similarly for each device and each system that they support. Considering this characteristic, this paper introduces a new approach to the domain analysis of device drivers. Our method uses a code clone detection technique to extract similarity among device drivers of the same domain. To examine the applicability of our method, we investigated whole device drivers of a Linux source. Results showed that many reusable similar codes can be discerned by the code clone detection method. We also investigated if our method is applicable to other kernel sources. However, the results show that the code clone detection method is not useful for the domain analysis of all kernel sources. That is, the applicability of the code clone detection method to domain analysis is a peculiar feature of device drivers.
Interconnect Delay Fault Test on Boards and SoCs with Multiple Clock Domains
Yi, Hyun-Bean ; Song, Jae-Hoon ; Park, Sung-Ju ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 403~411
This paper introduces an interconnect delay fault test (IDFT) controller on boards and system-on-chips (SoCs) with IEEE 1149.1 and IEEE 1500 wrappers. By capturing the transition signals launched during one system clock, interconnect delay faults operated by different system clocks can be simultaneously tested with our technique. The proposed IDFT technique does not require any modification on boundary scan cells. Instead, a small number of logic gates needs to be plugged around the test access port controller. The IDFT controller is compatible with the IEEE 1149.1 and IEEE 1500 standards. The superiority of our approach is verified by implementation of the controller with benchmark SoCs with IEEE 1500 wrapped cores.
A New Scan Partition Scheme for Low-Power Embedded Systems
Kim, Hong-Sik ; Kim, Cheong-Ghil ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 412~420
A new scan partition architecture to reduce both the average and peak power dissipation during scan testing is proposed for low-power embedded systems. In scan-based testing, due to the extremely high switching activity during the scan shift operation, the power consumption increases considerably. In addition, the reduced correlation between consecutive test patterns may increase the power consumed during the capture cycle. In the proposed architecture, only a subset of scan cells is loaded with test stimulus and captured with test responses by freezing the remaining scan cells according to the spectrum of unspecified bits in the test cubes. To optimize the proposed process, a novel graph-based heuristic to partition the scan chain into several segments and a technique to increase the number of don't cares in the given test set have been developed. Experimental results on large ISCAS89 benchmark circuits show that the proposed technique, compared to the traditional full scan scheme, can reduce both the average switching activities and the average peak switching activities by 92.37% and 41.21%, respectively.
Spatiotemporal Pattern Mining Technique for Location-Based Service System
Vu, Nhan Thi Hong ; Lee, Jun-Wook ; Ryu, Keun-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 421~431
In this paper, we offer a new technique to discover frequent spatiotemporal patterns from a moving object database. Though the search space for spatiotemporal knowledge is extremely challenging, imposing spatial and timing constraints on moving sequences makes the computation feasible. The proposed technique includes two algorithms, AllMOP and MaxMOP, to find all frequent patterns and maximal patterns, respectively. In addition, to support the service provider in sending information to a user in a push-driven manner, we propose a rule-based location prediction technique to predict the future location of the user. The idea is to employ the algorithm AllMOP to discover the frequent movement patterns in the user's historical movements, from which frequent movement rules are generated. These rules are then used to estimate the future location of the user. The performance is assessed with respect to precision and recall. The proposed techniques could be quite efficiently applied in a location-based service (LBS) system in which diverse types of data are integrated to support a variety of LBSs.
User-Friendly Personal Photo Browsing for Mobile Devices
Kim, Sang-Kyun ; Lee, Jae-Won ; Lee, Ryong ; Hwang, Eui-Hyeon ; Chung, Min-Gyo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 432~440
In this paper, a user-friendly mobile photo album system and albuming functions to support it are introduced. Stand-alone implementation in a mobile device is considered. The main idea of user-friendly photo browsing for albuming functions is to enable users to organize and browse their photos along semantically meaningful axes of events, personal identities, and categories. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method would be sufficiently useful and efficient for browsing personal photos in mobile environment.
Efficient Media Synchronization Mechanism for SVC Video Transport over IP Networks
Seo, Kwang-Deok ; Jung, Soon-Heung ; Kim, Jin-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 441~450
The scalable extension of H.264, known as scalable video coding (SVC) has been the main focus of the Joint Video Team's work and was finalized at the end of 2007. Synchronization between media is an important aspect in the design of a scalable video streaming system. This paper proposes an efficient media synchronization mechanism for SVC video transport over IP networks. To support synchronization between video and audio bitstreams transported over IP networks, a real-time transport protocol/RTP control protocol (RTP/RTCP) suite is usually employed. To provide an efficient mechanism for media synchronization between SVC video and audio, we suggest an efficient RTP packetization mode for inter-layer synchronization within SVC video and propose a computationally efficient RTCP packet processing method for inter-media synchronization. By adopting the computationally simple RTCP packet processing, we do not need to process every RTCP sender report packet for inter-media synchronization. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed mechanism by comparing its performance with that of the conventional method.
High-Performance Low-Power FFT Cores
Han, Wei ; Erdogan, Ahmet T. ; Arslan, Tughrul ; Hasan, Mohd. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 451~460
Recently, the power consumption of integrated circuits has been attracting increasing attention. Many techniques have been studied to improve the power efficiency of digital signal processing units such as fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors, which are popularly employed in both traditional research fields, such as satellite communications, and thriving consumer electronics, such as wireless communications. This paper presents solutions based on parallel architectures for high throughput and power efficient FFT cores. Different combinations of hybrid low-power techniques are exploited to reduce power consumption, such as multiplierless units which replace the complex multipliers in FFTs, low-power commutators based on an advanced interconnection, and parallel-pipelined architectures. A number of FFT cores are implemented and evaluated for their power/area performance. The results show that up to 38% and 55% power savings can be achieved by the proposed pipelined FFTs and parallel-pipelined FFTs respectively, compared to the conventional pipelined FFT processor architectures.
Chromatic Dispersion Monitoring of CSRZ Signal for Optimum Compensation Using Extracted Clock-Frequency Component
Kim, Sung-Man ; Park, Jai-Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 461~468
This paper presents a chromatic dispersion monitoring technique using a clock-frequency component for carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CSRZ) signal. The clock-frequency component is extracted by a clock-extraction (CE) process. To discover which CE methods are most efficient for dispersion monitoring, we evaluate the monitoring performance of each extracted clock signal. We also evaluate the monitoring ability to detect the optimum amount of dispersion compensation when optical nonlinearity exists, since it is more important in nonlinear transmission systems. We demonstrate efficient CE methods of CSRZ signal to monitor chromatic dispersion for optimum compensation in high-speed optical communication systems.
Analysis of the Competitiveness of Broadband over Power Line Communication in Korea
Jeong, Gi-Cheol ; Koh, Dae-Young ; Lee, Jong-Su ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 469~479
This study analyzes factors affecting the competitiveness of broadband over power line communication (BPLC) and predicts demand for the service, based on quantitative information about consumer preferences drawn from a survey of Korean consumers. Findings from the estimation suggest that, although consumers value some beneficial features of BPLC, to be competitive the speed and stability of its data transmission needs to be improved. Moreover, on the basis of a market simulation, we expect BPLC to occupy only a small portion of Korea's Internet access market in the future, a finding we expect would hold true for other developed countries whose Internet access markets are already mature.
InGaAsP/InP Buried-Ridge Waveguide Laser with Improved Lateral Single-Mode Property
Oh, Su-Hwan ; Kim, Ki-Soo ; Kwon, Oh-Kee ; Oh, Kwang-Ryong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 480~482
A novel InGaAsP/InP buried-ridge waveguide laser diode structure is proposed and demonstrated for use as a single-mode laser. The lateral mode of the proposed device can be controlled by adjusting the composition and thickness of the InGaAsP layer grown over the active region. Stable single-mode operation without kinks or beam-steering is achieved successfully with lateral and transverse in the junction plane even for the device with the ridge width of 9
up to an injection current of 500 mA.
Memory-Efficient Hypercube Key Establishment Scheme for Micro-Sensor Networks
Lhee, Kyung-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 483~485
A micro-sensor network is comprised of a large number of small sensors with limited memory capacity. Current key-establishment schemes for symmetric encryption require too much memory for micro-sensor networks on a large scale. In this paper, we propose a memory-efficient hypercube key establishment scheme that only requires logarithmic memory overhead.
A Scheme to Increase Throughput in Framed-ALOHA-Based RFID Systems with Capture
Oh, Sung-Youl ; Jung, Sung-Hwan ; Hong, Jung-Wan ; Lie, Chang-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 486~488
In this paper, a scheme to increase the throughput of RFID systems is presented, which considers the capture effect in the context of framed ALOHA protocol. Under the capture model in which the probability of one tag is identified successfully depending on the number of tags involved in the collision, two probabilistic methods for estimating the unknown number of tags are proposed. The first method is the maximum likelihood estimation method, and the second method is an approximate algorithm for reducing the computational time. The optimal frame size condition to maximize the system throughput by considering the capture effect is also presented.
Compact Dipole Antenna for Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting Service
Ryu, Kwang-Woo ; Jeon, Seung-Gil ; Kim, Jeong-Pyo ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 489~491
A compact dipole antenna for the terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (TDMB) application is presented. The length of the antenna is about
at the TDMB resonance frequency of 190 MHz. Miniaturization of the antenna is achieved by using meander structures and lumped elements. The proposed antenna has two resonance frequencies and covers the TDMB band from 174 MHz to 216 MHz in Korea. The antenna has good impedance bandwidth and radiation characteristics for the TDMB. The experimental results of the designed dipole antenna are presented and analyzed.
Value Extrapolation Technique to Solve Retrial Queues: A Comparative Perspective
Gimenez-Guzman, Jose Manuel ; Domenech-Benlloch, Ma Jose ; Pla, Vicent ; Casares-Giner, Vicente ; Martinez-Bauset, Jorge ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 3, 2008, Pages 492~494
While the retrial phenomenon plays an important role in communication networks and should not be ignored, retrial systems do not present an exact analytic solution, so approximate techniques are required. To the best of our knowledge, all the existing techniques are based on computing the steady states probabilities. We propose another approach based on the relative state values which appear in the Howard equations. The results of the numerical evaluation carried out show that this solution outperforms previous approaches in terms of both accuracy and computation time.