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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
When Sensor and Actuator Networks Cover the World
Stankovic, John A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 627~633
The technologies for wireless communication, sensing, and computation are each progressing at faster and faster rates. Notably, they are also being combined for an amazingly large multiplicative effect. It can be envisioned that the world will eventually be covered by networks of networks of smart sensors and actuators. This fact will give rise to revolutionary applications. However, to make this vision a reality, many research challenges must be overcome. This paper describes a representative set of new applications and identifies several key research challenges.
Measurement of a Customer Satisfaction Index for Improvement of Mobile RFID Services in Korea
Park, Yong-Jae ; Heo, Pil-Sun ; Rim, Myung-Hwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 634~643
One of the ubiquitous technology fields that have received the most attention recently from technology communities worldwide is mobile radio frequency identification (RFID). Mobile handsets loaded with RFID readers enable the identification and retrieval of information on RFID tagged objects. In Korea, a variety of mobile RFID services are currently being piloted, and their commercial roll-out looks imminent. The goal of this study is to propose, ahead of the commercial launch of mobile RFID services, a customer satisfaction index (CSI) model for this service category and to then measure the CSI to derive practical implications for their providers and pointers related to the improvement of service. A web survey was conducted on Korean mobile phone subscribers who had participated in a mobile RFID pilot program. Using the results of this survey, we tested the CSI model and its hypotheses by employing a partial least-squares-based structural equation model analysis and calculated the index. We further conducted an importance-performance analysis in order to provide insights that may be useful for improving the quality of mobile RFID services.
1.5 V Sub-mW CMOS Interface Circuit for Capacitive Sensor Applications in Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
Lee, Sung-Sik ; Lee, Ah-Ra ; Je, Chang-Han ; Lee, Myung-Lae ; Hwang, Gunn ; Choi, Chang-Auck ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 644~652
In this paper, a low-power CMOS interface circuit is designed and demonstrated for capacitive sensor applications, which is implemented using a standard 0.35-
CMOS logic technology. To achieve low-power performance, the low-voltage capacitance-to-pulse-width converter based on a self-reset operation at a supply voltage of 1.5 V is designed and incorporated into a new interface circuit. Moreover, the external pulse signal for the reset operation is made unnecessary by the employment of the self-reset operation. At a low supply voltage of 1.5 V, the new circuit requires a total power consumption of 0.47 mW with ultra-low power dissipation of 157
of the interface-circuit core. These results demonstrate that the new interface circuit with self-reset operation successfully reduces power consumption. In addition, a prototype wireless sensor-module with the proposed circuit is successfully implemented for practical applications. Consequently, the new CMOS interface circuit can be used for the sensor applications in ubiquitous sensor networks, where low-power performance is essential.
Gen2-Based Tag Anti-collision Algorithms Using Chebyshev's Inequality and Adjustable Frame Size
Fan, Xiao ; Song, In-Chan ; Chang, Kyung-Hi ; Shin, Dong-Beom ; Lee, Heyung-Sub ; Pyo, Cheol-Sig ; Chae, Jong-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 653~662
Arbitration of tag collision is a significant issue for fast tag identification in RFID systems. A good tag anti-collision algorithm can reduce collisions and increase the efficiency of tag identification. EPCglobal Generation-2 (Gen2) for passive RFID systems uses probabilistic slotted ALOHA with a Q algorithm, which is a kind of dynamic framed slotted ALOHA (DFSA), as the tag anti-collision algorithm. In this paper, we analyze the performance of the Q algorithm used in Gen2, and analyze the methods for estimating the number of slots and tags for DFSA. To increase the efficiency of tag identification, we propose new tag anti-collision algorithms, namely, Chebyshev's inequality, fixed adjustable framed Q, adaptive adjustable framed Q, and hybrid Q. The simulation results show that all the proposed algorithms outperform the conventional Q algorithm used in Gen2. Of all the proposed algorithms, AAFQ provides the best performance in terms of identification time and collision ratio and maximizes throughput and system efficiency. However, there is a tradeoff of complexity and performance between the CHI and AAFQ algorithms.
Cross-Layer Cooperative Scheduling Scheme for Multi-channel Hybrid Ubiquitous Sensor Networks
Zhong, Yingji ; Yang, Qinghai ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ; Yuan, Dongfeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 663~673
The multi-scenario topology of multi-channel hybrid ubiquitous sensor networks (USNs) is studied and a novel link auto-diversity cross-layer cooperative scheduling scheme is proposed in this paper. The proposed scheme integrates the attributes of the new performance evaluation link auto-diversity air-time metric and the topology space in the given multi-scenario. The proposed scheme is compared with other schemes, and its superiority is demonstrated through simulations. The simulation results show that relative energy consumption, link reception probability, and end-to-end blocking probability are improved. The addressing ratio of success with unchanged parameters and external information can be increased. The network can tolerate more hops to support reliable transportation when the proposed scheme is implemented. Moreover, the scheme can make the network stable. Therefore, the proposed scheme can enhance the average rate performance of the hybrid USN and stabilize the outage probability.
Dual Addressing Scheme in IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks
Yang, Soo-Young ; Park, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Ryu, Jae-Hong ; Kim, Bong-Soo ; Kim, Hyung-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 674~684
This paper proposes a dual addressing scheme (DAS) for IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor networks (WSN). DAS combines a global unicast address to cope with association link changes and node mobility, and it links local addresses to lighten the overhead of the system to save energy and resources. This paper describes DAS address formats, address autoconfiguration, and address translation tables in the gateway. A detailed description of DAS is provided through examples. Simulations are performed to demonstrate the performance improvements of the DAS compared with the IPv6-based WSN, which uses the conventional single address.
A Lightweight NEMO Protocol to Support 6LoWPAN
Kim, Jin-Ho ; Hong, Choong-Seon ; Shon, Tae-Shik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 685~695
The Network Mobility (NEMO) and IPv6 over Low power WPAN (6LoWPAN) protocols are the two most important technologies in current networking research and are vital for the future ubiquitous environment. In this paper, we propose a compressed packet header format to support the mobility of 6LoWPAN. Also, a Lightweight NEMO protocol is proposed to minimize the signaling overhead between 6LoWPAN mobile routers and 6LoWPAN gateways by using a compressed mobility header. Performance results show that our Lightweight NEMO protocol can minimize total signaling costs and handoff signaling delay.
COSMOS: A Middleware for Integrated Data Processing over Heterogeneous Sensor Networks
Kim, Ma-Rie ; Lee, Jun-Wook ; Lee, Yong-Joon ; Ryou, Jae-Cheol ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 696~706
With the increasing need for intelligent environment monitoring applications and the decreasing cost of manufacturing sensor devices, it is likely that a wide variety of sensor networks will be deployed in the near future. In this environment, the way to access heterogeneous sensor networks and the way to integrate various sensor data are very important. This paper proposes the common system for middleware of sensor networks (COSMOS), which provides integrated data processing over multiple heterogeneous sensor networks based on sensor network abstraction called the sensor network common interface. Specifically, this paper introduces the sensor network common interface which defines a standardized communication protocol and message formats used between the COSMOS and sensor networks.
High-Speed Hardware Architectures for ARIA with Composite Field Arithmetic and Area-Throughput Trade-Offs
Lee, Sang-Woo ; Moon, Sang-Jae ; Kim, Jeong-Nyeo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 707~717
This paper presents two types of high-speed hardware architectures for the block cipher ARIA. First, the loop architectures for feedback modes are presented. Area-throughput trade-offs are evaluated depending on the S-box implementation by using look-up tables or combinational logic which involves composite field arithmetic. The sub-pipelined architectures for non-feedback modes are also described. With loop unrolling, inner and outer round pipelining techniques, and S-box implementation using composite field arithmetic over
, throughputs of 16 Gbps to 43 Gbps are achievable in a 0.25
CMOS technology. This is the first sub-pipelined architecture of ARIA for high throughput to date.
A Corner-Fed Microstrip Circular Antenna with Switchable Polarization
Sung, Young-Je ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 718~722
In this paper, a design for a novel microstrip antenna with circular polarization diversity is proposed and experimentally investigated. This antenna is excited by a microstrip line, which is located at the corner of a circular patch. The polarization state can be switched electrically by setting a diode to on or off. The novel structure we describe here enables the optimization of the input match for both polarizations. From the measured result, good axial ratios are observed at the operating frequencies.
Transmission Line Model for an Edge-Coupled Patch Antenna
Saksiri, Wiset ; Chongcheawchamnan, Mitchai ; Krairiksh, Monai ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 723~728
In this paper, a simple transmission line model for an edge-coupled patch antenna is presented. The coupled section is modeled with a lump network which represents the mutual admittance between patches and from patch to ground. Theoretical analysis of two edge-coupled patch antenna models are compared by simulation and experiment in antennas designed to operate at the 2 GHz band. The proposed model predicts the return loss of the antenna accurately.
A Low-Voltage High-Performance CMOS Feedforward AGC Circuit for Wideband Wireless Receivers
Alegre, Juan Pablo ; Calvo, Belen ; Celma, Santiago ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 729~734
Wireless communication systems, such as WLAN or Bluetooth receivers, employ preamble data to estimate the channel characteristics, introducing stringent settling-time constraints. This makes the use of traditional closed-loop feedback automatic gain control (AGC) circuits impractical for these applications. In this paper, a compact feedforward AGC circuit is proposed to obtain a fast-settling response. The AGC has been implemented in a 0.35
standard CMOS technology. Supplied at 1.8 V, it operates with a power consumption of 1.6 mW at frequencies as high as 100 MHz, while its gain ranges from 0 dB to 21 dB in 3 dB steps through a digital word. The settling time of the circuit is below 0.25
Compact Spatial Triple-Band-Stop Filter for Cellular/PCS/IMT-2000 Systems
Kim, Dong-Ho ; Yeo, Jun-Ho ; Choi, Jae-Ick ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 735~737
We propose a novel spatial multi-band-stop filter using modified multiple loop array elements to block electromagnetic waves or signals of mobile phones in public facilities. It operates at the following frequency bands: Korean cellular (824 MHz to 894 MHz), Personal Communication Service (PCS) (1.75 GHz to 1.87 GHz), and IMT-2000 (1.92 GHz to 2.17 GHz). Two frequency selective surfaces with modified multiple-loop elements are printed on the top and bottom of a pair-glass pane, which is a pair of glass panes with an air gap between them. A modified multiple-loop element with a meander line is used to make the size of the filter compact. The simulated and measured results show good agreement, which confirms the usefulness of the proposed tri-band spatial filter.
Block Constrained Trellis Coded Vector Quantization of LSF Parameters for Wideband Speech Codecs
Park, Jung-Eun ; Kang, Sang-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 738~740
In this paper, block constrained trellis coded vector quantization (BC-TCVQ) is presented for quantizing the line spectrum frequency parameters of the wideband speech codec. Both a predictive structure and a safety-net concept are combined into BC-TCVQ to develop the predictive BC-TCVQ. The performance of this quantization is compared with that of the linear predictive coding vector quantizer used in the AMRWB codec, demonstrating reductions in spectral distortion.
A Heuristic Method for Channel Allocation and Scheduling in an OFDMA System
Hwang, Sung-Ho ; Park, Joon-Goo ; Jang, Youn-Seon ; Cho, Ho-Shin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 741~743
In this letter, a heuristic channel allocation and scheduling scheme is proposed. By comparing the size of the alternative-factor assessment, which is obtained by simple calculation, we can easily find the most appropriate channel for each user for overall throughput enhancement. Numerical results show that the downlink throughput of the proposed scheme is higher than that of proportional fairness and is almost the same as that of the maximum C/I scheme, while user fairness remains better than that of the maximum C/I scheme.
Crosstalk-Enhanced DOS Integrated with Modified Radiation-Type Attenuators
Han, Young-Tak ; Shin, Jang-Uk ; Park, Sang-Ho ; Han, Sang-Pil ; Lee, Chul-Hee ; Noh, Young-Ouk ; Lee, Hyung-Jong ; Baek, Yong-Soon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 744~746
This letter presents a crosstalk-enhanced polymer thermo-optic digital optical switch operating at a low power consumption. Modified radiation-type attenuators are integrated in a series with a conventional
digital optical switch. A low optical crosstalk of less than -45 dB is attained at a low applied switching power of 60 mW, and an insertion loss of about 1.1 dB is exhibited.
Pixel-Structured Scintillator with Polymeric Microstructures for X-Ray Image Sensors
Jung, Im-Deok ; Cho, Min-Kook ; Bae, Kong-Myeong ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Jung, Phill-Gu ; Kim, Ho-Kyung ; Kim, Sung-Sik ; Ko, Jong-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 747~749
We introduce a pixel-structured scintillator realized on a flexible polymeric substrate and demonstrate its feasibility as an X-ray converter when it is coupled to photosensitive elements. The sample was prepared by filling
scintillation material into a square-pore-shape cavity array fabricated with polyethylene. For comparison, a sample with the conventional continuous geometry was also prepared. Although the pixelated geometry showed X-ray sensitivity of about 58% compared with the conventional geometry, the resolving power was improved by about 70% above a spatial frequency of 3
. The spatial frequency at 10% of the modulation-transfer function was about 6
A Novel Approach for Key Caption Detection in Golf Videos Using Color Patterns
Jung, Cheol-Kon ; Kim, Joong-Kyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 750~752
This paper provides a novel method of detecting key captions containing player information in golf videos. We use the color pattern of captions and its repetition property to determine the key captions. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a much higher accuracy than existing methods.
Feature Compensation Combining SNR-Dependent Feature Reconstruction and Class Histogram Equalization
Suh, Young-Joo ; Kim, Hoi-Rin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 5, 2008, Pages 753~755
In this letter, we propose a new histogram equalization technique for feature compensation in speech recognition under noisy environments. The proposed approach combines a signal-to-noise-ratio-dependent feature reconstruction method and the class histogram equalization technique to effectively reduce the acoustic mismatch present in noisy speech features. Experimental results from the Aurora 2 task confirm the superiority of the proposed approach for acoustic feature compensation.