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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 30, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 30, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 30, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 30, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 30, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 30, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Design Evaluation System with Visualization and Interaction of Mobile Devices Based on Virtual Reality Prototypes
Jo, Dong-Sik ; Yang, Ung-Yeon ; Son, Wook-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 757~764
In this paper, we present a design evaluation system with visualization and interaction of mobile devices using virtual-reality-based prototypes which can be used to easily change design parameters and simulate embedded software. To evaluate and predict affective-engineering-based design preferences for mobile devices under a virtual environment, we have developed a high quality visualization platform which creates images that look similar to real mobile devices in addition to real-time simulation of realistic motions and functions of mobile devices. To support a quantitative usability test scenario for external design shape, we also have built a system which consists of a mixed-reality-based testing platform for measuring hand load.
Simulation Models for Investigation of Multiuser Scheduling in MIMO Broadcast Channels
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Thompson, John S. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 765~773
Spatial correlation is a result of insufficient antenna spacing among multiple antenna elements, while temporal correlation is caused by Doppler spread. This paper compares the effect of spatial and temporal correlation in order to investigate the performance of multiuser scheduling algorithms in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) broadcast channels. This comparison includes the effect on the ergodic capacity, on fairness among users, and on the sum-rate capacity of a multiuser scheduling algorithm utilizing statistical channel state information in spatio-temporally correlated MIMO broadcast channels. Numerical results demonstrate that temporal correlation is more meaningful than spatial correlation in view of the multiuser scheduling algorithm in MIMO broadcast channels. Indeed, the multiuser scheduling algorithm can reduce the effect of the Doppler spread if it exploits the information of temporal correlation appropriately. However, the effect of spatial correlation can be minimized if the antenna spacing is sufficient in rich scattering MIMO channels regardless of the multiuser scheduling algorithm used.
Orbit Determination Accuracy Improvement for Geostationary Satellite with Single Station Antenna Tracking Data
Hwang, Yoo-La ; Lee, Byoung-Sun ; Kim, Hae-Yeon ; Kim, Hae-Dong ; Kim, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 774~782
An operational orbit determination (OD) and prediction system for the geostationary Communication, Ocean, and Meteorological Satellite (COMS) mission requires accurate satellite positioning knowledge to accomplish image navigation registration on the ground. Ranging and tracking data from a single ground station is used for COMS OD in normal operation. However, the orbital longitude of the COMS is so close to that of satellite tracking sites that geometric singularity affects observability. A method to solve the azimuth bias of a single station in singularity is to periodically apply an estimated azimuth bias using the ranging and tracking data of two stations. Velocity increments of a wheel off-loading maneuver which is performed twice a day are fixed by planned values without considering maneuver efficiency during OD. Using only single-station data with the correction of the azimuth bias, OD can achieve three-sigma position accuracy on the order of 1.5 km root-sum-square.
Retina-Motivated CMOS Vision Chip Based on Column Parallel Architecture and Switch-Selective Resistive Network
Kong, Jae-Sung ; Hyun, Hyo-Young ; Seo, Sang-Ho ; Shin, Jang-Kyoo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 783~789
A bio-inspired vision chip for edge detection was fabricated using 0.35
double-poly four-metal complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology. It mimics the edge detection mechanism of a biological retina. This type of vision chip offer several advantages including compact size, high speed, and dense system integration. Low resolution and relatively high power consumption are common limitations of these chips because of their complex circuit structure. We have tried to overcome these problems by rearranging and simplifying their circuits. A vision chip of
pixels has been fabricated in
silicon die. It shows less than 10 mW of power consumption.
Anticipatory I/O Management for Clustered Flash Translation Layer in NAND Flash Memory
Park, Kwang-Hee ; Yang, Jun-Sik ; Chang, Joon-Hyuk ; Kim, Deok-Hwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 790~798
Recently, NAND flash memory has emerged as a next generation storage device because it has several advantages, such as low power consumption, shock resistance, and so on. However, it is necessary to use a flash translation layer (FTL) to intermediate between NAND flash memory and conventional file systems because of the unique hardware characteristics of flash memory. This paper proposes a new clustered FTL (CFTL) that uses clustered hash tables and a two-level software cache technique. The CFTL can anticipate consecutive addresses from the host because the clustered hash table uses the locality of reference in a large address space. It also adaptively switches logical addresses to physical addresses in the flash memory by using block mapping, page mapping, and a two-level software cache technique. Furthermore, anticipatory I/O management using continuity counters and a prefetch scheme enables fast address translation. Experimental results show that the proposed address translation mechanism for CFTL provides better performance in address translation and memory space usage than the well-known NAND FTL (NFTL) and adaptive FTL (AFTL).
A Symbiotic Evolutionary Design of Error-Correcting Code with Minimal Power Consumption
Lee, Hee-Sung ; Kim, Eun-Tai ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 799~806
In this paper, a new design for an error correcting code (ECC) is proposed. The design is aimed to build an ECC circuitry with minimal power consumption. The genetic algorithm equipped with the symbiotic mechanism is used to design a power-efficient ECC which provides single-error correction and double-error detection (SEC-DED). We formulate the selection of the parity check matrix into a collection of individual and specialized optimization problems and propose a symbiotic evolution method to search for an ECC with minimal power consumption. Finally, we conduct simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Efficient LDPC-Based, Threaded Layered Space-Time-Frequency System with Iterative Receiver
Hu, Junfeng ; Zhang, Hailin ; Yang, Yuan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 807~817
We present a low-density parity-check (LDPC)-based, threaded layered space-time-frequency system with emphasis on the iterative receiver design. First, the unbiased minimum mean-squared-error iterative-tree-search (U-MMSE-ITS) detector, which is known to be one of the most efficient multi-input multi-output (MIMO) detectors available, is improved by augmentation of the partial-length paths and by the addition of one-bit complement sequences. Compared with the U-MMSE-ITS detector, the improved detector provides better detection performance with lower complexity. Furthermore, the improved detector is robust to arbitrary MIMO channels and to any antenna configurations. Second, based on the structure of the iterative receiver, we present a low-complexity belief-propagation (BP) decoding algorithm for LDPC-codes. This BP decoder not only has low computing complexity but also converges very fast (5 iterations is sufficient). With the efficient receiver employing the improved detector and the low-complexity BP decoder, the proposed system is a promising solution to high-data-rate transmission over selective-fading channels.
Efficient Exponentiation in Extensions of Finite Fields without Fast Frobenius Mappings
Nogami, Yasuyuki ; Kato, Hidehiro ; Nekado, Kenta ; Morikawa, Yoshitaka ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 818~825
This paper proposes an exponentiation method with Frobenius mappings. The main target is an exponentiation in an extension field. This idea can be applied for scalar multiplication of a rational point of an elliptic curve defined over an extension field. The proposed method is closely related to so-called interleaving exponentiation. Unlike interleaving exponentiation methods, it can carry out several exponentiations of the same base at once. This happens in some pairing-based applications. The efficiency of using Frobenius mappings for exponentiation in an extension field was well demonstrated by Avanzi and Mihailescu. Their exponentiation method efficiently decreases the number of multiplications by inversely using many Frobenius mappings. Compared to their method, although the number of multiplications needed for the proposed method increases about 20%, the number of Frobenius mappings becomes small. The proposed method is efficient for cases in which Frobenius mapping cannot be carried out quickly.
High Security FeRAM-Based EPC C1G2 UHF (860 MHz-960 MHz) Passive RFID Tag Chip
Kang, Hee-Bok ; Hong, Suk-Kyoung ; Song, Yong-Wook ; Sung, Man-Young ; Choi, Bok-Gil ; Chung, Jin-Yong ; Lee, Jong-Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 826~832
The metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitor in the ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) embedded RFID chip is used in both the memory cell region and the peripheral analog and digital circuit area for capacitance parameter control. The capacitance value of the MFM capacitor is about 30 times larger than that of conventional capacitors, such as the poly-insulator-poly (PIP) capacitor and the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor. An MFM capacitor directly stacked over the analog and memory circuit region can share the layout area with the circuit region; thus, the chip size can be reduced by about 60%. The energy transformation efficiency using the MFM scheme is higher than that of the PIP scheme in RFID chips. The radio frequency operational signal properties using circuits with MFM capacitors are almost the same as or better than with PIP, MIM, and MOS capacitors. For the default value specification requirement, the default set cell is designed with an additional dummy cell.
Degradation Behavior of 850 nm AlGaAs/GaAs Oxide VCSELs Suffered from Electrostatic Discharge
Kim, Tae-Yong ; Kim, Tae-Ki ; Kim, Sang-In ; Kim, Sang-Bae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 833~843
The effect of forward and reverse electrostatic discharge (ESD) on the electro-optical characteristics of oxide vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers is investigated using a human body model for the purpose of understanding degradation behavior. Forward ESD-induced degradation is complicated, showing three degradation phases depending on ESD voltage, while reverse ESD-induced degradation is relatively simple, exhibiting two phases of degradation divided by a sudden distinctive change in electro-optical characteristics. We demonstrate that the increase in the threshold current is mainly due to the increase in leakage current, nonradiative recombination current, and optical loss. The decrease in the slope efficiency is mainly due to the increase in optical loss.
Coil-Capacitor Circuit Design of a Transcutaneous Energy Transmission System to Deliver Stable Electric Power
Choi, Seong-Wook ; Lee, Min-Hyong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 844~849
A new transcutaneous energy transmission (TET) system was developed for transmitting electrical power to an implanted device, such as an artificial heart in a patient's body. This new design can maintain a stable output voltage independent of the load resistance. The system includes a compensation capacitor to reduce energy loss and increase power transfer efficiency. Experimental results show that the output voltage of the receiving coil changes very little as the load resistance varies from 14.8
, which corresponds to a change in output power from 0.1 to 97 W.
A Two-Stage Radix-4 Viterbi Decoder for Multiband OFDM UWB Systems
Choi, Sung-Woo ; Kang, Kyu-Min ; Choi, Sang-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 850~852
This letter presents a power efficient 64-state Viterbi decoder (VD) employing a two-stage radix-4 add-compare-select architecture. A class of VD architectures is implemented, and their hardware complexity, maximum operating speed, and power consumption are compared. Implementation results show that the proposed VD architecture is suitable for multiband orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) ultra-wideband (UWB) systems, which can support the data rate of 480 Mbps even when implemented using 0.18-
Semijoin-Based Spatial Join Processing in Multiple Sensor Networks
Kim, Min-Soo ; Kim, Ju-Wan ; Kim, Myoung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 853~855
This paper presents an energy-efficient spatial join algorithm for multiple sensor networks employing a spatial semijoin strategy. For optimization of the algorithm, we propose a GR-tree index and a grid-ID-based spatial approximation method, which are unique to sensor networks. The GR-tree is a distributed spatial index over the sensor nodes, which efficiently prunes away the nodes that will not participate in a spatial join result. The grid-ID-based approximation provides great reduction in communication cost by approximating many spatial objects in simpler forms. Our experiments demonstrate that the algorithm outperforms existing methods in reducing energy consumption at the nodes.
One-to-All Broadcasting of Odd Networks for One-Port and All-Port Models
Kim, Jong-Seok ; Lee, Hyeong-Ok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 856~858
Odd networks were introduced in the context of graph theory. However, their potential as fault-tolerant multiprocessor networks has been shown. Broadcasting is one of the most important communication primitives used in multiprocessor networks. In this letter, we introduce efficient one-to-all broadcasting schemes of odd networks for one-port and all-port models. We show the broadcasting time of the former is 2d-2 and that of the latter is d-1. The total time steps taken by the proposed algorithms are optimal.
Effective Multiplexing Method for Conditional Access System in Terrestrial DMB
Lee, Yong-Hoon ; Lee, Gwang-Soon ; Lee, Jin-Hwan ; Ahn, Chung-Hyun ; Lee, Soo-In ; Kim, Nam ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 859~861
This letter proposes a conditional access system (CAS) suitable for use in terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB), based on an effective multiplexing method to provide encrypted T-DMB services. Specifically, the proposed multiplexing method for a CAS is designed to reduce the additional bit rate while assuring easy access to the designated encrypted services. Finally, the performance of the implemented CAS is confirmed through implementation and a broadcasting experiment under various service environments.
Grouped Approach for the Design of H.264/AVC Motion Estimation Architectures
Lopez, Sebastian ; Callico, Gustavo M. ; Tobajas, Felix ; De Armas, Valentin ; Lopez, Jose F. ; Sarmiento, Roberto ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 862~864
This letter presents a novel approach for organizing computational resources into groups within H.264/AVC motion estimation architectures, leading to reductions of up to 75% in the equivalent gate count with respect to state-of-the-art designs.
Model Adaptation Using Discriminative Noise Adaptive Training Approach for New Environments
Jung, Ho-Young ; Kang, Byung-Ok ; Lee, Yun-Keun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 865~867
A conventional environment adaptation for robust speech recognition is usually conducted using transform-based techniques. Here, we present a discriminative adaptation strategy based on a multi-condition-trained model, and propose a new method to provide universal application to a new environment using the environment's specific conditions. Experimental results show that a speech recognition system adapted using the proposed method works successfully for other conditions as well as for those of the new environment.
Mitigating the ICA Attack against Rotation-Based Transformation for Privacy Preserving Clustering
Mohaisen, Abedelaziz ; Hong, Do-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 868~870
The rotation-based transformation (RBT) for privacy preserving data mining is vulnerable to the independent component analysis (ICA) attack. This paper introduces a modified multiple-rotation-based transformation technique for special mining applications, mitigating the ICA attack while maintaining the advantages of the RBT.
Spectral Efficiency of WRAN Spectrum Overlay in the TV White Space
Leem, Cha-Sik ; Kim, Sang-Won ; Kim, Chang-Joo ; Kang, Sung-Chul ; Lee, Jai-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 871~873
In this letter, we investigate the spectral efficiency of IEEE 802.22 wireless regional area network (WRAN) spectrum overlay when it is used in TV white space. Since 2004, when the FCC published the notice of proposed rule making 04-186 to make use of unused TV spectrum, the IEEE 802.22 working group has been standardizing specifications for WRAN operations. There have been a few papers investigating the spectral efficiency of this, but their analyses were limited to the cases for various guard distances between WRAN base stations. Since WRAN base station (BS) power for WRAN service may differ from country to country, it is important to analyze the spectral efficiency for various WRAN BS powers. In this letter, we analyze the spectral efficiency of WRAN spectrum overlay as a function of the power of WRAN BSs. The simulation results show that spectral efficiency decreases as the power of WRAN BSs and guard distances increase.
Ethernet Ring Protection Using Filtering Database Flip Scheme For Minimum Capacity Requirement
Rhee, June-Koo Kevin ; Im, Jin-Sung ; Ryoo, Jeong-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 874~876
Ethernet ring protection is a new technology introduced in ITU-T Recommendation G.8032, which utilizes the generic Ethernet MAC functions. We introduce an alternative enhanced protection switching scheme to suppress penalty in the switching transient, in which the Ethernet MAC filtering database (FDB) is actively and directly modified by information disseminated from the nodes adjacent to failure. The modified FDB at all nodes are guaranteed to be consistent to form a complete new ring network topology immediately. This scheme can reduce the capacity requirement of the G.8032 by several times. This proposed scheme can be also applied in IP protection rings.
Differential Dual-Frequency Antenna for Wireless Communication
Han, Liping ; Zhang, Wenmei ; Han, Guorui ; Ma, Runbo ; Li, Li ;
ETRI Journal, volume 30, issue 6, 2008, Pages 877~879
A novel differential dual-frequency antenna using proximity coupling is proposed. Dual bands are realized by a slot in the ground plane. The lower resonant frequency is controlled by the slot in the ground plane, and the upper resonant frequency is mainly determined by the dimensions of the radiating patch. Measured results show that the proposed antenna can operate at 2.51 GHz and 5.38 GHz.