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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Temporal Anti-aliasing of a Stereoscopic 3D Video
Kim, Wook-Joong ; Kim, Seong-Dae ; Hur, Nam-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Woong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 1~9
Frequency domain analysis is a fundamental procedure for understanding the characteristics of visual data. Several studies have been conducted with 2D videos, but analysis of stereoscopic 3D videos is rarely carried out. In this paper, we derive the Fourier transform of a simplified 3D video signal and analyze how a 3D video is influenced by disparity and motion in terms of temporal aliasing. It is already known that object motion affects temporal frequency characteristics of a time-varying image sequence. In our analysis, we show that a 3D video is influenced not only by motion but also by disparity. Based on this conclusion, we present a temporal anti-aliasing filter for a 3D video. Since the human process of depth perception mainly determines the quality of a reproduced 3D image, 2D image processing techniques are not directly applicable to 3D images. The analysis presented in this paper will be useful for reducing undesirable visual artifacts in 3D video as well as for assisting the development of relevant technologies.
A Personal Videocasting System with Intelligent TV Browsing for a Practical Video Application Environment
Kim, Sang-Kyun ; Jeong, Jin-Guk ; Kim, Hyoung-Gook ; Chung, Min-Gyo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 10~20
In this paper, a video broadcasting system between a home-server-type device and a mobile device is proposed. The home-server-type device can automatically extract semantic information from video contents, such as news, a soccer match, and a baseball game. The indexing results are utilized to convert the original video contents to a digested or arranged format. From the mobile device, a user can make recording requests to the home-server-type devices and can then watch and navigate recorded video contents in a digested form. The novelty of this study is the actual implementation of the proposed system by combining the actual IT environment that is available with indexing algorithms. The implementation of the system is demonstrated along with experimental results of the automatic video indexing algorithms. The overall performance of the developed system is compared with existing state-of-the-art personal video recording products.
Frame Error Concealment Using Pixel Correlation in Overlapped Motion Compensation Regions
Duong, Dinh Trieu ; Choi, Byeong-Doo ; Hwang, Min-Cheol ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 21~30
In low bit-rate video transmission, the payload of a single packet can often contain a whole coded frame due to the high compression ratio in both spatial and temporal domains of most modern video coders. Thus, the loss of a single packet not only causes the loss of a whole frame, but also produces error propagation into subsequent frames. In this paper, we propose a novel whole frame error concealment algorithm which reconstructs the first of the subsequent frames instead of the current lost frame to suppress the effects of error propagation. In the proposed algorithm, we impose a constraint which uses side match distortion (SMD) and overlapped region difference (ORD) to estimate motion vectors between the target reconstructed frame and its reference frame. SMD measures the spatial smoothness connection between a block and its neighboring blocks. ORD is defined as the difference between the correlated pixels which are predicted from one reference pixel. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm effectively suppresses error propagation and significantly outperforms other conventional techniques in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio performance and subjective visual quality.
Edge-Node Deployed Routing Strategies for Load Balancing in Optical Burst Switched Networks
Barradas, Alvaro L. ; Medeiros, Maria Do Carmo R. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 31~41
Optical burst switching is a promising switching paradigm for the next IP-over-optical network backbones. However, its burst loss performance is greatly affected by burst contention. Several methods have been proposed to address this problem, some of them requiring the network to be flooded by frequent state dissemination signaling messages. In this work, we present a traffic engineering approach for path selection with the objective of minimizing contention using only topological information. The main idea is to balance the traffic across the network to reduce congestion without incurring link state dissemination protocol penalties. We propose and evaluate two path selection strategies that clearly outperform shortest path routing. The proposed path selection strategies can be used in combination with other contention resolution methods to achieve higher levels of performance and support the network reaching stability when it is pushed under stringent working conditions. Results show that the network connectivity is an important parameter to consider.
Simulation of Voltage and Current Distributions in Transmission Lines Using State Variables and Exponential Approximation
Dan-Klang, Panuwat ; Leelarasmee, Ekachai ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 42~50
A new method for simulating voltage and current distributions in transmission lines is described. It gives the time domain solution of the terminal voltage and current as well as their line distributions. This is achieved by treating voltage and current distributions as distributed state variables (DSVs) and turning the transmission line equation into an ordinary differential equation. Thus the transmission line is treated like other lumped dynamic components, such as capacitors. Using backward differentiation formulae for time discretization, the DSV transmission line component is converted to a simple time domain companion model, from which its local truncation error can be derived. As the voltage and current distributions get more complicated with time, a new piecewise exponential with controllable accuracy is invented. A segmentation algorithm is also devised so that the line is dynamically bisected to guarantee that the total piecewise exponential error is a small fraction of the local truncation error. Using this approach, the user can see the line voltage and current at any point and time freely without explicitly segmenting the line before starting the simulation.
Strategic Differentiation of Internationalization in the Mobile Telecommunications Industry: Case Studies
Kim, Whan-Seon ; Lee, Myeong-Ho ; Kim, Kyung-Don ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 51~61
We present a unified explanation of the internationalization strategies of major mobile network operators (MNOs). We have developed a framework that analyzes the strategies of major international MNOs in terms of the relationship between their degree of involvement in international business operations and the degree of equity participation. The results show a positive association between these two dimensions as expected, but they also reveal some exceptional cases in which certain MNOs are actively involved in the business operations of other foreign MNOs, even with minor (or zero) equity investments. In this paper, we argue that the strategic actions of the major MNOs which are the largest shareholders of foreign MNOs are in an equilibrium status because these major MNOs derive maximum benefit from full or considerable management control and active involvement. Finally, we predict that latecomers (MNOs who are just about to enter foreign telecommunications markets) may adopt an incremental investment approach because most developed markets and deregulated emerging markets with growth potential are already preempted by major MNOs. Therefore, the window of opportunity for internationalization in those markets is currently small.
Light Effects on the Bias Stability of Transparent ZnO Thin Film Transistors
Shin, Jae-Heon ; Lee, Ji-Su ; Hwang, Chi-Sun ; KoPark, Sang-Hee ; Cheong, Woo-Seok ; Ryu, Min-Ki ; Byun, Chun-Won ; Lee, Jeong-Ik ; Chu, Hye-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 62~64
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0208.0266
We report on the bias stability characteristics of transparent ZnO thin film transistors (TFTs) under visible light illumination. The transfer curve shows virtually no change under positive gate bias stress with light illumination, while it shows dramatic negative shifts under negative gate bias stress. The major mechanism of the bias stability under visible illumination of our ZnO TFTs is thought to be the charge trapping of photo-generated holes at the gate insulator and/or insulator/channel interface.
Efficient Generation of Scalable Transport Stream for High Quality Service in T-DMB
Kim, Kwang-Yong ; Lee, Gwang-Soon ; Lim, Jong-Soo ; Lee, Soo-In ; Kim, Duk-Gyoo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 65~67
We introduce an advanced terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (AT-DMB) system that overcomes the limitation of data transmission rates of T-DMB by doubling it with the same frequency bandwidth. In this letter, we propose an efficient algorithm which generates a scalable transport stream in AT-DMB by multiplexing certain types of elementary streams encoded using scalable video coding and an MPEG-surround audio coder for high-quality multimedia services.
Measurement Guideline of Fresnel-Field Antenna Measurement Method
Oh, Soon-Soo ; Moon, Jung-Ick ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 68~70
In this letter, a parametric analysis of the Fresnel-field antenna measurement method is performed for a square aperture. As a result, the optimum number of Fresnel fields for one far-field point is guided as
, where D is the antenna diameter,
is the wavelength, and R is the distance between the source antenna and the antenna under test. For the aperture size 5
20, the tolerable distances for gain errors of 0.5 dB and 0.2 dB can be guided as
is the lateral length of the square aperture. The tolerable distances for 20
200 are also proposed. This measurement guideline can be fully utilized when performing the Fresnel-field antenna measurement method.
Miniaturization of an Ultra-Wideband Antenna with Two Spiral Elements
Hong, Seok-Jin ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 71~73
In this letter, novel antennas with two spiral elements are presented for ultra-wideband application. The original antenna consists of a T-shaped microstrip feed line, two spiral radiating elements, and a ground plane with two circular slots. It measures 30 mm
1.6 mm. Spiral elements are used to increase the lower bandwidth limit. To further reduce the size of the antenna, the original antenna is cut in half by using the symmetry of the surface current distributions. The proposed antennas feature omnidirectional radiation patterns and good gain flatness.
Circular Polarization Dielectric Resonator Antenna Excited by Single Loop Feed
Jeon, Sin-Hyung ; Choi, Hyeng-Cheul ; Kim, Hyeong-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 74~76
A new feeding method for the circular polarization (CP) dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) is proposed in this letter. Two orthogonal modes (
) of the rectangular DRA are excited by a
phase difference of the differential and common modes currents of the proposed feeding structure. To demonstrate the good CP performance of the proposed method, a right-hand CP DRA for a global positioning system was designed. The impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna for
< -10 dB and 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth are about 5.4% and 1.95% at 1.57 GHz, respectively.
Electromagnetic Modeling of Quasi-Square Open Metallic Ring Frequency Selective Surface Using Wave Concept Iterative Procedure
Titaouine, Mohammed ; Raveu, Nathalie ; Neto, Alfredo Gomes ; Baudrand, Henri ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 77~79
The wave concept iterative procedure (WCIP) is used to analyze a quasi-square open metallic ring frequency selective surface (FSS). The quasi-square open metallic ring FSS is dual-polarized. When the incident plane wave is polarized in a direction parallel to the FSS' coupled parallel strips, it shows two rejecting bands. Moreover, another rejecting band can be obtained if the source plane wave is perpendicularly polarized with respect to the FSS' coupled parallel strips. The three resonant frequencies are inversely proportional to the length of the FSS' coupled strips to provide an easy fine tuning of the FSS structure. The simulated results obtained using WCIP are compared to the measured results, and a good agreement is reported.
Reduced-Resolution Intra Block Coding Mode
Park, Sung-Jae ; Nam, Jung-Hak ; Sim, Dong-Gyu ; Oh, Seoung-Jun ; Hong, Jin-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 80~82
In this letter, a new intra-block coding mode is presented to improve the coding efficiency for band-limited signals. A band-limited block is sub-sampled, and the sub-sampled signal is coded on the basis of the conventional prediction/transform coding. The rest of the samples are reconstructed by interpolation at the decoder side without any side information. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves coding gains of 2.7% for common intermediate format (CIF), 4.29% for quarter CIF, and 6.39% for 720p60 sequences against the H.264/AVC JM10.2 reference software.
OFDMA-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
Kim, Sung-Won ; Kim, Byung-Seo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 83~85
Compared with unicast, multicast over wireless ad-hoc networks do not support reliability due to their inability to exchange request-to-send/clear-to-send (RTS/CTS) and ACK packets with multiple recipients. Although several media access control (MAC) layer protocols have been proposed to provide reliable multicast, these introduce additional overhead, which degrades system performance. A novel MAC protocol for reliable wireless multicast is proposed in this paper. By adapting orthogonal frequency division multiple access characteristics in CTS and ACK packets, the protocol achieves reliability over wireless multicast with minimized overhead.
Optimal Buffer Allocation in Tandem Queues with Communication Blocking
Seo, Dong-Won ; Ko, Sung-Seok ; Jung, Uk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 86~88
In this letter, we consider an m-node tandem queue (queues in series) with a Poisson arrival process and either deterministic or non-overlapping service times. With the assumption that each node has a finite buffer except for the first node, we show the non-increasing convex property of stationary waiting time with respect to the finite buffer capacities. We apply it to an optimization problem which determines the smallest buffer capacities subject to probabilistic constraints on stationary waiting times.
Competitive Resource Sharing Based on Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks
Zhang, Guopeng ; Cong, Li ; Zhao, Liqiang ; Yang, Kun ; Zhang, Hailin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 89~91
This letter considers the problem of resource sharing among a relay and multiple user nodes in cooperative transmission networks. We formulate this problem as a sellers' market competition and use a noncooperative game to jointly consider the benefits of the relay and the users. We also develop a distributed algorithm to search the Nash equilibrium, the solution of the game. The convergence of the proposed algorithm is analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed game can stimulate cooperative diversity among the selfish user nodes and coordinate resource allocation among the user nodes effectively.
Bidirectional Artificial Neural Networks for Mobile-Phone Fraud Detection
Krenker, Andrej ; Volk, Mojca ; Sedlar, Urban ; Bester, Janez ; Kos, Andrej ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 1, 2009, Pages 92~94
We propose a system for mobile-phone fraud detection based on a bidirectional artificial neural network (bi-ANN). The key advantage of such a system is the ability to detect fraud not only by offline processing of call detail records (CDR), but also in real time. The core of the system is a bi-ANN that predicts the behavior of individual mobile-phone users. We determined that the bi-ANN is capable of predicting complex time series (Call_Duration parameter) that are stored in the CDR.