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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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Nanogap Array Fabrication Using Doubly Clamped Freestanding Silicon Nanowires and Angle Evaporations
Yu, Han-Young ; Ah, Chil-Seong ; Baek, In-Bok ; Kim, An-Soon ; Yang, Jong-Heon ; Ahn, Chang-Guen ; Park, Chan-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 351~356
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0006
We present a simple semiconductor process to fabricate nanogap arrays for application in molecular electronics and nano-bio electronics using a combination of freestanding silicon nanowires and angle evaporation. The gap distance is modulated using the height of the silicon dioxide, the width of the Si nanowires, and the evaporation angle. In addition, we fabricate and apply the nanogap arrays in single-electron transistors using DNA-linked Au nanoparticles for the detection of DNA hybridization.
Novel Equalization On-Channel Repeater with Feedback Interference Canceller in Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting System
Park, Sung-Ik ; Eum, Ho-Min ; Park, So-Ra ; Kim, Geon ; Lee, Yong-Tae ; Kim, Heung-Mook ; Oh, Wang-Rok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 357~364
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0009
In this paper, we propose a novel equalization on-channel repeater (OCR) with a feedback interference canceller (FIC) to relay terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting signals in single frequency networks. The proposed OCR not only has high output power by cancelling the feedback signals caused by insufficient antenna isolation through the FIC, but also shows better output signal quality than the conventional OCR by removing multipath signals existing between the main transmitter and the OCR through an equalizer. In addition, computer simulations and laboratory test results demonstrate that the proposed OCR successfully cancels feedback signals and compensates channel distortions and provides a higher quality transmitting signal with higher output power than conventional OCRs.
Design and Development of T-DMB Multichannel Audio Service System Based on Spatial Audio Coding
Lee, Yong-Ju ; Seo, Jeong-Il ; Beack, Seung-Kwon ; Jang, Dae-Young ; Kang, Kyeong-Ok ; Kim, Jin-Woong ; Hong, Jin-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 365~375
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0557
In this paper, a terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (T-DMB) multichannel audio broadcasting system based on spatial audio coding is presented. The proposed system provides realistic multichannel audio service via T-DMB with a small increase of data rate as well as backward compatibility with the conventional stereo-based T-DMB player. To reduce the data rate for additional multichannel audio signals, we compress the multichannel audio signals using the sound source location cue coding algorithm, which is an efficient parametric multichannel audio compression technique. For compatibility, we use the dependent property of an elementary stream descriptor, and this property should be ignored in a conventional T-DMB player. To verify the feasibility of the proposed system, we implement the T-DMB multichannel audio encoder and a prototype player. We perform a compatibility test using the T-DMB multichannel audio encoder and conventional T-DMB players. The test demonstrates that the proposed system is compatible with a conventional T-DMB player and that it can provide a promisingly rich audio service.
Design and Performance Analysis of Emulator for Standard Conformance Test of Active RFID
Song, Tae-Seung ; Lee, Wang-Sang ; Kim, Tae-Yeon ; Lyou, Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 376~386
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0595
An active radio frequency identification (RFID) system has the advantages of a long identification distance and a good identification rate, overcoming passive RFID drawbacks. Therefore, interest in the development of active RFID systems has been gradually increasing in areas of harbor logistics and national defense. However, some identification failures between active RFID systems developed under the same standards have been reported, presumably due to a lack of development of accurate evaluation methods and test equipment. We present a realization of the hardware and software of an emulator to evaluate the standard conformance of an active RFID system in a fully anechoic chamber. The performance levels of the designed emulator are analyzed using Matlab/Simulink simulations, and the applicability of the emulator is verified by evaluating the standard conformance of a real active RFID tag. Finally, we propose a new evaluation method by incorporating a self-running test mode environment into the RFID tags to reduce testing time and increase testing accuracy. The application of the suggested method to actual tags improves measurement uncertainty by 0.56 dB over that obtained using existing methods.
Analysis on the Calculation of Plasma Medium with Parallel SO-FDTD Method
Duan, Xule ; Yang, Hong Wei ; Kong, Xiangkun ; Liu, Han ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 387~392
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0698
This paper introduces a novel parallel shift operator finite-difference time-domain (SO-FDTD) method for plasma in the dispersive media. We calculate the interaction between the electromagnetic wave of various frequencies and non-magnetized plasma by using the parallel SO-FDTD method. Then, we compare the results，which are calculated with serial and parallel SO-FDTD executions to obtain the speedup ratio and validate the parallel execution. We conclude that the parallel SO method has almost the same precision as the serial SO method, while the parallel approach expands the scope of memory and reduces the CPU time.
Elimination of Idle Tones by a 2-Bit Adaptive Sigma-Delta Modulation System
Prosalentis, Evangelos ; Tombras, George S. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 393~398
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0611
The operation of a first-order 2-bit adaptive sigma-delta modulation system is described and discussed in this paper. The system operation is based on the combination of both "memory" and "look-ahead" estimation in the employed step-size adaptation algorithm of the basic quantizer. In comparison to simple systems and other adaptive sigma-delta systems, computer simulation results show that these features of the described system are responsible for the high SNR values and the extended dynamic range achieved for AC signals as well as the noise power reduction of almost 10 dB and the complete elimination of the idle tones for DC signals. However, such an advantageous performance requires the least possible multiplicative error accumulation, and this cannot be achieved without analog circuits of the highest possible accuracy.
Power Control for CDMA Systems in User-Centric and Network-Centric Manners
Zhao, Nan ; Wu, Zhilu ; Zhao, Yaqin ; Quan, Taifan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 399~407
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0129
In this paper, we present a robust
distributed power control scheme for wireless CDMA communication systems. The proposed scheme is obtained by optimizing an objective function consisting of the user's performance degradation and the network interference, and it enables a user to address various user-centric and network-centric objectives by updating power in either a greedy or energy efficient manner. The control law is fully distributed in the sense that only its own channel variation needs to be estimated for each user. The proposed scheme is robust to channel fading due to the immediate decision of the power allocation of the next time step based on the estimations from the
filter. Simulation results demonstrate the robustness of the scheme to the uncertainties of the channel and the excellent performance and versatility of the scheme with users adapting transmit power either in a user-centric or a network-centric efficient manner.
PESQ-Based Selection of Efficient Partial Encryption Set for Compressed Speech
Yang, Hae-Yong ; Lee, Kyung-Hoon ; Lee, Sang-Han ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 408~418
DOI : 10.4210/etrij.09.0108.0508
Adopting an encryption function in voice over Wi-Fi service incurs problems such as additional power consumption and degradation of communication quality. To overcome these problems, a partial encryption (PE) algorithm for compressed speech was recently introduced. However, from the security point of view, the partial encryption sets (PESs) of the conventional PE algorithm still have much room for improvement. This paper proposes a new selection method for finding a smaller PES while maintaining the security level of encrypted speech. The proposed PES selection method employs the perceptual evaluation of the speech quality (PESQ) algorithm to objectively measure the distortion of speech. The proposed method is applied to the ITU-T G.729 speech codec, and content protection capability is verified by a range of tests and a reconstruction attack. The experimental results show that encrypting only 20% of the compressed bitstream is sufficient to effectively hide the entire content of speech.
Enhancing Performance with a Learnable Strategy for Multiple Question Answering Modules
Oh, Hyo-Jung ; Myaeng, Sung-Hyon ; Jang, Myung-Gil ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 419~428
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0388
A question answering (QA) system can be built using multiple QA modules that can individually serve as a QA system in and of themselves. This paper proposes a learnable, strategy-driven QA model that aims at enhancing both efficiency and effectiveness. A strategy is learned using a learning-based classification algorithm that determines the sequence of QA modules to be invoked and decides when to stop invoking additional modules. The learned strategy invokes the most suitable QA module for a given question and attempts to verify the answer by consulting other modules until the level of confidence reaches a threshold. In our experiments, our strategy learning approach obtained improvement over a simple routing approach by 10.5% in effectiveness and 27.2% in efficiency.
Relighting 3D Scenes with a Continuously Moving Camera
Kim, Soon-Hyun ; Kyung, Min-Ho ; Lee, Joo-Haeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 429~437
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0696
This paper proposes a novel technique for 3D scene relighting with interactive viewpoint changes. The proposed technique is based on a deep framebuffer framework for fast relighting computation which adopts image-based techniques to provide arbitrary view-changing. In the preprocessing stage, the shading parameters required for the surface shaders, such as surface color, normal, depth, ambient/diffuse/specular coefficients, and roughness, are cached into multiple deep framebuffers generated by several caching cameras which are created in an automatic manner. When the user designs the lighting setup, the relighting renderer builds a map to connect a screen pixel for the current rendering camera to the corresponding deep framebuffer pixel and then computes illumination at each pixel with the cache values taken from the deep framebuffers. All the relighting computations except the deep framebuffer pre-computation are carried out at interactive rates by the GPU.
LDA Image Projection Technique for Face Recognition
Sanayha, Waiyawut ; Rangsanseri, Yuttapong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 438~447
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0667
In this paper, a novel image projection technique for face recognition application is proposed which is based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA) combined with the relevance-weighted (RW) method. The projection is performed through 2-directional and 2-dimensional LDA, or
LDA, which simultaneously works in row and column directions to solve the small sample size problem. Moreover, a weighted discriminant hyperplane is used in the between-class scatter matrix, and an RW method is used in the within-class scatter matrix to weigh the information to resolve confusable data in these classes. This technique is called the relevance-weighted
LDA, or RW
LDA, which is used for a more accurate discriminant decision than that produced by the conventional LDA or 2DLDA. The proposed technique has been successfully tested on four face databases. Experimental results indicate that the proposed RW
LDA algorithm is more computationally efficient than the conventional algorithms because it has fewer features and faster times. It can also improve performance and has a maximum recognition rate of over 97%.
Highlight-Detection-Based Color Correction Method for Multiview Images
Shao, Feng ; Jiang, Gangyi ; Yu, Mei ; Ho, Yo-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 448~450
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0003
In multiview imaging systems, color correction is adopted to eliminate color inconsistency between views. However, the influence of highlights on color correction has not been considered before. In this letter, a new color correction method based on highlight detection is proposed. The method is designed to treat highlight and highlight-removal regions independently when calculating correction parameters. Finial correction is implemented with a fusion mechanism. Experimental results show that the proposed method can improve objective and subjective correction performance, while achieving better coding performance than other correction methods.
Robust Voice Activity Detection Using the Spectral Peaks of Vowel Sounds
Yoo, In-Chul ; Yook, Dong-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 451~453
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0104
This letter proposes the use of vowel sound detection for voice activity detection. Vowels have distinctive spectral peaks. These are likely to remain higher than their surroundings even after severe corruption. Therefore, by developing a method of detecting the spectral peaks of vowel sounds in corrupted signals, voice activity can be detected as well even in low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm performs reliably under various noise and low SNR conditions. This method is suitable for mobile environments where the characteristics of noise may not be known in advance.
A Closed-Form Solution of Linear Spectral Transformation for Robust Speech Recognition
Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Yook, Dong-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 454~456
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0012
The maximum likelihood linear spectral transformation (ML-LST) using a numerical iteration method has been previously proposed for robust speech recognition. The numerical iteration method is not appropriate for real-time applications due to its computational complexity. In order to reduce the computational cost, the objective function of the ML-LST is approximated and a closed-form solution is proposed in this paper. It is shown experimentally that the proposed closed-form solution for the ML-LST can provide rapid speaker and environment adaptation for robust speech recognition.
Optimum MVF Estimation-Based Two-Band Excitation for HMM-Based Speech Synthesis
Han, Seung-Ho ; Jeong, Sang-Bae ; Hahn, Min-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 457~459
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0112
The optimum maximum voiced frequency (MVF) estimation-based two-band excitation for hidden Markov model-based speech synthesis is presented. An analysis-by-synthesis scheme is adopted for the MVF estimation which leads to the minimum spectral distortion of synthesized speech. Experimental results show that the proposed method significantly improves synthetic speech quality.
Security Flaws in Authentication Protocols with Anonymity for Wireless Environments
Xu, Jing ; Feng, Dengguo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 460~462
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0026
The emerging wireless networks require the design of new authentication protocols due to their dynamic nature and vulnerable-to-attack structure. Recently, Wu and others proposed a wireless authentication protocol which is claimed to be an improvement of the authentication protocol proposed by Lee and others which provides user anonymity. In this letter, we show that these protocols have a common flaw and that these protocols fail to provide user anonymity. We also propose a modification method to solve this problem.
Development of an Event Stream Processing System for the Vehicle Telematics Environment
Kim, Jong-Ik ; Kwon, Oh-Cheon ; Kim, Hyun-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 463~465
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0087
In this letter, we present an event stream processing system that can evaluate a pattern query for a data sequence with predicates. We propose a pattern query language and develop a pattern query processing system. In our system, we propose novel techniques for run-time aggregation and negation processing and apply our system to stream data generated from vehicles to monitor unusual driving patterns.
Wirelessly Synchronized One-Way Ranging Algorithm with Active Mobile Nodes
Nam, Yoon-Seok ; Kang, Bub-Joo ; Huh, Jae-Doo ; Park, Kwang-Roh ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 466~468
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0208.0305
In this letter, we propose a one-way ranging algorithm that is based on wireless synchronization with measured timestamps and clock frequency offsets. In our proposed algorithm, an active mobile node initiates a ranging procedure by transmitting a ranging frame, and the anchor nodes report their timestamps for the received ranging frame to a reference anchor node. The synchronization of a pair of nodes is provided with instantaneous time information, and the corresponding difference of distances can be calculated.
A Weighted Scheduling Mechanism to Reduce Multicast Packet Loss in IPTV Service over EPON
Kwon, Young-Hwan ; Choi, Jun-Kyun ; Choi, Seong-Gon ; Um, Tai-Won ; Jong, Sang-Gug ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 469~471
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0025
This letter proposes a weighted scheduling mechanism for Internet protocol television (IPTV) to improve the loss performance of multicast transmission over an Ethernet passive optical network (EPON). We propose a new weight policy from the number of multicast receivers to proportionally allocate the downstream bandwidth of IPTV traffic. The proposed mechanism is used in an optical line terminal to decrease lost packets of favorite IPTV services because the lost multicast packets are proportional to the number of receivers. The total proportion of lost multicast packets is reduced by up to 73% in an EPON.
An Ordered Successive Interference Cancellation Scheme in UWB MIMO Systems
An, Jin-Young ; Kim, Sang-Choon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 472~474
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0140
In this letter, an ordered successive interference cancellation (OSIC) scheme is applied for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) detection in ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems. The error rate expression of an OSIC receiver on a log-normal multipath fading channel is theoretically derived in a closed form solution. Its bit error rate performance is analytically compared with that of a zero forcing receiver in the UWB MIMO detection scheme followed by RAKE combining.
Design of Balanced Dual-Band Bandpass Filter with Self-Feedback Structure
Chen, Xinwei ; Han, Guorui ; Ma, Runbo ; Gao, Jiangrui ; Zhang, Wenmei ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 475~477
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0062
A balanced dual-band bandpass filter based on
/2 stepped-impedance resonators and open-loop resonators is proposed in this letter. By employing a type of self-feedback structure, an extra transmission zero is introduced near the common-mode resonance frequency, and the common-mode signal is suppressed. The measured results indicate that the filter can operate in 2.46 GHz and 5.6 GHz bands, and the insertion loss is 1.85 dB and 1.9 dB, respectively. Also, better common-mode suppression is achieved.
Electrically Enhanced Readout System for a High-Frequency CMOS-MEMS Resonator
Uranga, Arantxa ; Verd, Jaume ; Lopez, Joan Lluis ; Teva, Jordi ; Torres, Francesc ; Giner, Joan Josep ; Murillo, Gonzalo ; Abadal, Gabriel ; Barniol, Nuria ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 4, 2009, Pages 478~480
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0208.0380
The design of a CMOS clamped-clamped beam resonator along with a full custom integrated differential amplifier, monolithically fabricated with a commercial 0.35
CMOS technology, is presented. The implemented amplifier, which minimizes the negative effect of the parasitic capacitance, enhances the electrical MEMS characterization, obtaining a
resonant frequency-quality factor product (
) in air conditions, which is quite competitive in comparison with existing CMOS-MEMS resonators.