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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - Dec 2009
Volume 31, Issue 5 - Oct 2009
Volume 31, Issue 4 - Aug 2009
Volume 31, Issue 3 - Jun 2009
Volume 31, Issue 2 - Apr 2009
Volume 31, Issue 1 - Feb 2009
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QoS-Guaranteed Multiuser Scheduling in MIMO Broadcast Channels
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Thompson, John S. ; Kim, Jin-Up ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 481~488
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0017
This paper proposes a new multiuser scheduling algorithm that can simultaneously support a variety of different quality-of-service (QoS) user groups while satisfying fairness among users in the same QoS group in MIMO broadcast channels. Toward this goal, the proposed algorithm consists of two parts: a QoS-aware fair (QF) scheduling within a QoS group and an antenna trade-off scheme between different QoS groups. The proposed QF scheduling algorithm finds a user set from a certain QoS group which can satisfy the fairness among users in terms of throughput or delay. The antenna trade-off scheme can minimize the QoS violations of a higher priority user group by trading off the number of transmit antennas allocated to different QoS groups. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed QF scheduling method satisfies different types of fairness among users and can adjust the degree of fairness among them. The antenna trade-off scheme combined with QF scheduling can improve the probability of QoS-guaranteed transmission when supporting different QoS groups.
High-Speed Access over Copper: Rate Optimization and Signal Construction
Enteshari, Ali ; Fadlullah, Jarir M. ; Kavehrad, Mohsen ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 489~499
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0231
This paper focuses on assessment and design of transmission systems for distribution of digital signals over standard Category-7A copper cables at speeds beyond 10 Gbps. The main contribution of this paper is on the technical feasibility and system design for data rates of 40 Gbps and 100 Gbps over copper. Based on capacity analysis and rate optimization algorithms, system parameters are obtained and the design implementation trade-offs are discussed. Our simulation results confirm that with the aid of a decision-feedback equalizer and powerful coding techniques, namely, TCM or LDPC code, 40 Gbps transmission is feasible over 50 m of CAT-7A copper cable. These results also indicate that 100 Gbps transmission can be achieved over 15 m cables.
Effect of Microdiversity and Macrodiversity on Average Bit Error Probability in Shadowed Fading Channels in the Presence of Interference
Panajotovic, Aleksandra S. ; Stefanovic, Mihajlo C. ; Draca, Dragan Lj. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 500~505
DOI : 10.4210/etrij.09.0109.0011
The detrimental effect of short-term fading and shadowing can be mitigated using microdiversity and macrodiversity systems, respectively. In this paper, implementation of selection combining at both micro and macro levels to improve system performance is analyzed. An assessment of the performance of such a system is carried out by considering the desired signal as Rician fading with lognormal shadowing and cochannel interference signal as Rayleigh fading superimposed over lognormal shadowing. The proposed analysis is complemented by various performance evaluation results, including the effects on overall system performance of fading severity, shadowing spreads and branch correlation existing at the base station, and correlation between base stations.
Circularly Polarized Square Ring Slot Antenna with Arrow-Shaped Structure
Sung, Young-Je ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 506~509
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0020
A novel design of a compact square-ring slot microstrip antenna for achieving circular polarization (CP) operation is proposed and experimentally studied. By using an arrow-shaped slot structure as a radiating element, the resonant frequency of the proposed antenna is significantly lowered, which can lead to a large size reduction for fixed frequency operation. The CP radiation characteristics are achieved by loading with proper asymmetry, which can be placed diagonally. A prototype of the proposed design is implemented and its performance is measured. Measured results show that radiation patterns with good CP characteristics are obtained at the resonant frequency.
High Throughput Parallel Decoding Method for H.264/AVC CAVLC
Yeo, Dong-Hoon ; Shin, Hyun-Chul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 510~517
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0110
A high throughput parallel decoding method is developed for context-based adaptive variable length codes. In this paper, several new design ideas are devised and implemented for scalable parallel processing, a reduction in area, and a reduction in power requirements. First, simplified logical operations instead of memory lookups are used for parallel processing. Second, the codes are grouped based on their lengths for efficient logical operation. Third, up to M bits of the input stream can be analyzed simultaneously. For comparison, we designed a logical-operation-based parallel decoder for M=8 and a conventional parallel decoder. High-speed parallel decoding becomes possible with our method. In addition, for similar decoding rates (1.57 codes/cycle for M=8), our new approach uses 46% less chip area than the conventional method.
Enhanced Upper Bound for Erasure Recovery in SPC Product Codes
Muqaibel, Ali ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 518~524
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0131
Single parity check (SPC) product codes are simple yet powerful codes that are used to correct errors and/or recover erasures. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the performance of such codes under erasure scenarios and to develop a closed-form tight upper bound for the post-decoding erasure rate. Closed-form exact expressions are derived for up to seven erasures. Previously published closed-form bounds assumed that all unrecoverable patterns should contain four erasures in a square. Additional non-square patterns are accounted for in the proposed expressions. The derived expressions are verified using exhaustive search. Eight or more erasures are accounted for by using a bound. The developed expressions improve the evaluation of the recoverability of SPC product codes without the need for simulation or search algorithms, whether exhaustive or novel.
Distributed Borrowing Addressing Scheme for ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 Wireless Sensor Networks
Park, Sung-Jin ; Lee, Eun-Ju ; Ryu, Jae-Hong ; Joo, Seong-Soon ; Kim, Hyung-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 525~533
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0121
This paper proposes a distributed borrowing addressing (DIBA) scheme to solve problems of failure in address assignments resulting from limited tree depth and width when the distributed address assignment mechanism is used in a ZigBee/IEEE 802.15.4 wireless sensor network. DIBA is a method of borrowing addresses from neighbor nodes for newly entering nodes and assigning the borrowed addresses. Its network or sensing coverage can increase with almost the same overhead as the existing method. DIBA is a simple and lightweight means of addressing and routing, making it suitable for wireless sensor networks. Simulations showed that DIBA is a distributed addressing scheme with consistently excellent performance.
Multi-constrained Shortest Disjoint Paths for Reliable QoS Routing
Xiong, Ke ; Qiu, Zheng-Ding ; Guo, Yuchun ; Zhang, Hongke ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 534~544
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0531
Finding link-disjoint or node-disjoint paths under multiple constraints is an effective way to improve network QoS ability, reliability, and so on. However, existing algorithms for such scheme cannot ensure a feasible solution for arbitrary networks. We propose design principles of an algorithm to fill this gap, which we arrive at by analyzing the properties of optimal solutions for the multi-constrained link-disjoint path pair problem. Based on this, we propose the link-disjoint optimal multi-constrained paths algorithm (LIDOMPA), to find the shortest link-disjoint path pair for any network. Three concepts, namely, the candidate optimal solution, the contractive constraint vector, and structure-aware non-dominance, are introduced to reduce its search space without loss of exactness. Extensive simulations show that LIDOMPA outperforms existing schemes and achieves acceptable complexity. Moreover, LIDOMPA is extended to the node-disjoint optimal multi-constrained paths algorithm (NODOMPA) for the multi-constrained node-disjoint path pair problem.
A Novel Scalable and Storage-Efficient Architecture for High Speed Exact String Matching
Peiravi, Ali ; Rahimzadeh, Mohammad Javad ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 545~553
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0353
String matching is a fundamental element of an important category of modern packet processing applications which involve scanning the content flowing through a network for thousands of strings at the line rate. To keep pace with high network speeds, specialized hardware-based solutions are needed which should be efficient enough to maintain scalability in terms of speed and the number of strings. In this paper, a novel architecture based upon a recently proposed data structure called the Bloomier filter is proposed which can successfully support scalability. The Bloomier filter is a compact data structure for encoding arbitrary functions, and it supports approximate evaluation queries. By eliminating the Bloomier filter's false positives in a space efficient way, a simple yet powerful exact string matching architecture is proposed that can handle several thousand strings at high rates and is amenable to on-chip realization. The proposed scheme is implemented in reconfigurable hardware and we compare it with existing solutions. The results show that the proposed approach achieves better performance compared to other existing architectures measured in terms of throughput per logic cells per character as a metric.
PKG-VUL: Security Vulnerability Evaluation and Patch Framework for Package-Based Systems
Lee, Jong-Hyouk ; Sohn, Seon-Gyoung ; Chang, Beom-Hwan ; Chung, Tai-Myoung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 554~564
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0578
In information security and network management, attacks based on vulnerabilities have grown in importance. Malicious attackers break into hosts using a variety of techniques. The most common method is to exploit known vulnerabilities. Although patches have long been available for vulnerabilities, system administrators have generally been reluctant to patch their hosts immediately because they perceive the patches to be annoying and complex. To solve these problems, we propose a security vulnerability evaluation and patch framework called PKG-VUL, which evaluates the software installed on hosts to decide whether the hosts are vulnerable and then applies patches to vulnerable hosts. All these operations are accomplished by the widely used simple network management protocol (SNMP). Therefore, system administrators can easily manage their vulnerable hosts through PKG-VUL included in the SNMP-based network management systems as a module. The evaluation results demonstrate the applicability of PKG-VUL and its performance in terms of devised criteria.
Use of Support Vector Regression in Stable Trajectory Generation for Walking Humanoid Robots
Kim, Dong-Won ; Seo, Sam-Jun ; De Silva, Clarence W. ; Park, Gwi-Tae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 565~575
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0108.0452
This paper concerns the use of support vector regression (SVR), which is based on the kernel method for learning from examples, in identification of walking robots. To handle complex dynamics in humanoid robot and realize stable walking, this paper develops and implements two types of reference natural motions for a humanoid, namely, walking trajectories on a flat floor and on an ascending slope. Next, SVR is applied to model stable walking motions by considering these actual motions. Three kinds of kernels, namely, linear, polynomial, and radial basis function (RBF), are considered, and the results from these kernels are compared and evaluated. The results show that the SVR approach works well, and SVR with the RBF kernel function provides the best performance. Plus, it can be effectively applied to model and control a practical biped walking robot.
Low-Voltage Tunable Pseudo-Differential Transconductor with High Linearity
Galan, Juan Antonio Gomez ; Carrasco, Manuel Pedro ; Pennisi, Melita ; Martin, Antonio Lopez ; Carvajal, Ramon Gonzalez ; Ramirez-Angulo, Jaime ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 576~584
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0113
A novel tunable transconductor is presented. Input transistors operate in the triode region to achieve programmable voltage-to-current conversion. These transistors are kept in the triode region by a novel negative feedback loop which features simplicity, low voltage requirements, and high output resistance. A linearity analysis is carried out which demonstrates how the proposed transconductance tuning scheme leads to high linearity in a wide transconductance range. Measurement results for a 0.5
CMOS implementation of the transconductor show a transconductance tuning range of more than a decade (15
) and a total harmonic distortion of -67 dB at 1 MHz for an input of 1 Vpp and a supply voltage of 1.8 V.
A Subthreshold PMOS Analog Cortex Decoder for the (8, 4, 4) Hamming Code
Perez-Chamorro, Jorge ; Lahuec, Cyril ; Seguin, Fabrice ; Le Mestre, Gerald ; Jezequel, Michel ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 585~592
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0207
This paper presents a method for decoding high minimal distance (
) short codes, termed Cortex codes. These codes are systematic block codes of rate 1/2 and can have higher
than turbo codes. Despite this characteristic, these codes have been impossible to decode with good performance because, to reach high
, several encoding stages are connected through interleavers. This generates a large number of hidden variables and increases the complexity of the scheduling and initialization. However, the structure of the encoder is well suited for analog decoding. A proof-of-concept Cortex decoder for the (8, 4, 4) Hamming code is implemented in subthreshold 0.25-
CMOS. It outperforms an equivalent LDPC-like decoder by 1 dB at BER=
and is 44 percent smaller and consumes 28 percent less energy per decoded bit.
Optical Pattern Switching in Semiconductor Microresonators as All-Optical Switch
Kheradmand, Reza ; Dastmalchi, Babak ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 593~597
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0166
In this paper, we present a spatial perturbation method to control the optical patterns in semiconductor microresonators in the far-field configuration. We propose a fast all-optical switch which operates at a low light level. The switching beam controls the behavior of output beams with strong intensities. The method has been applied successfully to different optical patterns such as rolls, squares, and hexagons.
A Highly Efficient GaAs HBT MMIC Balanced Power Amplifier for W-CDMA Handset Applications
Kim, Un-Ha ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ; Kwon, Young-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 598~600
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0213
A highly efficient and compactly integrated balanced power amplifier (PA) for W-CDMA handset applications is presented. To overcome the size limit of a typical balanced PA, a bulky input divider is integrated into a PA MMIC, and a complex output network is replaced with simple lumped-element networks. For efficiency improvement at the low output power level, one of the two amplifiers in parallel is deactivated and the other is partially operated with corresponding load impedance optimization. The implemented PA shows excellent average current consumption of 34.5 mA in urban and 56.3 mA in suburban environments, while exhibiting very good load-insensitivity under condition of VSWR=4:1.
2.4 GHz WLAN InGaP/GaAs Power Amplifier with Temperature Compensation Technique
Yoon, Sang-Woong ; Kim, Chang-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 601~603
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0089
This letter presents a high performance 2.4 GHz two-stage power amplifier (PA) operating in the temperature range from
for IEEE 802.11g, wireless local area network application. It is implemented in InGaP/GaAs hetero-junction bipolar transistor technology and has a bias circuit employing a temperature compensation technique for error vector magnitude (EVM) performance. The technique uses a resistor made with a base layer of HBT. The design improves EVM performance in cold temperatures by increasing current. The implemented PA has a dynamic EVM of less than 4%, a gain of over 26 dB, and a current less than 130 mA below the output power of 19 dBm across the temperature range from
Impact of Gamma Irradiation Effects on IGBT and Design Parameter Considerations
Lho, Young-Hwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 604~606
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0166
The primary dose effects on an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) irradiated with a
gamma-ray source are found in both of the components of the threshold shifting due to oxide charge trapping in the MOS and the reduction of current gain in the bipolar transistor. In this letter, the IGBT macro-model incorporating irradiation is implemented, and the electrical characteristics are analyzed by SPICE simulation and experiments. In addition, the collector current characteristics as a function of gate emitter voltage, VGE, are compared with the model considering the radiation damage of different doses under positive biases.
Adaptive Scanning Based on a Morphological Representation of Coefficients for H.264/AVC
Choi, Kang-Sun ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 607~609
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0109.0263
In this letter, an effective scanning method based on a morphological representation of quantized coefficients is proposed for intra coding in H.264. In the proposed scanning method, the scan order for each block is adaptively reconfigured by exploiting a residual correlation beyond the border of the block. An initial scan order for the current block is determined first by using the pattern of nonzero coefficients in the adjacent block. Then, a complete scan order is obtained by performing the dilation operation at each position within the initial scan order. Experimental results show that the proposed method improves the coding efficiency up to 3.7% compared to the conventional zigzag scanning method.
Intra-Mixture Prediction Mode and Enhanced Most Probable Mode Estimation for Intra Coding
Lee, Jin-Ho ; Choi, Jin-Soo ; Hong, Jin-Woo ; Choi, Hae-Chul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 610~612
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0153
We present intra-mixture prediction (IMP) mode for intra prediction and an enhanced estimation method for most probable mode (MPM). IMP mode supports more flexibility in intra prediction by mixing
blocks in one macroblock, while the enhanced MPM estimation extends the number of referenced neighboring blocks and efficiently uses their prediction modes depending on their positions. Simulation results show that the combination of both proposed methods provides a bit reduction in the Bj
ntegaard delta bitrate by an average of 2.56% compared to H.264/AVC.
Pilot-Based Coding Scheme for Parametric Stereo in Enhanced aacPlus
Pang, Hee-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 613~615
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0193
We propose a pilot-based coding (PBC) scheme for lossless bit rate reduction of parametric stereo (PS) in enhanced aacPlus. It uses PBC in addition to the existing frequency and time differential coding to encode and decode PS parameter indexes. We also design optimal Huffman codebooks (HCBs) for PBC in the proposed scheme. Experiments show that the proposed scheme is superior to the original coding scheme, where both the new coding structure and the optimal HCBs contribute to the bit rate reduction.
Hybrid Planar Inverted-F Antenna with a T-Shaped Slot on the Ground Plane
Jeon, Sin-Hyung ; Choi, Hyeng-Cheul ; Kim, Hyeong-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 616~618
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0190
In this letter, a novel hybrid planar inverted-F antenna (PIFA) with a T-shaped slot on the ground plane is proposed. The loop structure formed by the feed line and shorting pin can be operated as a series and shunt inductance for the PIFA and the T-shaped slot antenna, respectively. The PIFA operates at a frequency of 1.75 GHz, while the T-shaped slot on the ground plane operates at 2.4 GHz by the same voltage feeding source. The height of the PIFA is 6.5 mm, and the size of an upper patch is designed to be 30 mm
16 mm. The measured relative impedance bandwidth of the PIFA and the T-shaped slot are about 12% and 21%, respectively. In addition, good antenna performance was achieved.
Effects of LDPC Code on the BER Performance of MPSK System with Imperfect Receiver Components over Rician Channels
Djordjevic, Goran T. ; Djordjevic, Ivan B. ; Ivanis, Predrag N. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 619~621
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0163
In this letter, we study the influence of receiver imperfections on bit error rate (BER) degradations in detecting low-density parity-check coded multilevel phase-shift keying signals transmitted over a Rician fading channel. Based on the analytical system model which we previously developed using Monte Carlo simulations, we determine the BER degradations caused by the simultaneous influences of stochastic phase error, quadrature error, in-phase-quadrature mismatch, and the fading severity.
Compact 2.5 Gb/s Burst-Mode Receiver with Optimum APD Gain for XG-PON1 and GPON Applications
Kim, Jong-Deog ; Le, Quan ; Lee, Mun-Seob ; Yoo, Hark ; Lee, Dong-Soo ; Park, Chang-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 622~624
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0227
This letter presents a compact 2.5 Gb/s burst-mode receiver using the first reported monolithic amplifier IC developed with 0.25
SiGe BiCMOS technology. With optimum avalanche photodiode gain, the receiver module can obtain a fast response, high sensitivity and wide dynamic range, satisfying the overhead timing and various power specifications for a 2.5 Gb/s next-generation passive optical network (PON), as well as a legacy 1.25 Gb/s PON in the upstream.
Improved Side-Channel Attack on DES with the First Four Rounds Masked
Kim, Jong-Sung ; Hong, Seok-Hie ; Han, Dong-Guk ; Lee, Sang-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 625~627
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0144
This letter describes an improved side-channel attack on DES with the first four rounds masked. Our improvement is based on truncated differentials and power traces which provide knowledge of Hamming weights for the intermediate data computed during the enciphering of plaintexts. Our results support the claim that masking several outer rounds rather than all rounds is not sufficient for the ciphers to be resistant to side-channel attacks.
Dictionary Attack on Functional Transform-Based Cancelable Fingerprint Templates
Shin, Sang-Wook ; Lee, Mun-Kyu ; Moon, Dae-Sung ; Moon, Ki-Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 628~630
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0137
Recently, Ratha and others proposed a cancelable biometrics scheme which transforms an original fingerprint template into a new one using a noninvertible transformation. However, we show that the original template is recovered by a dictionary attack if two transformed templates originating from it are revealed. In our attack, we simulate the transformation and construct a set of possible pre-images for each transformed template. Then, we find the correct pre-image by computing the intersection of these sets. We present an algorithm implementing this idea as well as successful experimental results.
An Ethernet Ring Protection Method to Minimize Transient Traffic by Selective FDB Advertisement
Lee, Kwang-Koog ; Ryoo, Jeong-Dong ; Min, Seung-Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 31, issue 5, 2009, Pages 631~633
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.09.0209.0244
We introduce an improved Ethernet ring protection method, selective filtering database (FDB) advertisement, to minimize traffic overshoot in the event of a failure or recovery. On the protection switching event, the proposed method makes all ring nodes perform an FDB flush except the FDB entries associated with their client subnets. Then, ring nodes rapidly exchange their client MAC address lists so that their FDBs are immediately updated by indirect MAC address learning. The proposed scheme guarantees fast and reliable protection switching over the standard scheme.