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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Flush Optimizations to Guarantee Less Transient Traffic in Ethernet Ring Protection
Lee, Kwang-Koog ; Ryoo, Jeong-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 184~194
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0097
Ethernet ring protection (ERP) technology, which is defined in ITU-T Recommendation G.8032, has been developed to provide carrier grade recovery for Ethernet ring networks. However, the filtering database (FDB) flush method adopted in the current ERP standard has the drawback of introducing a large amount of transient traffic overshoot caused by flooded Ethernet frames right after protection switching. This traffic overshooting is especially critical when a ring provides services to a large number of clients. According to our experimental results, the traditional FDB flush requires a link capacity about sixteen times greater than the steady state traffic bandwidth. This paper introduces four flush optimization schemes to resolve this issue and investigates how the proposed schemes deal with the transient traffic overshoot on a multi-ring network under failure conditions. With a network simulator, we evaluate the performance of the proposed schemes and compare them to the conventional FDB flush scheme. Among the proposed methods, the extended FDB advertisement method shows the fastest and most stable protection switching performance.
40 GHz Vertical Transition with a Dual-Mode Cavity for a Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramic Transceiver Module
Byun, Woo-Jin ; Kim, Bong-Su ; Kim, Kwang-Seon ; Eun, Ki-Chan ; Song, Myung-Sun ; Kulke, Reinhard ; Kersten, Olaf ; Mollenbeck, Gregor ; Rittweger, Matthias ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 195~203
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0091
A new vertical transition between a substrate integrated waveguide in a low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrate and an air-filled standard waveguide is proposed in this paper. A rectangular cavity resonator with closely spaced metallic vias is designed to connect the substrate integrated waveguide to the standard air-filled waveguide. Physical characteristics of an air-filled WR-22 to WR-22 transition are compared with those of the proposed transition. Simulation and experiment demonstrate that the proposed transition shows a -1.3 dB insertion loss and 6.2 GHz bandwidth with a 10 dB return loss for the back-to-back module. A 40 GHz low-temperature co-fired ceramic module with the proposed vertical transition is also implemented. The implemented module is very compact, measuring 57 mm
Key Establishment and Pairing Management Protocol for Downloadable Conditional Access System Host Devices
Koo, Han-Seung ; Kwon, O-Hyung ; Lee, Soo-In ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 204~213
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0077
In this paper, we investigate the possible security threats to downloadable conditional access system (DCAS) host devices. We then propose a DCAS secure micro (SM) and transport processor (TP) security protocol that counters identified security threats using a secure key establishment and pairing management scheme. The proposed protocol not only resists disclosed SM ID and TP ID threats and indirect connection between TA and TP threats, but also meets some desirable security attributes such as known key secrecy, perfect forward secrecy, key compromised impersonation, unknown key-share, and key control.
RF Band-Pass Sampling Frontend for Multiband Access CR/SDR Receiver
Kim, Hyung-Jung ; Kim, Jin-Up ; Kim, Jae-Hyung ; Wang, Hongmei ; Lee, In-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 214~221
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0073
Radio frequency (RF) subsampling can be used by radio receivers to directly down-convert and digitize RF signals. A goal of a cognitive radio/software defined ratio (CR/SDR) receiver design is to place the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) as near the antenna as possible. Based on this, a band-pass sampling (BPS) frontend for CR/SDR is proposed and verified. We present a receiver architecture based second-order BPS and signal processing techniques for a digital RF frontend. This paper is focused on the benefits of the second-order BPS architecture in spectrum sensing over a wide frequency band range and in multiband receiving without modification of the RF hardware. Methods to manipulate the spectra are described, and reconstruction filter designs are provided. On the basis of this concept, second-order BPS frontends for CR/SDR systems are designed and verified using a hardware platform.
Efficient Implementation of a Pseudorandom Sequence Generator for High-Speed Data Communications
Hwang, Soo-Yun ; Park, Gi-Yoon ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Jhang, Kyoung-Son ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 222~229
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0047
A conventional pseudorandom sequence generator creates only 1 bit of data per clock cycle. Therefore, it may cause a delay in data communications. In this paper, we propose an efficient implementation method for a pseudorandom sequence generator with parallel outputs. By virtue of the simple matrix multiplications, we derive a well-organized recursive formula and realize a pseudorandom sequence generator with multiple outputs. Experimental results show that, although the total area of the proposed scheme is 3% to 13% larger than that of the existing scheme, our parallel architecture improves the throughput by 2, 4, and 6 times compared with the existing scheme based on a single output. In addition, we apply our approach to a
multiple input/multiple output (MIMO) detector targeting the 3rd Generation Partnership Project Long Term Evolution (3GPP LTE) system. Therefore, the throughput of the MIMO detector is significantly enhanced by parallel processing of data communications.
Relay Performance Analysis of TTR and STR Relay Modes in IEEE 802.16j MMR System
Seo, Si-O ; Kim, Se-Jin ; Kim, Seung-Yeon ; Kim, Young-Il ; Lee, Hyong-Woo ; Ryu, Seung-Wan ; Cho, Choong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 230~240
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0080
The IEEE802.16j standard uses non-transparent relay stations to extend coverage. There are two types of non-transparent relay modes, that is, the time-division transmit and receive (TTR) relay mode which can operate with one of two types of frame structures, a single-frame and multiframe structure, and the simultaneous transmit and receive (STR) relay mode. In this paper, we analyze the relay performance of TTR and STR relay modes in IEEE 802.16j MMR system. We also propose a fair resource allocation scheme for the downlink relay frame. Numerical results show that relay performance of the TTR with a single-frame or a multiframe structure and that of the STR relay modes are almost the same in a two-hop system. However, in a three-hop system, the TTR mode with a single-frame structure outperforms other relay modes.
Performance Evaluation of Service-Aware Optical Transport System
Youn, Ji-Wook ; Yu, Jea-Hoon ; Yoo, Tae-Whan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 241~247
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0088
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a service-aware optical transport system. The proposed service-aware optical transport system makes a flow based on service type and priority of traffic. The generated flow is mapped to a corresponding sub-
for transport over an optical network. Using sub-
provided by the centralized control plane, we could effectively provide quality-of-service guaranteed Ethernet service and best-effort service simultaneously in a single link. The committed information rate (CIR) traffic and best-effort traffic are assigned to different sub-
. The bandwidth of the CIR traffic is guaranteed without being affected by violation traffic because the bandwidth is managed per each sub-
. The failure detection time and restoration time from a link failure is measured to be about 60
and 22 ms, respectively, in the ring network. The measured restoration time is much smaller than the 50 ms industry requirement for real-time services. The fast restoration time allows the proposed service-aware optical transport system to offer high availability and reliability which is a requirement for transport networks.
Demonstration of RSOA-Based 20 Gb/s Linear Bus WDM-PON with Simple Optical Add-Drop Node Structure
Lee, Han-Hyub ; Cho, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Eun-Gu ; Lee, Sang-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 248~254
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0064
We demonstrate a linear bus wavelength-reused gigabit wavelength-division multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) with multiple optical add-drop nodes. A commercially available reflective semiconductor optical amplifier-based WDM-PON has a sufficient power budget to provide multiple optical add/drop nodes in 16 WDM channels. Sixteen 1.25 Gb/s WDM channels are successfully transmitted over 20 km of single-mode fiber with four optical add/drop multiplexers, even with 32 dB reflection and chromatic dispersion in the link.
Feasibility of Coexistence of Mobile-Satellite Service and Mobile Service in Cofrequency Bands
Park, Jong-Min ; Ahn, Do-Seob ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Park, Dong-Chul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 255~264
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0066
Interference scenarios and methodologies between a terrestrial mobile service (MS) system and mobile-satellite service (MSS) system in a co-channel environment are established. Taking into account a practical deployment situation for both systems, we perform computational simulation of interference in terms of carrier-to-interference ratio (C/I) and interference-to-noise ratio (I/N) to evaluate the cofrequency interference from an MS system into an MSS system, and from an MSS system into an MS system, respectively. The methodology and results can be used as a guide when planning the deployment of MSS and MS systems with no unacceptable interference impact between them.
Partial EBG Structure with DeCap for Ultra-wideband Suppression of Simultaneous Switching Noise in a High-Speed System
Kwon, Jong-Hwa ; Kwak, Sang-Il ; Sim, Dong-Uk ; Yook, Jong-Gwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 265~272
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0060
To supply a power distribution network with stable power in a high-speed mixed mode system, simultaneous switching noise caused at the multilayer PCB and package structures needs to be sufficiently suppressed. The uni-planar compact electromagnetic bandgap (UC-EBG) structure is well known as a promising solution to suppress the power noise and isolate noise-sensitive analog/RF circuits from a noisy digital circuit. However, a typical UC-EBG structure has several severe problems, such as a limitation in the stop band's lower cutoff frequency and signal quality degradation. To make up for the defects of a conventional EBG structure, a partially located EBG structure with decoupling capacitors is proposed in this paper as a means of both suppressing the power noise propagation and minimizing the effects of the perforated reference plane on the signal quality. The proposed structure is validated and investigated through simulation and measurement in both frequency and time domains.
Multihop Rate Adaptive Wireless Scalable Video Using Syndrome-Based Partial Decoding
Cho, Yong-Ju ; Radha, Hayder ; Seo, Jeong-Il ; Kang, Jung-Won ; Hong, Jin-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 273~280
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0072
The overall channel capacity of a multihop wireless path drops progressively over each hop due to the cascading effect of noise and interference. Hence, without optimal rate adaptation, the video quality is expected to degrade significantly at any client located at a far-edge of an ad-hoc network. To overcome this limitation, decoding and forwarding (DF), which fully decodes codewords at each intermediate node, can be employed to provide the best video quality. However, complexity and memory usage for DF are significantly high. Consequently, we propose syndrome-based partial decoding (SPD). In the SPD framework an intermediate node partially decodes a codeword and relays the packet along with its syndromes if the packet is corrupted. We demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme by simulations using actual 802.11b wireless traces. The trace-driven simulations show that the proposed SPD framework, which reduces the overall processing requirements of intermediate nodes, provides reasonably high goodput when compared to simple forwarding and less complexity and memory requirements when compared to DF.
A Practical RTP Packetization Scheme for SVC Video Transport over IP Networks
Seo, Kwang-Deok ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Jung, Soon-Heung ; Yoo, Jeong-Ju ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 281~291
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0031
Scalable video coding (SVC) has been standardized as an extension of the H.264/AVC standard. This paper proposes a practical real-time transport protocol (RTP) packetization scheme to transport SVC video over IP networks. In combined scalability of SVC, a coded picture of a base or scalable enhancement layer is produced as one or more video layers consisting of network abstraction layer (NAL) units. The SVC NAL unit header contains a (DID, TID, QID) field to identify the association of each SVC NAL unit with its scalable enhancement layer without parsing the payload part of the SVC NAL unit. In this paper, we utilize the (DID, TID, QID) information to derive hierarchical spatio-temporal relationship of the SVC NAL units. Based on the derivation using the (DID, TID, QID) field, we propose a practical RTP packetization scheme for generating single RTP sessions in unicast and multicast transport of SVC video. The experimental results indicate that the proposed packetization scheme can be efficiently applied to transport SVC video over IP networks with little induced delay, jitter, and computational load.
Performance Analysis of Dynamic Spectrum Allocation in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks
Ha, Jeoung-Lak ; Kim, Jin-Up ; Kim, Sang-Ha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 292~301
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0032
Increasing convergence among heterogeneous radio networks is expected to be a key feature of future ubiquitous services. The convergence of radio networks in combination with dynamic spectrum allocation (DSA) could be a beneficial means to solve the growing demand for radio spectrum. DSA might enhance the spectrum utilization of involved radio networks to comply with user requirements for high-quality multimedia services. This paper proposes a simple spectrum allocation algorithm and presents an analytical model of dynamic spectrum resource allocation between two networks using a 4-D Markov chain. We argue that there may exist a break-even point for choosing whether or not to adopt DSA in a system. We point out certain circumstances where DSA is not a viable alternative. We also discuss the performance of DSA against the degree of resource sharing using the proposed analytical model and simulations. The presented analytical model is not restricted to DSA, and can be applied to a general resource sharing study.
Analysis of Consumers' Choices and Time-Consumption Behaviors for Various Broadcasting and Telecommunication Convergence Services
Koh, Dae-Young ; Lee, Jong-Su ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 302~311
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.1409.0028
In this study, we analyzed consumers' choices of various broadcasting and telecommunication convergence services and time consumption for chosen services by using survey data. A multivariate probit model was used to model consumers' choices of various broadcasting and telecommunication convergence services, and an ordered probit model was used to model consumers' time consumption for chosen services. Factors affecting consumers' choices and time-consumption behavior were identified, and simulation results of market competition and substitution were obtained. Based on these results, it was found that for the time being, consumers are highly locked into existing broadcasting services and are likely to become more price-sensitive to the new broadcasting and telecommunication convergence services. Also, the ways in which individual characteristics affect choices and time consumption were found to be very diverse service by service.
Polarization-Diversity Cross-Shaped Patch Antenna for Satellite-DMB Systems
Lim, Jong-Hyuk ; Back, Gyu-Tae ; Yun, Tae-Yeoul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 312~318
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0280
A small reconfigurable patch antenna is proposed to achieve polarization diversity for digital multimedia broadcasting systems at 2.6 GHz. To obtain polarization diversity, a pair of on-slit PIN diodes is inserted in each diagonal of a cross-shaped patch. Thus, four PIN-diodes on these slits are utilized to change the connection of the slits and thus achieve polarization. Bias circuits for the diodes are allocated in the cutting corner of the cross-shaped patch to minimize the antenna size. The antenna produces left-hand circular polarization, right-hand circular polarization, or linear polarization, depending on the PIN-diode status. Analysis of circular polarization operation is explicated. Measurements show a gain of about 1.5 dB, a cross polarization of about -20 dB, and an axial ratio of about 2.5 dB.
High System Performance with Plasmonic Waveguides and Functional Devices
Kwong, Wing-Ying ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 319~326
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0173
Photonics offers a solution to data communication between logic devices in computing systems; however, the integration of photonic components into electronic chips is rather limited due to their size incompatibility. Dimensions of photonic components are therefore being forced to be scaled down dramatically to achieve a much higher system performance. To integrate these nano-photonic components, surface plasmon-polaritons and/or energy transfer mechanisms are used to form plasmonic chips. In this paper, the operating principle of plasmonic waveguide devices is reviewed within the mid-infrared spectral region at the 2
range, including lossless signal propagation by introducing gain. Experimental results demonstrate that these plasmonic devices, of sizes approximately half of the operating free-space wavelengths, require less gain to achieve lossless propagation. Through optimization of device performance by means of methods such as the use of new plasmonic waveguide materials that exhibit a much lower minimal loss value, these plasmonic devices can significantly impact electronic systems used in data communications, signal processing, and sensors industries.
Ultra-small Form-Factor Helix on Pad-Type Stage-Bypass WCDMA Tx Power Amplifier Using a Chip-Stacking Technique and a Multilayer Substrate
Yoo, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Jung-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 327~329
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0486
A fully integrated small form-factor HBT power amplifier (PA) was developed for UMTS Tx applications. For practical use, the PA was implemented with a well configured bottom dimension, and a CMOS control IC was added to enable/disable the HBT PA. By using helix-on-pad integrated passive device output matching, a chip-stacking technique in the assembly of the CMOS IC, and embedding of the bulky inductive lines in a multilayer substrate, the module size was greatly reduced to 2 mm
2.2 mm. A stage-bypass technique was used to enhance the efficiency of the PA. The PA showed a low idle current of about 20 mA and a PAE of about15% at an output power of 16 dBm, while showing good linearity over the entire operating power range.
A New Architecture of Matched Filter for Chirp Spread Spectrum in IEEE 802.15.4a
Kim, Yeong-Sam ; Jang, Seong-Hyun ; Yoon, Sang-Hun ; Chong, Jong-Wha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 330~332
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0432
We propose a new matched filter architecture for chirp spread spectrum in IEEE 802.15.4a. By using relations among the four subchirps, the proposed architecture comprises four subfilters utilizing only a set of coefficients matched to the first subchirp. The four subfilters share adders and registers, and as a result, the required adders and registers for implementation are reduced.
Rayleigh-Quotient and Iterative-Threshold-Test-Based Blind TOA Estimation for IR-UWB Systems
Shen, Bin ; Zhao, Chengshi ; Cui, Taiping ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 333~335
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0421
This letter proposes a non-coherent blind time-of-arrival (TOA) estimation scheme for impulse radio ultra-wideband systems. The TOA estimation is performed in two consecutive phases: the Rayleigh-quotient theorem-based coarse-signal acquisition (CSA) and the iterative-threshold-test-based fine time estimation (FTE). The proposed scheme serves in a blind manner without demanding any a priori knowledge of the channel and the noise. Analysis and simulations demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly increases the signal detection probability in CSA and ameliorates the TOA estimation accuracy in FTE.
Macroblock-Level Deblocking Method to Improve Coding Efficiency for H.264/AVC
Le, Thanh Ha ; Jung, Seung-Won ; Park, Chun-Su ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 336~338
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0442
A macroblock-level deblocking method is proposed for H.264/AVC, in which blocking artifacts are effectively eliminated in the discrete cosine transform domain at the macroblock encoding stage. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms conventional H.264 in terms of coding efficiency, and the bitrate saving is up to 5.7% without reconstruction quality loss.
Performance of Hybrid Laser Diodes Consisting of Silicon Slab and InP/InGaAsP Deep-Ridge Waveguides
Leem, Young-Ahn ; Kim, Ki-Soo ; Song, Jung-Ho ; Kwon, O-Kyun ; Kim, Gyung-Ock ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 339~341
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0172
The fundamental transverse mode lasing of a hybrid laser diode is a prerequisite for efficient coupling to a single-mode silicon waveguide, which is necessary for a wavelength-division multiplexing silicon interconnection. We investigate the lasing mode profile for a hybrid laser diode consisting of silicon slab and InP/InGaAsP deep ridge waveguides. When the thickness of the top silicon is 220 nm, the fundamental transverse mode is lasing in spite of the wide waveguide width of
. The threshold current is 40 mA, and the maximum output power is 5 mW under CW current operation. In the case of a thick top silicon layer (1
), the higher modes are lasing. There is no significant difference in the thermal resistance of the two devices.
Novel Maskless Bumping for 3D Integration
Choi, Kwang-Seong ; Sung, Ki-Jun ; Lim, Byeong-Ok ; Bae, Hyun-Cheol ; Jung, Sung-Hae ; Moon, Jong-Tae ; Eom, Yong-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 342~344
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0396
A novel, maskless, low-volume bumping material, called solder bump maker, which is composed of a resin and low-melting-point solder powder, has been developed. The resin features no distinct chemical reactions preventing the rheological coalescence of the solder, a deoxidation of the oxide layer on the solder powder for wetting on the pad at the solder melting point, and no major weight loss caused by out-gassing. With these characteristics, the solder was successfully wetted onto a metal pad and formed a uniform solder bump array with pitches of 120
Robust Speech Hash Function
Chen, Ning ; Wan, Wanggen ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 345~347
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0309
In this letter, we present a new speech hash function based on the non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of linear prediction coefficients (LPCs). First, linear prediction analysis is applied to the speech to obtain its LPCs, which represent the frequency shaping attributes of the vocal tract. Then, the NMF is performed on the LPCs to capture the speech's local feature, which is then used for hash vector generation. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed hash function in terms of discrimination and robustness against various types of content preserving signal processing manipulations.
Personalized EigenTrust with the Beta Distribution
Choi, Dae-Seon ; Jin, Seung-Hun ; Lee, Youn-Ho ; Park, Yong-Su ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 2, 2010, Pages 348~350
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0354
This letter presents an enhancement of EigenTrust. Using the beta distribution, local trust values can be more correctly evaluated. Simulation shows that the proposed scheme calculates the local trust more correctly by up to 8%. For personalization, the proposed scheme provides cumulative transitive values from the local trust to the global trust with mathematically guaranteed convergence.