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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Augmented Rotation-Based Transformation for Privacy-Preserving Data Clustering
Hong, Do-Won ; Mohaisen, Abedelaziz ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 351~361
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0333
Multiple rotation-based transformation (MRBT) was introduced recently for mitigating the apriori-knowledge independent component analysis (AK-ICA) attack on rotation-based transformation (RBT), which is used for privacy-preserving data clustering. MRBT is shown to mitigate the AK-ICA attack but at the expense of data utility by not enabling conventional clustering. In this paper, we extend the MRBT scheme and introduce an augmented rotation-based transformation (ARBT) scheme that utilizes linearity of transformation and that both mitigates the AK-ICA attack and enables conventional clustering on data subsets transformed using the MRBT. In order to demonstrate the computational feasibility aspect of ARBT along with RBT and MRBT, we develop a toolkit and use it to empirically compare the different schemes of privacy-preserving data clustering based on data transformation in terms of their overhead and privacy.
Random Point Blinding Methods for Koblitz Curve Cryptosystem
Baek, Yoo-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 362~369
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0378
While the elliptic curve cryptosystem (ECC) is getting more popular in securing numerous systems, implementations without consideration for side-channel attacks are susceptible to critical information leakage. This paper proposes new power attack countermeasures for ECC over Koblitz curves. Based on some special properties of Koblitz curves, the proposed methods randomize the involved elliptic curve points in a highly regular manner so the resulting scalar multiplication algorithms can defeat the simple power analysis attack and the differential power analysis attack simultaneously. Compared with the previous countermeasures, the new methods are also noticeable in terms of computational cost.
Efficient Masking Methods Appropriate for the Block Ciphers ARIA and AES
Kim, Hee-Seok ; Kim, Tae-Hyun ; Han, Dong-Guk ; Hong, Seok-Hie ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 370~379
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0181
In this paper, we propose efficient masking methods for ARIA and AES. In general, a masked S-box (MS) block can be constructed in different ways depending on the implementation platform, such as hardware and software. However, the other components of ARIA and AES have less impact on the implementation cost. We first propose an efficient masking structure by minimizing the number of mask corrections under the assumption that we have an MS block. Second, to make a secure and efficient MS block for ARIA and AES, we propose novel methods to solve the table size problem for the MS block in a software implementation and to reduce the cost of a masked inversion which is the main part of the MS block in the hardware implementation.
Edge-Preserving Algorithm for Block Artifact Reduction and Its Pipelined Architecture
Vinh, Truong Quang ; Kim, Young-Chul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 380~389
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0290
This paper presents a new edge-protection algorithm and its very large scale integration (VLSI) architecture for block artifact reduction. Unlike previous approaches using block classification, our algorithm utilizes pixel classification to categorize each pixel into one of two classes, namely smooth region and edge region, which are described by the edge-protection maps. Based on these maps, a two-step adaptive filter which includes offset filtering and edge-preserving filtering is used to remove block artifacts. A pipelined VLSI architecture of the proposed deblocking algorithm for HD video processing is also presented in this paper. A memory-reduced architecture for a block buffer is used to optimize memory usage. The architecture of the proposed deblocking filter is verified on FPGA Cyclone II and implemented using the ANAM 0.25
CMOS cell library. Our experimental results show that our proposed algorithm effectively reduces block artifacts while preserving the details. The PSNR performance of our algorithm using pixel classification is better than that of previous algorithms using block classification.
Image Super Resolution Based on Interpolation of Wavelet Domain High Frequency Subbands and the Spatial Domain Input Image
Anbarjafari, Gholamreza ; Demirel, Hasan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 390~394
DOI : 10.4218.etrij/10.0109.0303
In this paper, we propose a new super-resolution technique based on interpolation of the high-frequency subband images obtained by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and the input image. The proposed technique uses DWT to decompose an image into different subband images. Then the high-frequency subband images and the input low-resolution image have been interpolated, followed by combining all these images to generate a new super-resolved image by using inverse DWT. The proposed technique has been tested on Lena, Elaine, Pepper, and Baboon. The quantitative peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and visual results show the superiority of the proposed technique over the conventional and state-of-art image resolution enhancement techniques. For Lena's image, the PSNR is 7.93 dB higher than the bicubic interpolation.
On-Line Linear Combination of Classifiers Based on Incremental Information in Speaker Verification
Huenupan, Fernando ; Yoma, Nestor Becerra ; Garreton, Claudio ; Molina, Carlos ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 395~405
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0301
A novel multiclassifier system (MCS) strategy is proposed and applied to a text-dependent speaker verification task. The presented scheme optimizes the linear combination of classifiers on an on-line basis. In contrast to ordinary MCS approaches, neither a priori distributions nor pre-tuned parameters are required. The idea is to improve the most accurate classifier by making use of the incremental information provided by the second classifier. The on-line multiclassifier optimization approach is applicable to any pattern recognition problem. The proposed method needs neither a priori distributions nor pre-estimated weights, and does not make use of any consideration about training/testing matching conditions. Results with Yoho database show that the presented approach can lead to reductions in equal error rate as high as 28%, when compared with the most accurate classifier, and 11% against a standard method for the optimization of linear combination of classifiers.
Temperature-Adaptive Back-Bias Voltage Generator for an RCAT Pseudo SRAM
Son, Jong-Pil ; Byun, Hyun-Geun ; Jun, Young-Hyun ; Kim, Ki-Nam ; Kim, Soo-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 406~413
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0366
In order to guarantee the proper operation of a recessed channel array transistor (RCAT) pseudo SRAM, the back-bias voltage must be changed in response to changes in temperature. Due to cell drivability and leakage current, the obtainable back-bias range also changes with temperature. This paper presents a pseudo SRAM for mobile applications with an adaptive back-bias voltage generator with a negative temperature dependency (NTD) using an NTD VBB detector. The proposed scheme is implemented using the Samsung 100 nm RCAT pseudo SRAM process technology. Experimental results show that the proposed VBB generator has a negative temperature dependency of -0.85
, and its static current consumption is found to be only 0.83
Electrical Interconnection with a Smart ACA Composed of Fluxing Polymer and Solder Powder
Eom, Yong-Sung ; Jang, Keon-Soo ; Moon, Jong-Tae ; Nam, Jae-Do ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 414~421
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0400
The interconnection mechanisms of a smart anisotropic conductive adhesive (ACA) during processing have been characterized. For an understanding of chemorheological mechanisms between the fluxing polymer and solder powder, a thermal analysis as well as solder wetting and coalescence experiments were conducted. The compatibility between the viscosity of the fluxing polymer and melting temperature of solder was characterized to optimize the processing cycle. A fluxing agent was also used to remove the oxide layer performed on the surface of the solder. Based on these chemorheological phenomena of the fluxing polymer and solder, an optimum polymer system and its processing cycle were designed for high performance and reliability in an electrical interconnection system. In the present research, a bonding mechanism of the smart ACA with a polymer spacer ball to control the gap between both substrates is newly proposed and investigated. The solder powder was used as a conductive material instead of polymer-based spherical conductive particles in a conventional anisotropic conductive film.
Guaranteed Dynamic Priority Assignment Schemes for Real-Time Tasks with (m, k)-Firm Deadlines
Cho, Hyeon-Joong ; Chung, Yong-Wha ; Park, Dai-Hee ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 422~429
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0544
We present guaranteed dynamic priority assignment schemes for multiple real-time tasks subject to (m, k)-firm deadlines. The proposed schemes have two scheduling objectives: providing a bounded probability of missing (m, k)-firm constraints and maximizing the probability of deadline satisfactions. The second scheduling objective is especially necessary in order to provide the best quality of service as well as to satisfy the minimum requirements expressed by (m, k)-firm deadlines. We analytically establish that the proposed schemes provide a guarantee on the bounded probability of missing (m, k)-firm constraints. Experimental studies validate our analytical results and confirm the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed schemes with regard to their scheduling objectives.
Proposal for an Inundation Hazard Index of Road Links for Safer Routing Services in Car Navigation Systems
Kim, Ji-Young ; Lee, Jae-Bin ; Lee, Won-Hee ; Yu, Ki-Yun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 430~439
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0478
Inundation of roads by heavy rainfall has attracted more attention than traffic accidents, traffic congestion, and construction because it simultaneously causes travel delays and threatens driver safety. For these reasons, in this paper, we propose an inundation hazard index (IHI) of road links, which shows the possibility of inundation of road links caused by rainfall. To generate the index, we have used two key data sources, namely the digital elevation model (DEM) and past rainfall records of when inundation has occurred. IHI is derived by statistically analyzing the relationships between the normalized relative height of the road links calculated from DEM within the watershed and past rainfall records. After analyzing the practical applicability of the proposed index with a commercial car navigation system through a set of tests, we confirmed that the proposed IHI could be implemented to choose safer routes, with reduced chances of encountering roads having inundation risks.
Wound-State Monitoring for Burn Patients Using E-Nose/SPME System
Byun, Hyung-Gi ; Persaud, Krishna C. ; Pisanelli, Anna Maria ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 440~446
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0300
Array-based gas sensors now offer the potential of a robust analytical approach to odor measurement for medical use. We are developing a fast reliable method for detection of microbial infection by monitoring the headspace from the infected wound. In this paper, we present initial results obtained from wound-state monitoring for burn patients using an electronic nose incorporating an automated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) desorption system to enable the system to be used for clinical validation. SPME preconcentration is used for sampling of the headspace air and the response of the sensor module to variable concentrations of volatiles emitted from SPME fiber is evaluated. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies prove that living bacteria, the typical infectious agents in clinical practice, can be distinguished from each other by means of a limited set of key volatile products. Principal component analysis results give the first indication that infected patients may be distinguished from uninfected patients. Microbial laboratory analysis using clinical samples verifies the performance of the system.
Asymmetric Regulation of Mobile Access Charges and Consumer Welfare with Price Regulation
Lee, Jong-Yong ; Lee, Duk-Hee ; Jung, Choong-Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 447~456
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0489
Asymmetric regulation as applied to mobile termination rates refers to regulatory arrangements in which different mobile operators charge different termination rates, even though the services provided are essentially identical. The asymmetric regulation has been frequently used as a regulatory tool to support new entrants to a mobile market. This paper examines the economic effects of asymmetric regulation of mobile termination rates using a theoretical model and its simulation. The result shows that when there is no noticeable difference in brand loyalty between mobile operators with the high degree of substitutability between services provided by mobile operators, and the costs of new entrants are low, a reduction in the asymmetry of mobile access prices results in an enhancement of consumer welfare. These findings provide positive evidence for the argument that in certain situations asymmetric pricing of mobile access services may be counterproductive for consumer welfare.
High-Gain Double-Bulk Mixer in 65 nm CMOS with 830
Schweiger, Kurt ; Zimmermann, Horst ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 457~459
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0504
A low-power down-sampling mixer in a low-power digital 65 nm CMOS technology is presented. The mixer consumes only 830
at 1.2 V supply voltage by combining an NMOS and a PMOS mixer with cascade transistors at the output. The measured gain is (19
1 dB) at frequencies between 100 MHz and 3 GHz. An IIP3 of -5.9 dBm is achieved.
Non-Data-Aided Weighted Non-Coherent Receiver for IR-UWB PPM Signals
Shen, Bin ; Yang, Rumin ; Cui, Taiping ; Kwak, Kyung-Sup ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 460~463
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0445
This letter proposes an energy-detection-based non-data-aided weighted non-coherent receiver (NDA-WNCR) scheme for impulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) pulse-position modulated signals. Compared to the conventional WNCR, the optimal weights of the proposed NDA-WNCR are tremendously simplified as the maximum eigenvector of the IR-UWB signal energy sample autocorrelation matrix. The NDA-WNCR serves to blindly obtain the optimal weights and entirely circumvent the transmission of training symbols or channel estimation in practice. Analysis and simulation results verify that the bit error rate (BER) performance of the NDA-WNCR closely approaches the ideal BER of the conventional WNCRs.
Effect of Microdiversity and Macrodiversity on Average Bit Error Probability in Gamma-Shadowed Rician Fading Channels
Milenkovic, Vladeta Vasilije ; Sekulovic, Nikola Milos ; Stefanovic, Mihajlo Caslav ; Petrovic, Mile Branko ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 464~467
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0448
In this letter, we analyze the error performance of a mobile communication system with microdiversity and macrodiversity reception in gamma-shadowed Rician fading channels for a binary differential phase-shift keying modulation scheme. Analytical expressions for the probability density function (PDF) and moment-generating function (MGF) are derived. The average bit error probability can be calculated by averaging the conditional bit error probability over the PDF or using the MGF-based approach. Numerical results are graphically presented to show the effects of macrodiversity, correlation, number of diversity branches, and severity of both fading and shadowing.
Reconfigurable Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna on a Slotted Ground
Yoon, Won-Sang ; Han, Sang-Min ; Pyo, Seong-Min ; Lee, Jae-Hoon ; Shin, In-Chul ; Kim, Young-Sik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 468~471
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0455
A compact square patch antenna with reconfigurable circular polarization (CP) at 2.4 GHz is proposed. Circular polarization is generated by an arc-shaped slot on the ground plane. In order to switch the CP orientation, the current flow direction of the patch is reconfigured via the PIN diodes mounted on the slot. As the slot and bias circuit are not placed on the patch side, the proposed antenna radiates a CP wave without alteration in the main beam direction. From the experimental results, the impedance and CP bandwidths of the proposed antenna have been demonstrated for up to 80 MHz and 25 MHz, respectively.
A Compact Zeroth-Order Resonant Antenna on Vialess CPW Single Layer
Jang, Tae-Hee ; Lim, Sung-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 472~474
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0522
In this letter, a novel zeroth-order resonant (ZOR) antenna on vialess co-planar waveguide (CPW) is proposed. It is based on a composite right/left-handed CPW transmission line. To achieve a compact size, this antenna utilizes the ZOR condition, and its reactive parameters determine the resonant frequency. Each unit cell is composed of a metallic top patch and meander lines. Since it is realized on the CPW single layer, the proposed antenna has the benefits of being a compact size and easy to fabricate. The bandwidth of 6.8% and efficiency of 62% are experimentally achieved. Its bandwidth is enhanced compared with other ZOR antennas.
Multiband Meandered Monopole Antenna for Mobile Applications
Lee, Jae-Kwan ; Pyo, Seong-Min ; Kim, Young-Sik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 475~478
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0527
A multiband meandered monopole antenna is proposed for digital video broadcasting handheld (DVB-H), global positioning system, personal communications service, wireless broadband (Wibro), and wireless local area network (WLAN) applications. The proposed antenna consists of a meandered line, a shorted length strip line, and a conductor strip between a meandered line and a microstrip feed line. By tuning a short strip and a conductor, a multiband impedance matching is achieved. The proposed antenna has an omnidirectional radiation and yields an antenna gain of greater than -3 dBi in the DVB-H band and 4.5 dBi in the Wibro and WLAN bands. Details of the proposed antenna design and experimental results are presented.
A Polynomial Complexity Optimal Multiuser Detection Algorithm Based on Monotonicity Properties
Quan, Qingyi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 479~481
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0503
An optimal multiuser detection algorithm with a computational complexity of O(K log K) is proposed for the class of linear multiple-access systems which have constant cross-correlation values. Here the optimal multiuser detection is implemented by searching for a monotone sequence with maximum likelihood, under the ranking of sufficient statistics. The proposed algorithm is intuitive and concise. It is carried out in just two steps, and at each step only one kind of operation is performed. Also, the proposed algorithm can be extended to more complex systems having more than a single cross-correlation value.
Feature-Based Relation Classification Using Quantified Relatedness Information
Huang, Jin-Xia ; Choi, Key-Sun ; Kim, Chang-Hyun ; Kim, Young-Kil ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 482~485
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0353
Feature selection is very important for feature-based relation classification tasks. While most of the existing works on feature selection rely on linguistic information acquired using parsers, this letter proposes new features, including probabilistic and semantic relatedness features, to manifest the relatedness between patterns and certain relation types in an explicit way. The impact of each feature set is evaluated using both a chi-square estimator and a performance evaluation. The experiments show that the impact of relatedness features is superior to existing well-known linguistic features, and the contribution of relatedness features cannot be substituted using other normally used linguistic feature sets.
Large-Margin Training of Dependency Parsers Using Pegasos Algorithm
Lee, Chang-Ki ; Lim, Soo-Jong ; Jang, Myung-Gil ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 486~489
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0483
This letter presents a modified Pegasos algorithm for graph-based dependency parsing. We show that the modified Pegasos algorithm outperforms the margin infused relaxed and passive aggressive algorithms in three languages.
Extended Temporal Ordinal Measurement Using Spatially Normalized Mean for Video Copy Detection
Lee, Heung-Kyu ; Kim, June ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 3, 2010, Pages 490~492
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0485
This letter proposes a robust feature extraction method using a spatially normalized mean for temporal ordinal measurement. Before computing a rank matrix from the mean values of non-overlapped blocks, each block mean is normalized so that it obeys the invariance property against linear additive and subtractive noise effects and is insensitive against multiplied and divided noise effects. Then, the temporal ordinal measures of spatially normalized mean values are computed for the feature matching. The performance of the proposed method showed about 95% accuracy in both precision and recall rates on various distortion environments, which represents the 2.7% higher performance on average compared to the temporal ordinal measurement.