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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 32, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 32, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 32, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 32, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 32, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 32, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
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Design and Implementation of a Latency Efficient Encoder for LTE Systems
Hwang, Soo-Yun ; Kim, Dae-Ho ; Jhang, Kyoung-Son ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 493~502
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0584
The operation time of an encoder is one of the critical implementation issues for satisfying the timing requirements of Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems because the encoder is based on binary operations. In this paper, we propose a design and implementation of a latency efficient encoder for LTE systems. By virtue of 8-bit parallel processing of the cyclic redundancy checking attachment, code block (CB) segmentation, and a parallel processor, we are able to construct engines for turbo codings and rate matchings of each CB in a parallel fashion. Experimental results illustrate that although the total area and clock period of the proposed scheme are 19% and 6% larger than those of a conventional method based on a serial scheme, respectively, our parallel structure decreases the latency by about 32% to 65% compared with a serial structure. In particular, our approach is more latency efficient when the encoder processes a number of CBs. In addition, we apply the proposed scheme to a real system based on LTE, so that the timing requirement for ACK/NACK transmission is met by employing the encoder based on the parallel structure.
Low-Cost High-Performance TDD Synchronizer for WiBro RF Repeater
Seo, Young-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 503~511
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0636
WiBro radio frequency (RF) repeater is used for solving the problem of partial shadow areas in the wireless communication field that uses time-division duplexing (TDD) mode. In this paper, a method to efficiently generate TDD signals for WiBro RF repeater is proposed and its digital circuit is implemented. A TDD signal is detected from RF signals transmitted/received to/from RF repeater and then inputted again into the RF repeater, so that it can operate normally. First, the envelope of downlink signals is detected and then clamped to extract the basic form of a TDD signal using an operational amplifier circuit. Next, the TDD signal is generated by restoring and filtering the shape which has been distorted by the wireless channel. The algorithm and system to acquire TDD signal are developed with a goal to have simple but powerful functions with as little cost as possible. The proposed method is implemented as an RF-digital integrated system and verified through the experiments under the same condition as actual WiBro service environment.
Adaptive Cooperative Spectrum Sharing Based on Fairness and Total Profit in Cognitive Radio Networks
Chen, Jian ; Zhang, Xiao ; Kuo, Yonghong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 512~519
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0647
A cooperative model is presented to enable sharing of the spectrum with secondary users. Compared with the optimal model and competitive model, the cooperative model could reach the maximum total profit for secondary users with better fairness. The cooperative model is built based on the Nash equilibrium. Then a conceding factor is introduced so that the total spectrum required from secondary users will decrease. It also results in a decrease in cost which the primary user charges to the secondary users. The optimum solution, which is the maximum total profit for the secondary users, is called the collusion state. It is possible that secondary users may leave the collusion state to pursue the maximum of individual profit. The stability of the algorithm is discussed by introducing a vindictive factor to inhabit the motive of deviation. In practice, the number of secondary users may change. Adaptive methods have been used to deal with the changing number of secondary users. Both the total profit and fairness are considered in the spectrum allocating. The shared spectrum is 11.3893 with a total profit of 65.2378 in the competitive model. In the cooperative model, the shared spectrum is 8.5856 with the total profit of 73.4963. The numerical results reveal the effectiveness of the cooperative model.
A 50-mA 1-nF Low-Voltage Low-Dropout Voltage Regulator for SoC Applications
Giustolisi, Gianluca ; Palumbo, Gaetano ; Spitale, Ester ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 520~529
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0586
In this paper, we present a low-voltage low-dropout voltage regulator (LDO) for a system-on-chip (SoC) application which, exploiting the multiplication of the Miller effect through the use of a current amplifier, is frequency compensated up to 1-nF capacitive load. The topology and the strategy adopted to design the LDO and the related compensation frequency network are described in detail. The LDO works with a supply voltage as low as 1.2 V and provides a maximum load current of 50 mA with a drop-out voltage of 200 mV: the total integrated compensation capacitance is about 40 pF. Measurement results as well as comparison with other SoC LDOs demonstrate the advantage of the proposed topology.
Double Gate MOSFET Modeling Based on Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System for Nanoscale Circuit Simulation
Hayati, Mohsen ; Seifi, Majid ; Rezaei, Abbas ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 530~539
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0707
As the conventional silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) approaches its scaling limits, quantum mechanical effects are expected to become more and more important. Accurate quantum transport simulators are required to explore the essential device physics as a design aid. However, because of the complexity of the analysis, it has been necessary to simulate the quantum mechanical model with high speed and accuracy. In this paper, the modeling of double gate MOSFET based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is presented. The ANFIS model reduces the computational time while keeping the accuracy of physics-based models, like non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. Finally, we import the ANFIS model into the circuit simulator software as a subcircuit. The results show that the compact model based on ANFIS is an efficient tool for the simulation of nanoscale circuits.
On-Chip Bus Serialization Method for Low-Power Communications
Lee, Jae-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 540~547
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0447
One of the critical issues in on-chip serial communications is increased power consumption. In general, serial communications tend to dissipate more energy than parallel communications due to bit multiplexing. This paper proposes a low-power bus serialization method. This encodes bus signals prior to serialization so that they are converted into signals that do not greatly increase in transition frequency when serialized. It significantly reduces the frequency by making the best use of word-to-word and bit-by-bit correlations presented in original parallel signals. The method is applied to the revision of an MPEG-4 processor, and the simulation results show that the proposed method surpasses the existing one. In addition, it is cost-effective when implemented as a hardware circuit since its algorithm is very simple.
Feedback Analysis of Transcutaneous Energy Transmission with a Variable Load Parameter
Yang, Tianliang ; Zhao, Chunyu ; Chen, Dayue ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 548~554
DOI : 10.4210/etrij.10.0109.0553
The transcutaneous energy transmission system (TETS) composed of a Class-E amplifier may operate at a state away from the optimum power transmission due to the load variation. By introducing the feedback-loop technique, the TETS can keep the optimum state with constant output voltage by adjusting the important design parameters, that is, the duty ratio and frequency of the driving signal and the supply voltage. The relations between these adjusted parameters and the load are investigated. The effectiveness of the feedback technique is validated through a design example with a variable load parameter. The experimental results show that the Class-E amplifier in the feedback loop can keep operating at the optimum state under the condition of up to 50 percent variation of the load value.
Grid-Enabled Parallel Simulation Based on Parallel Equation Formulation
Andjelkovic, Bojan ; Litovski, Vanco B. ; Zerbe, Volker ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 555~565
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0197
Parallel simulation is an efficient way to cope with long runtimes and high computational requirements in simulations of modern complex integrated electronic circuits and systems. This paper presents an algorithm for parallel simulation based on parallelization in equation formulation and simultaneous calculation of matrix contributions for nonlinear analog elements. In addition, the paper describes the development of a grid interface for a parallel simulator that enables a designer to perform simulations on distant computer clusters. Performances of the developed parallel simulation algorithm are evaluated by simulation of a microelectromechanical system.
Comparative Interactivity Analysis in Multiview Video Coding Schemes
Yang, You ; Dai, Qionghai ; Jiang, Gangyi ; Ho, Yo-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 566~576
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0391
In a multiview video system, interactivity is important for users and should be considered in the design of multiview video coding (MVC). In this paper, we present an interactivity evaluation model for MVC schemes by using both weighted random graph and Markov approaches. The main factors that affect both the interactivity and rate-distortion (RD) performances of MVC schemes are analyzed and discussed in detail. By taking these factors into consideration, a new MVC scheme is proposed for high interactivity and RD gains. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme has a significant interactivity gain with little coding loss, compared to the state-of-the-art benchmark. As an extension to RD performance analysis, the interactivity evaluation model can be used as a design tool of alternative schemes for a future interactive multiview video system.
Efficient Mode Decision Algorithm Based on Spatial, Temporal, and Inter-layer Rate-Distortion Correlation Coefficients for Scalable Video Coding
Wang, Po-Chun ; Li, Gwo-Long ; Huang, Shu-Fen ; Chen, Mei-Juan ; Lin, Shih-Chien ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 577~587
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0622
The layered coding structure of scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive inter-layer prediction causes noticeable computational complexity increments when compared to existing video coding standards. To lighten the computational complexity of SVC, we present a fast algorithm to speed up the inter-mode decision process. The proposed algorithm terminates inter-mode decision early in the enhancement layers by estimating the rate-distortion (RD) cost from the macroblocks of the base layer and the enhancement layer in temporal, spatial, and inter-layer directions. Moreover, a search range decision algorithm is also proposed in this paper to further increase the motion estimation speed by using the motion vector information from temporal, spatial, or inter-layer domains. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can determine the best mode and provide more efficient total coding time saving with very slight RD performance degradation for spatial and quality scalabilities.
Nonlinear Product Codes and Their Low Complexity Iterative Decoding
Kim, Hae-Sik ; Markarian, Garik ; Da Rocha, Valdemar C. Jr. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 588~595
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0643
This paper proposes encoding and decoding for nonlinear product codes and investigates the performance of nonlinear product codes. The proposed nonlinear product codes are constructed as N-dimensional product codes where the constituent codes are nonlinear binary codes derived from the linear codes over higher order alphabets, for example, Preparata or Kerdock codes. The performance and the complexity of the proposed construction are evaluated using the well-known nonlinear Nordstrom-Robinson code, which is presented in the generalized array code format with a low complexity trellis. The proposed construction shows the additional coding gain, reduced error floor, and lower implementation complexity. The (64, 24, 12) nonlinear binary product code has an effective gain of about 2.5 dB and 1 dB gain at a BER of
when compared to the (64, 15, 16) linear product code and the (64, 24, 10) linear product code, respectively. The (256, 64, 36) nonlinear binary product code composed of two Nordstrom-Robinson codes has an effective gain of about 0.7 dB at a BER of
when compared to the (256, 64, 25) linear product code composed of two (16, 8, 5) quasi-cyclic codes.
Fast Super-Resolution Algorithm Based on Dictionary Size Reduction Using k-Means Clustering
Jeong, Shin-Cheol ; Song, Byung-Cheol ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 596~602
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0109.0637
This paper proposes a computationally efficient learning-based super-resolution algorithm using k-means clustering. Conventional learning-based super-resolution requires a huge dictionary for reliable performance, which brings about a tremendous memory cost as well as a burdensome matching computation. In order to overcome this problem, the proposed algorithm significantly reduces the size of the trained dictionary by properly clustering similar patches at the learning phase. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm provides superior visual quality to the conventional algorithms, while needing much less computational complexity.
Channel Estimation and LDPC Code Puncturing Schemes Based on Incremental Pilots for OFDM
Jung, Sung-Yoon ; Kim, Sung-Hwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 603~606
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0101
In this letter, we propose a channel estimation algorithm based on incremental pilots. These are pilots additionally inserted after puncturing the modulated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) symbols to enhance channel estimation performance without lowering bandwidth efficiency. A low-density parity-check code puncturing scheme is also proposed to prevent the performance degradation due to the codeword bit loss caused by punctured OFDM symbols.
Spectrally-Efficient Decode-and-Forward Scheme Based on Constellation Rotation
Sun, Li ; Zhang, Taiyi ; Lu, Long ; Niu, Hao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 607~609
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0012
A spectrally-efficient scheme is proposed for orthogonal decode-and-forward relaying. By utilizing constellation rotation, the scheme can achieve twice the spectral efficiency as that of the conventional one, with low implementation complexity. It can offer a full diversity order as well, whereas the loss in coding gain is less than 1 dB for practical environments.
Novel Shorted Meander-Line USB Dongle Antenna with a Compact Ground Plane
Jeong, Seong-Jae ; Hwang, Keum-Cheol ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 610~613
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0100
This letter presents the design of a novel multiband USB dongle antenna with a compact ground plane. The radiating patch is composed of a modified meander-line monopole and a shorted loop to generate a dual-broadband resonance. The proposed antenna supports WiBro, Bluetooth, WLAN, WiMAX, and S-DMB services. The total dimensions of the fabricated antenna are 10 mm
1 mm, the most compact size among multiband USB dongle antennas reported to date. The measured 10 dB reflection loss bandwidths are 20.8% (2.24 GHz to 2.76 GHz) and 20.2% (4.86 GHz to 5.95 GHz). The measured peak gain is 2.97 dBi, and efficiency is higher than 58%. In addition, the radiation pattern approximates an omnidirectional pattern.
Design for a Dual-Frequency Antenna-in-Package
Li, Li ; Han, Liping ; Han, Guorui ; Chen, Xinwei ; Geng, Yanfeng ; Zhang, Wenmei ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 614~617
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0047
For an antenna-in-package (AiP), via holes are used to connect the antenna ground and system ground. In this letter, a dual-frequency AiP with a U-slot embedded in the patch is proposed. By properly arranging three via holes under the non-radiating edge, an AiP with two resonant frequencies is realized. Then a U-slot is embedded in the patch to further improve the bandwidth of the AiP. To validate the proposed design, an AiP with the bandwidth of 4.49% at 2.45 GHz and 6.02% at 5.32 GHz is achieved and fabricated. The measured results agree with the simulated results.
Broadband Stacked Patch Antenna with Low VSWR and Low Cross-Polarization
Wang, Zhongbao ; Fang, Shaojun ; Fu, Shiqiang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 618~621
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0089
A low cross-polarization broadband stacked patch antenna is proposed. By means of the stacked patch configuration and probe-fed strip feed technique, the VSWR 1.2:1 bandwidth of the patch antenna is enhanced to 22% from 804 MHz to 1,002 MHz, which outperforms the other available patch antennas (<10%). Furthermore, the antenna has a cross-polarization level of less than -20 dB and a gain level of about 9 dBi across the operating bandwidth. Simulation results are compared with the measurements, and a good agreement is observed.
Scalable Path Computation Flooding Approach for PCE-Based Multi-domain Networks
Perello, Jordi ; Hernandez-Sola, Guillem ; Agraz, Fernando ; Spadaro, Salvatore ; Comellas, Jaume ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 622~625
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0063
In this letter, we assess the scalability of a path computation flooding (PCF) approach to compute optimal end-to-end inter-domain paths in a path computation element-based multi-domain network. PCF yields a drastically reduced network blocking probability compared to a blind per-domain path computation but introduces significant network control overhead and path computation complexity. In view of this, we introduce and compare an alternative low overhead PCF (LoPCF) solution. From the obtained results, LoPCF leads to similar blocking probabilities to PCF while exhibiting around 50% path computation complexity and network control overhead reduction.
Enhanced Block-Based Adaptive Loop Filter with Multiple Symmetric Structures for Video Coding
Lee, Ha-Hyun ; Lim, Sung-Chang ; Choi, Hae-Chul ; Jeong, Se-Yoon ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Choi, Jin-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 626~629
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0487
In this letter, we present an enhanced block-based adaptive loop filter (E-BALF) with multiple filter symmetric structures. The E-BALF adapts various filter symmetric structures in a rate-distortion optimization sense, reflecting the statistical properties of each image in a video sequence. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a reduction in the Bj
ntegaard delta (BD)-bitrate by an average of 9.60% compared with Joint Model 11.0 of H.264/AVC. Compared to the state-of-the-art BALF, a reduction of up to 1.13% in BD-bitrate is achieved.
Polygonal Approximation of Digital Curves to Preserve Original Shapes
Lee, Dae-Ho ; Lee, Seung-Gwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 630~633
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0024
In this letter, we propose a novel polygonal approximation of digital curves that preserve original shapes. The proposed method first detects break points, which have two different consecutive vectors, and sets an initial dominant point set. The approximation is then performed iteratively by deleting a dominant point using a novel distance, which can measure both the distance and the angle acuteness. The experimental results show that the proposed method can preserve original shapes and is appropriate for various shapes, including slab-sided shapes.
Dynamic Collaborative Cloud Service Platform: Opportunities and Challenges
Yoon, Chang-Woo ; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi ; Lee, Hyun-Woo ; Ryu, Won ; Huh, Eui-Nam ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 634~637
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0209.0489
This letter presents a model for a dynamic collaboration (DC) platform among cloud providers (CPs) that prevents adverse business impacts, cloud vendor lock-in and violation of service level agreements with consumers, and also offers collaborative cloud services to consumers. We consider two major challenges. The first challenge is to find an appropriate market model in order to enable the DC platform. The second is to select suitable collaborative partners to provide services. We propose a novel combinatorial auction-based cloud market model that enables a DC platform among CPs. We also propose a new promising multi-objective optimization model to quantitatively evaluate the partners. Simulation experiments were conducted to verify both of the proposed models.
A Built-In Redundancy Analysis with a Minimized Binary Search Tree
Cho, Hyung-Jun ; Kang, Woo-Heon ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 638~641
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0032
With the growth of memory capacity and density, memory testing and repair with the goal of yield improvement have become more important. Therefore, the development of high efficiency redundancy analysis algorithms is essential to improve yield rate. In this letter, we propose an improved built-in redundancy analysis (BIRA) algorithm with a minimized binary search tree made by simple calculations. The tree is constructed until finding a solution from the most probable branch. This greatly reduces the search spaces for a solution. The proposed BIRA algorithm results in 100% repair efficiency and fast redundancy analysis.
High Repair Efficiency BIRA Algorithm with a Line Fault Scheme
Han, Tae-Woo ; Jeong, Woo-Sik ; Park, Young-Kyu ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 32, issue 4, 2010, Pages 642~644
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.10.0210.0097
With the rapid increase occurring in both the capacity and density of memory products, test and repair issues have become highly challenging. Memory repair is an effective and essential methodology for improving memory yield. An SoC utilizes built-in redundancy analysis (BIRA) with built-in self-test for improving memory yield and reliability. This letter proposes a new heuristic algorithm and new hardware architecture for the BIRA scheme. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm shows near-optimal repair efficiency in combination with low area and time overheads.