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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
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Downlink Transmit Power Allocation in Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse Systems
Kim, Dong-Hee ; Ahn, Jae-Young ; Kim, Ho-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0141
Downlink transmit power allocation schemes are proposed for soft fractional frequency reuse (FFR) in loose and tightly coordinated systems. The transmit powers are allocated so that the loss of spectral efficiency from the soft FFR is minimized, and the required cell edge user throughput is guaranteed. The effect of the soft FFR on spectral efficiency is evaluated depending on the power allocation schemes and the number of subbands. Results show that the loss of spectral efficiency from the soft FFR can be reduced by configuring an appropriate number of subbands in the loosely coordinated systems. In tightly coordinated systems, results show that the loss of spectral efficiency can be minimized regardless of the number of subbands due to its fast coordination.
Measurement and Explanation of DC/RF Power Loci of an Active Patch Antenna
Mcewan, Neil J. ; Ali, Nazar T. ; Mezher, Kahtan A. ; El-Khazmi, Elmahdi A. ; Abd-Alhameed, Raed A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 6~12
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0144
A case study of an active transmitting patch antenna revealed a characteristic loop locus of DC power versus RF output power as drive frequency was varied, with an operational bandwidth substantially smaller than the impedance bandwidth of the radiator. An approximate simulation technique, based on separation of the output capacitance of the power transistor, yielded easily visualized plots of power dependence on internal load impedance, and a simple interpretation of the experimental results in terms of a near-resonance condition between the output capacitance and output packaging inductance.
Highly Miniaturized On-Chip
Hybrid Employing Periodic Ground Strip Structure for Application to Silicon RFIC
Yun, Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 13~17
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0146
A highly miniaturized on-chip
hybrid employing periodic ground strip structure (PGSS) was realized on a silicon radio frequency integrated circuit. The PGSS was placed at the interface between
film and silicon substrate, and it was electrically connected to top-side ground planes through the contacts. Owing to the short wavelength characteristic of the transmission line employing the PGSS, the on-chip
hybrid was highly miniaturized. Concretely, the on-chip
hybrid exhibited good radio frequency performances from 37 GHz to 55 GHz, and it was 0.325
, which is 19.3% of a conventional
hybrid. The miniaturization technique proposed in this work can be also used in other fields including compound semiconducting devices, such as high electron mobility transistors, diamond field effect transistors, and light emitting diodes.
Flexible Protocol Reconfiguration for Emergency Communication Systems
Zhang, Ji ; Li, Hai ; Hou, Shujuan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 18~26
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0008
The necessity for services of emergency communication systems to be uninterrupted and reliable has brought forward strict requirements for express software upgrades of base stations. Based on reconfigurability technology, this paper presents a protocol reconfiguration scheme for emergency communication base stations. By introducing the concept of 'local safe state,' the proposed scheme could make the updating and replacement of the protocol software flexible and maintain interactions during the updating procedure to achieve seamless system upgrades. Further, taking TETRA protocol stack and VxWorks operating system as an example, specific processes and realization methods of reconfiguration are proposed in this paper, along with the measurements of the factors impacting on the system performance. Simulation results show that, compared with traditional technology, the method proposed significantly improves the system efficiency and does not interrupt system services.
Improved Single-Tone Frequency Estimation by Averaging and Weighted Linear Prediction
So, Hing Cheung ; Liu, Hongqing ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 27~31
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0138
This paper addresses estimating the frequency of a cisoid in the presence of white Gaussian noise, which has numerous applications in communications, radar, sonar, and instrumentation and measurement. Due to the nonlinear nature of the frequency estimation problem, there is threshold effect, that is, large error estimates or outliers will occur at sufficiently low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) conditions. Utilizing the ideas of averaging to increase SNR and weighted linear prediction, an optimal frequency estimator with smaller threshold SNR is developed. Computer simulations are included to compare its mean square error performance with that of the maximum likelihood (ML) estimator, improved weighted phase averager, generalized weighted linear predictor, and single weighted sample correlator as well as Cramer-Rao lower bound. In particular, with smaller computational requirement, the proposed estimator can achieve the same threshold and estimation performance of the ML method.
Interlayer Engineering with Different Host Material Properties in Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes
Lee, Jong-Hee ; Lee, Jeong-Ik ; Lee, Joo-Won ; Chu, Hye-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 32~38
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0172
We investigated the light-emitting performances of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes, known as PHOLEDs, by incorporating an N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzen interlayer between the hole transporting layer and emitting layer (EML). We found that the effects of the introduced interlayer for triplet exciton confinement and hole/electron balance in the EML were exceptionally dependent on the host materials: 9-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3,6-bis(triphenylsilyl)-9H-carbazole, 9-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-3,6-ditrityl-9H-carbazole, and 4,4'-bis-triphenylsilanyl-biphenyl. When an appropriate interlayer and host material were combined, the peak external quantum efficiency was greatly enhanced by over 21 times from 0.79% to 17.1%. Studies on the recombination zone using a series of host materials were also conducted.
Structure Learning in Bayesian Networks Using Asexual Reproduction Optimization
Khanteymoori, Ali Reza ; Menhaj, Mohammad Bagher ; Homayounpour, Mohammad Mehdi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 39~49
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0114
A new structure learning approach for Bayesian networks based on asexual reproduction optimization (ARO) is proposed in this paper. ARO can be considered an evolutionary-based algorithm that mathematically models the budding mechanism of asexual reproduction. In ARO, a parent produces a bud through a reproduction operator; thereafter, the parent and its bud compete to survive according to a performance index obtained from the underlying objective function of the optimization problem: This leads to the fitter individual. The convergence measure of ARO is analyzed. The proposed method is applied to real-world and benchmark applications, while its effectiveness is demonstrated through computer simulations. Results of simulations show that ARO outperforms genetic algorithm (GA) because ARO results in a good structure and fast convergence rate in comparison with GA.
Simulated Fault Injection Using Simulator Modification Technique
Na, Jong-Whoa ; Lee, Dong-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 50~59
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0106
In the current very deep submicron technology era, fault tolerant mechanisms perform an essential function to cope with the effects of soft errors. To evaluate the effectiveness of the fault tolerant mechanism, reliability engineers use simulated fault injections using either saboteur modules or mutants in the simulation model. However, the two methods suffer from both inefficiency in the simulation mechanism and difficulties with the experimental setups. To overcome these inefficiencies, we propose the Verilog-based simulated fault injection (VFI) technique. VFI has the following advantages. First, modification of the design model is unnecessary. Second, the fault injection simulation procedure is simple and efficient. Third, various types of fault injection experiments can be performed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed methodology, we developed a VFI environment using the ICARUS Verilog Simulator. From the experimental results, we were able to qualitatively evaluate the reliability of the target simulation models and to assess the effectiveness of the employed fault-tolerance mechanisms.
Secure and Efficient Code Encryption Scheme Based on Indexed Table
Cho, Sung-Kyu ; Shin, Dong-Hwi ; Jo, Hea-Suk ; Choi, Dong-Hyun ; Won, Dong-Ho ; Kim, Seung-Joo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 60~70
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0056
Software is completely exposed to an attacker after it is distributed because reverse engineering is widely known. To protect software, techniques against reverse engineering are necessary. A code encryption scheme is one of the techniques. A code encryption scheme encrypts the binary executable code. Key management is the most important part of the code encryption scheme. However, previous schemes had problems with key management. In an effort to solve these problems in this paper, we survey the previous code encryption schemes and then propose a new code encryption scheme based on an indexed table. Our scheme provides secure and efficient key management for code encryption.
Hardware Digital Color Enhancement for Color Vision Deficiencies
Chen, Yu-Chieh ; Liao, Tai-Shan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 71~77
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0009
Up to 10% of the global population suffers from color vision deficiency (CVD) , especially deuteranomaly and protanomaly, the conditions in which it is difficult to discriminate between red and green hues. For those who suffer from CVD, their career fields are restricted, and their childhood education is frustrating. There are many optical eye glasses on the market to compensate for this disability. However, although they are attractive due to their light weight, wearing these glasses will decrease visual brightness and cause problems at night. Therefore, this paper presents a supplementary device that comprises a head-mounted display and an image sensor. With the aid of the image processing technique of digital color space adjustment implemented in a high-speed field-programmable gate array device, the users can enjoy enhanced vision through the display without any decrease in brightness.
Touch TT: Scene Text Extractor Using Touchscreen Interface
Jung, Je-Hyun ; Lee, Seong-Hun ; Cho, Min-Su ; Kim, Jin-Hyung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 78~88
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0029
In this paper, we present the Touch Text exTractor (Touch TT), an interactive text segmentation tool for the extraction of scene text from camera-based images. Touch TT provides a natural interface for a user to simply indicate the location of text regions with a simple touchline. Touch TT then automatically estimates the text color and roughly locates the text regions. By inferring text characteristics from the estimated text color and text region, Touch TT can extract text components. Touch TT can also handle partially drawn lines which cover only a small section of text area. The proposed system achieves reasonable accuracy for text extraction from moderately difficult examples from the ICDAR 2003 database and our own database.
Construction and Rendering of Trimmed Blending Surfaces with Sharp Features on a GPU
Ko, Dae-Hyun ; Lee, Ji-Eun ; Lim, Seong-Jae ; Yoon, Seung-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 89~99
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0091
We construct surfaces with darts, creases, and corners by blending different types of local geometries. We also render these surfaces efficiently using programmable graphics hardware. Points on the blending surface are evaluated using simplified computation which can easily be performed on a graphics processing unit. Results show an eighteen-fold to twenty-fold increase in rendering speed over a CPU version. We also demonstrate how these surfaces can be trimmed using textures.
A Weighted Feature Voting Approach for Robust and Real-Time Voice Activity Detection
Moattar, Mohammad Hossein ; Homayounpour, Mohammad Mehdi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 99~109
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0158
This paper concerns a robust real-time voice activity detection (VAD) approach which is easy to understand and implement. The proposed approach employs several short-term speech/nonspeech discriminating features in a voting paradigm to achieve a reliable performance in different environments. This paper mainly focuses on the performance improvement of a recently proposed approach which uses spectral peak valley difference (SPVD) as a feature for silence detection. The main issue of this paper is to apply a set of features with SPVD to improve the VAD robustness. The proposed approach uses a weighted voting scheme in order to take the discriminative power of the employed feature set into account. The experiments show that the proposed approach is more robust than the baseline approach from different points of view, including channel distortion and threshold selection. The proposed approach is also compared with some other VAD techniques for better confirmation of its achievements. Using the proposed weighted voting approach, the average VAD performance is increased to 89.29% for 5 different noise types and 8 SNR levels. The resulting performance is 13.79% higher than the approach based only on SPVD and even 2.25% higher than the not-weighted voting scheme.
User Adoption Model under Service Competitive Market Structure for Next-Generation Media Services
Jeon, Hyo-Ri ; Shin, Yong-Hee ; Choi, Mun-Kee ; Rho, Jae-Jeung ; Kim, Myung-Seuk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 110~120
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0160
As information technology rapidly develops and the period required to enter new technology shortens, there emerges a wide variety of alternatives for consumers. When there are many alternatives in the market, users choose after making comparisons. This process of making comparisons is our research key. We established a research model to find a mixed effect that comes from new attitudes to technology adoption and alternative's continuous usage intention. The effect is revealed through a relative attractiveness (RA) factor to explain a user's process of comparison. We empirically test our research model in the new media services, such as mobile TV, web TV, and mobile IPTV. According to our research results, a continuous usage intention of an existing technology is an important factor to explain the adoption of a new technology. So, the contribution of our research is in finding a role for the RA factor in research in new technology adoption.
Decoupling Method Between Digital Signals on FPCB and Mobile Handset Antenna
Kim, Joon-Chul ; Kim, Hyeong-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 121~124
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0268
Digital harmonics, which may reduce the radio frequency sensitivity of a system, can be coupled with an antenna in a mobile handset. This letter presents a decoupling method for increasing the isolation between digital harmonics on a flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) and an antenna in terms of the ground mode current and the concept of reaction. We model the signal and ground lines in an FPCB as a loop circuit exciting a ground mode current and demonstrate a simple but efficient decoupling method for reducing the excited ground mode current.
Oscillator with High Harmonic Suppression Using Split Quarterwave Microstrip Resonator
Cho, Ho-Yun ; Go, Min-Ho ; Jo, Yun-Hyun ; Park, Hyo-Dal ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 125~127
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0158
This letter presents a new type of resonator, namely, the split quarterwave microstrip resonator (SQMR), to improve the poor harmonic suppression and low Q-factors in conventional quarterwave microstrip resonators. An oscillator incorporating the proposed SQMR is designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate that, not only the second harmonic suppression, but also the phase noise of the oscillator can be improved. The oscillator with the SQMR shows improved second harmonic suppression of -74.59 dBc and phase noise figure of merit of -169.77 dBc/Hz at 1 MHz offset.
File Format Design for Interactive Music Service
Jang, In-Seon ; Seo, Jeong-Il ; Kang, Kyeong-Ok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 128~131
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0129
This letter describes a file format designed for interactive music service where users are able to recompose music based on their own preferences. The proposed design utilizes the flexible features of the ISO base media file format (ISO/IEC 14496-12, ISO-BMFF). The techniques offered in the proposed file format enable compact storage and efficient preset management, allowing users to recompose music with ease and convenience. Additionally, an implementation scheme for an interactive music player is shown along with its results.
A Study of Ferroelectric Properties of the Oscillator Model of PZT-22
Ukaegbu, Ikechi Augustine ; Borodulin, Vladimir Nikolaevich ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 132~135
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0147
In this letter, we study the contemporary technologies for making ferroelectric films and the possibility of using the oscillator model of PZT-22 to analyze its ferroelectric properties. The material showed permittivity dispersion at 65 KHz and 88.5 KHz. We obtained relative attenuation
, relaxation time
of the material as 0.0008319, 0.5 s, and 603.438, respectively.
Analysis of PLR for Shared Switch Fabrics
Lee, Chan-Kyun ; Rhee, June-Koo Kevin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 136~139
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0168
A modular upgrade design for packet transport switch nodes is presented where packet loss is dramatically reduced by intra-module and inter-module buffer sharing. This modular design offers significant cost and power reduction in a high-data-rate system where buffers are highly costly and power-greedy.
A Twin Symbol Encoding Technique Based on Run-Length for Efficient Test Data Compression
Park, Jae-Seok ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 1, 2011, Pages 140~143
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0154
Recent test data compression techniques raise concerns regarding power dissipation and compression efficiency. This letter proposes a new test data compression scheme, twin symbol encoding, that supports block division skills that can reduce hardware overhead. Our experimental results show that the proposed technique achieves both a high compression ratio and low-power dissipation. Therefore, the proposed scheme is an attractive solution for efficient test data compression.